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  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)  (16)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(7), p.e0131839
    Description: Degenerative joint disease and associated pain are common in cats, particularly in older cats. There is a need for treatment options, however evaluation of putative therapies is limited by a lack of suitable, validated outcome measures that can be used in the target population of client owned cats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate low-dose daily meloxicam for the treatment of pain associated with degenerative joint disease in cats, and further validate two clinical metrology instruments, the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (FMPI) and the Client Specific Outcome Measures (CSOM).Sixty-six client owned cats with degenerative joint disease and owner-reported impairments in mobility were screened and enrolled into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Following a run-in baseline period, cats were given either placebo or meloxicam for 21 days, then in a masked washout, cats were all given placebo for 21 days. Subsequently, cats were given the opposite treatment, placebo or meloxicam, for 21 days. Cats wore activity monitors throughout the study, owners completed clinical metrology instruments following each period.Activity counts were increased in cats during treatment with daily meloxicam (p〈0.0001) compared to baseline. The FMPI results and activity count data offer concurrent validation for the FMPI, though the relationship between baseline activity counts and FMPI scores at baseline was poor (R2=0.034). The CSOM did not show responsiveness for improvement in this study, and the relationship between baseline activity counts and CSOM scores at baseline was similarly poor (R2=0.042).Refinements to the FMPI, including abbreviation of the instrument and scoring as percent of possible score are recommended. This study offered further validation of the FMPI as a clinical metrology instrument for use in detecting therapeutic efficacy in cats with degenerative joint disease.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(2), p.e31508
    Description: Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (CCL3) plays a well-known role in infectious and viral diseases; however, its contribution to atherosclerotic lesion formation and lipid metabolism has not been determined. Low density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLR −/− ) mice were transplanted with bone marrow from CCL3 −/− or C57BL/6 wild type donors. After 6 and 12 weeks on western diet (WD), recipients of CCL3 −/− marrow demonstrated lower plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared to recipients of C57BL/6 marrow. Atherosclerotic lesion area was significantly lower in female CCL3 −/− recipients after 6 weeks and in male CCL3 −/− recipients after 12 weeks of WD feeding ( P 〈0.05). Surprisingly, male CCL3 −/− recipients had a 50% decrease in adipose tissue mass after WD-feeding, and plasma insulin, and leptin levels were also significantly lower. These results were specific to CCL3, as LDLR −/− recipients of monocyte chemoattractant protein −/− (CCL2) marrow were not protected from the metabolic consequences of high fat feeding. Despite these improvements in LDLR −/− recipients of CCL3 −/− marrow in the bone marrow transplantation (BMT) model, double knockout mice, globally deficient in both proteins, did not have decreased body weight, plasma lipids, or atherosclerosis compared with LDLR −/− controls. Finally, there were no differences in myeloid progenitors or leukocyte populations, indicating that changes in body weight and plasma lipids in CCL3 −/− recipients was not due to differences in hematopoiesis. Taken together, these data implicate a role for CCL3 in lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemic mice following hematopoietic reconstitution.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Immunology ; Diabetes And Endocrinology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(1), p.e0169576
    Description: Accelerometry is used as an objective measure of physical activity in humans and veterinary species. In cats, one important use of accelerometry is in the study of therapeutics designed to treat degenerative joint disease (DJD) associated pain, where it serves as the most widely applied objective outcome measure. These analyses have commonly used summary measures, calculating the mean activity per-minute over days and comparing between treatment periods. While this technique has been effective, information about the pattern of activity in cats is lost. In this study, functional data analysis was applied to activity data from client-owned cats with (n = 83) and without (n = 15) DJD. Functional data analysis retains information about the pattern of activity over the 24-hour day, providing insight into activity over time. We hypothesized that 1) cats without DJD would have higher activity counts and intensity of activity than cats with DJD; 2) that activity counts and intensity of activity in cats with DJD would be inversely correlated with total radiographic DJD burden and total orthopedic pain score; and 3) that activity counts and intensity would have a different pattern on weekends versus weekdays.Results showed marked inter-cat variability in activity. Cats exhibited a bimodal pattern of activity with a sharp peak in the morning and broader peak in the evening. Results further showed that this pattern was different on weekends than weekdays, with the morning peak being shifted to the right (later). Cats with DJD showed different patterns of activity from cats without DJD, though activity and intensity were not always lower; instead both the peaks and troughs of activity were less extreme than those of the cats without DJD. Functional data analysis provides insight into the pattern of activity in cats, and an alternative method for analyzing accelerometry data that incorporates fluctuations in activity across the day.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(4), p.e95624
    Description: To examine LMP10 expression and its possible impact on clinical outcome in human papillomavirus (HPV) positive and HPV-negative tonsillar and base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC and BOTSCC).Outcome is better in HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC compared to matching HPV-negative tumours, with roughly 80% vs. 40% 5-year disease free survival (DFS) with less aggressive treatment than today's chemoradiotherapy. Since current treatment often results in harmful side effects, less intensive therapy, with sustained patient survival would be an attractive alternative. However, other markers together with HPV status are necessary to select patients and for this purpose LMP10 expression is investigated here in parallel to HPV status and clinical outcome.From 385 patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 at the Karolinska University Hospital, 278 formalin fixed paraffin embedded TSCC and BOTSCC biopsies, with known HPV DNA status, were tested for LMP10 nuclear and cytoplasmic expression (fraction of positive cells and staining intensity). The data was then correlated to clinical outcome.An absent/low compared to a moderate/high LMP10 nuclear fraction of positive cells was correlated to a better 3-year DFS in the HPV-positive group of patients (log-rank p = 0.005), but not in the HPV-negative group. In the HPV-negative group of patients, in contrast to the HPV-positive group, moderate/high LMP10 cytoplasmic fraction and weak/moderate/high LMP10 cytoplasmic intensity correlated to a better 3-year DFS (p = 0.003 and p = 0.001) and 3-year overall survival (p = 0.001 and 0.009).LMP10 nuclear expression in the HPV-positive group and LMP10 cytoplasmic expression in the HPV-negative group of patients correlated to better clinical outcome.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(6)
    Description: Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a causative factor for tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and patients with HPV positive (HPV + ) TSCC have a better clinical outcome than those with HPV negative (HPV − ) TSCC. However, since not all patients with HPV + TSCC respond to treatment, additional biomarkers are needed together with HPV status to better predict response to therapy and to individualize treatment. For this purpose, we examined whether the number of tumor infiltrating cytotoxic and regulatory T-cells in TSCC correlated to HPV status and to clinical outcome. Methods Formalin fixed paraffin embedded TSCC, previously analysed for HPV DNA, derived from 83 patients, were divided into four groups depending on the HPV status of the tumor and clinical outcome. Tumors were stained by immunohistochemistry and evaluated for the number of infiltrating cytotoxic (CD8 + ) and regulatory (Foxp3 + ) T-cells. Results A high CD8 + T-cell infiltration was significantly positively correlated to a good clinical outcome in both patients with HPV + and HPV - TSCC patients. Similarly, a high CD8 + /Foxp3 + TIL ratio was correlated to a 3-year disease free survival. Furthermore, HPV + TSCC had in comparison to HPV − TSCC, higher numbers of infiltrating CD8 + and Foxp3 + T-cells. Conclusions In conclusion, a positive correlation between a high number of infiltrating CD8 + cells and clinical outcome indicates that CD8 + cells may contribute to a beneficial clinical outcome in TSCC patients, and may potentially serve as a biomarker. Likewise, the CD8 + /Foxp3 + cell ratio can potentially be used for the same purpose.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Neural Circuits, 01 July 2018, Vol.12
    Description: Variability of spiking activity is ubiquitous throughout the brain but little is known about its contextual dependance. Trial-to-trial spike count variability, estimated by the Fano Factor (FF), and within-trial spike time irregularity, quantified by the coefficient of variation (CV), reflect variability on long and short time scales, respectively. We co-analyzed FF and the local coefficient of variation (CV2) in monkey motor cortex comparing two behavioral contexts, movement preparation (wait) and execution (movement). We find that the FF significantly decreases from wait to movement, while the CV2 increases. The more regular firing (expressed by a low CV2) during wait is related to an increased power of local field potential (LFP) beta oscillations and phase locking of spikes to these oscillations. In renewal processes, a widely used model for spiking activity under stationary input conditions, both measures are related as FF ≈ CV2. This expectation was met during movement, but not during wait where FF ≫ CV22. Our interpretation is that during movement preparation, ongoing brain processes result in changing network states and thus in high trial-to-trial variability (expressed by a high FF). During movement execution, the network is recruited for performing the stereotyped motor task, resulting in reliable single neuron output. Our interpretation is in the light of recent computational models that generate non-stationary network conditions.
    Keywords: Monkey Motor Cortex ; Spike Time Irregularity ; Spike Count Variability ; Behavioral Context ; Renewal Processes ; Anatomy & Physiology
    E-ISSN: 1662-5110
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Nutrients, 01 December 2016, Vol.8(12), p.814
    Description: Polyphenols, a complex group of secondary plant metabolites, including flavonoids and phenolic acids, have been studied in depth for their health-related benefits. The activity of polyphenols may, however, be hampered when consumed together with protein-rich food products, due to the interaction between polyphenols and proteins. To that end we have tested the bioavailability of representatives of a range of polyphenol classes when consumed for five days in different beverage matrices. In a placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over study, 35 healthy males received either six placebo gelatine capsules consumed with 200 mL of water, six capsules with 800 mg polyphenols derived from red wine and grape extracts, or the same dose of polyphenols incorporated into 200 mL of either pasteurized dairy drink, soy drink (both containing 3.4% proteins) or fruit-flavoured protein-free drink . At the end of the intervention urine and blood was collected and analysed for a broad range of phenolic compounds using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Liquid Chromatography–Multiple Reaction Monitoring–Mass Spectrometry (LC-MRM-MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques. The plasma and urine concentrations of the polyphenols identified increased with all formats, including the protein-rich beverages. Compared to capsule ingestion, consumption of polyphenol-rich beverages containing either dairy, soy or no proteins had minor to no effect on the bioavailability and excretion of phenolic compounds in plasma (118% ± 9%) and urine (98% ± 2%). We conclude that intake of polyphenols incorporated in protein-rich drinks does not have a major impact on the bioavailability of a range of different polyphenols and phenolic metabolites.
    Keywords: Bioavailability ; Flavonoids ; Catechins ; Protein ; Resveratrol ; Valerolactones ; Anatomy & Physiology
    E-ISSN: 2072-6643
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PSYCHOTHERAPY AND PSYCHOSOMATICS, Vol.84, pp.20-20
    Description: BACKGROUNDKnowledge of hatha yogic exercises, the most used yoga style, for increasing functional capacity in patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases remains limited. AIMThe aim was to evaluate the effects and feasibility of hatha yoga (HY) compared to a conventional training program (CTP) on functional capacity, lung function and quality of life in patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases. DESIGNRandomized clinical trial. SETTINGThe study was performed at the Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, among outpatients. POPULATIONThirty-six patients with obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODSForty patients were randomized with 36 (24 women, median age =64, age range: 40-84 years) participating in HY (N.=19) or CTP (N.=17). Both HY and CTP involved a 12-week program with a 6-month follow-up. Functional capacity (using the 6-Minute Walk Test), lung function (spirometry), respiratory muscle strength (respiratory pressure meter), oxygen saturation (SpO2), breathlessness (Borg), respiratory rate (f) and disease-specific quality of life (CRQ) were measured at baseline, at 12 weeks and at a 6-month follow-up. RESULTSTesting for interactions (group x time) with ANOVAs showed significant effects on the CRQ fatigue (P=0.04) and emotional (P=0.02) domains, with improvements in the CTP group after the 12-week intervention (P=0.02 and 0.01, respectively) but not in the HY group. No between group effects emerged, however, within each group, significant improvements emerged for the six-minute walk distance (6MWD) after 12-week intervention (HY: mean difference 32.6 m; CI: 10.1-55.1, P=0.014; CTP: mean difference 42.4 m; CI: 17.9-67.0, P=0.006). SECONDARY OUTCOMESwithin-group improvements in CRQ appeared in both groups. Within the HY group, f decreased and SpO2 increased. Improved effects after follow-up emerged only for the CTP group for diastolic blood pressure (P=0.05) and CRQ emotional and fatigue domain (P=0.01). CONCLUSIONSThere were no between-group differences. After 12 weeks, 6MWD improved significantly within both groups. Within the HY group, improvements in the CRQ mastery domain, f and SpO2 emerged. Within the CTP group, there were improvements in lung function parameter forced vital capacity, respiratory muscle strength and all CRQ-domains. The CTP also exhibited effects on CRQ after the 6months follow-up. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACTLimited effects of HY and CTP emerged. HY seems feasible and safe as a form of physical exercise for pulmonary disease patients. As part of the rehabilitation, HY may constitute an alternative to other physical training activities and may be a useful addition to formal rehabilitation programs.
    Keywords: Adult–Methods ; Aged–Complications ; Aged, 80 and Over–Physiopathology ; Exercise Therapy–Rehabilitation ; Exercise Tolerance–Rehabilitation ; Feasibility Studies–Rehabilitation ; Female–Rehabilitation ; Humans–Rehabilitation ; Male–Rehabilitation ; Middle Aged–Rehabilitation ; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive–Rehabilitation ; Quality of Life–Rehabilitation ; Treatment Outcome–Rehabilitation ; Vital Capacity–Rehabilitation ; Yoga–Rehabilitation;
    ISSN: 0033-3190
    ISSN: 11184841
    E-ISSN: 19739095
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Sci Rep, 2018, Vol.8(1), pp.5200-5200
    Description: Beta oscillations observed in motor cortical local field potentials (LFPs) recorded on separate electrodes of a multi-electrode array have been shown to exhibit non-zero phase shifts that organize into planar waves. Here, we generalize this concept to additional classes of salient patterns that fully describe the spatial organization of beta oscillations. During a delayed reach-to-grasp task we distinguish planar, synchronized, random, circular, and radial phase patterns in monkey primary motor and dorsal premotor cortices. We observe that patterns correlate with the beta amplitude (envelope): Coherent planar/radial wave propagation accelerates with growing amplitude, and synchronized patterns are observed at largest amplitudes. In contrast, incoherent random or circular patterns are observed almost exclusively when beta is strongly attenuated. The occurrence probability of a particular pattern modulates with behavioral epochs in the same way as beta amplitude: Coherent patterns are more present during movement preparation where amplitudes are large, while incoherent phase patterns are dominant during movement execution where amplitudes are small. Thus, we uncover a trigonal link between the spatial arrangement of beta phases, beta amplitude, and behavior. Together with previous findings, we discuss predictions on the spatio-temporal organization of precisely coordinated spiking on the mesoscopic scale as a function of beta power.
    ISSN: 2045-2322
    Source: Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited
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  • 10
    In: Disease Markers, 2016, Vol.2016, 11 pages
    Description: . Fibronectin containing the extra domain A (ED-A Fn) was proven to serve as a valuable biomarker for cardiac remodeling. The study was aimed at establishing an ELISA to determine ED-A Fn in serum of heart failure patients.. ED-A Fn was quantified in serum samples from 114 heart failure patients due to ischemic (ICM, ) and dilated (DCM, ) cardiomyopathy as well as hypertensive heart disease (HHD, ) compared to healthy controls ().. In comparison to healthy volunteers, heart failure patients showed significantly increased levels of ED-A Fn (). In particular in ICM patients there were significant associations between ED-A Fn serum levels and clinical parameters, for example, increased levels with rising NYHA class (), a negative correlation with left ventricular ejection fraction (, : −0.353), a positive correlation with left atrial diameter (, : 0.431), and a strong positive correlation with systolic pulmonary artery pressure (, : 0.485). In multivariate analysis, ED-A Fn was identified as an independent predictor of an ischemic heart failure etiology.. The current study could clearly show that ED-A Fn is a promising biomarker in cardiovascular diseases, especially in heart failure patients due to an ICM. We presented a valid ELISA method, which could be applied for further studies investigating the value of ED-A Fn.
    Keywords: Tissue Engineering -- Innovations ; Fibronectins -- Properties ; Biological Markers -- Properties;
    ISSN: 0278-0240
    E-ISSN: 1875-8630
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