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  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)  (26)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS One, CA: Public Library of Science
    Description: This article explores the interrelationship between the urinary microbiota and host antimicrobial peptides as mechanisms for urinary tract infection risk.
    Keywords: Resident Bacterial Communities ; Host Antimicrobial Peptides ; Urinary Tract Infection
    ISSN: 19326203
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS One, San Francisco: Public Library of Science
    Description: Article discussing the microbial communities in male first catch urine and how these are highly similar to those paired in urethral swab specimens.
    Keywords: Microbials ; Bacteria ; Urine
    ISSN: 19326203
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 3
    In: PLoS ONE, 2018, Vol.13(7)
    Description: Objective To predict hospital admission at the time of ED triage using patient history in addition to information collected at triage. Methods This retrospective study included all adult ED visits between March 2014 and July 2017 from one academic and two community emergency rooms that resulted in either admission or discharge. A total of 972 variables were extracted per patient visit. Samples were randomly partitioned into training (80%), validation (10%), and test (10%) sets. We trained a series of nine binary classifiers using logistic regression (LR), gradient boosting (XGBoost), and deep neural networks (DNN) on three dataset types: one using only triage information, one using only patient history, and one using the full set of variables. Next, we tested the potential benefit of additional training samples by training models on increasing fractions of our data. Lastly, variables of importance were identified using information gain as a metric to create a low-dimensional model. Results A total of 560,486 patient visits were included in the study, with an overall admission risk of 29.7%. Models trained on triage information yielded a test AUC of 0.87 for LR (95% CI 0.86–0.87), 0.87 for XGBoost (95% CI 0.87–0.88) and 0.87 for DNN (95% CI 0.87–0.88). Models trained on patient history yielded an AUC of 0.86 for LR (95% CI 0.86–0.87), 0.87 for XGBoost (95% CI 0.87–0.87) and 0.87 for DNN (95% CI 0.87–0.88). Models trained on the full set of variables yielded an AUC of 0.91 for LR (95% CI 0.91–0.91), 0.92 for XGBoost (95% CI 0.92–0.93) and 0.92 for DNN (95% CI 0.92–0.92). All algorithms reached maximum performance at 50% of the training set or less. A low-dimensional XGBoost model built on ESI level, outpatient medication counts, demographics, and hospital usage statistics yielded an AUC of 0.91 (95% CI 0.91–0.91). Conclusion Machine learning can robustly predict hospital admission using triage information and patient history. The addition of historical information improves predictive performance significantly compared to using triage information alone, highlighting the need to incorporate these variables into prediction models.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Physical Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Computer And Information Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Physical Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS One, San Francisco: Public Library of Science
    Description: Article discussing the bacterial composition of subgingival plaque among diabetic and non-diabetic subjects to determine the effect that diabetes mellitus has on dental health.
    Keywords: Periodontiitis ; Bacteria ; Diabetes ; Pyrosequencing
    ISSN: 19326203
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS One, San Francisco: Public Library of Science
    Description: Article discussing a study that was conducted to understand the basis of a bacterial infection that is common among dairy cows.
    Keywords: Dairy ; Cows ; Pyrosequencing ; Amplicons ; Bacteria ; Microbiology
    ISSN: 19326203
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(10), p.e109677
    Description: Relationships between host and microbial diversity have important ecological and applied implications. Theory predicts that these relationships will depend on the spatio-temporal scale of the analysis and the niche breadth of the organisms in question, but representative data on host-microbial community assemblage in nature is lacking. We employed a natural gradient of rodent species richness and quantified bacterial communities in rodent blood at several hierarchical spatial scales to test the hypothesis that associations between host and microbial species diversity will be positive in communities dominated by organisms with broad niches sampled at large scales. Following pyrosequencing of rodent blood samples, bacterial communities were found to be comprised primarily of broad niche lineages. These communities exhibited positive correlations between host diversity, microbial diversity and the likelihood for rare pathogens at the regional scale but not at finer scales. These findings demonstrate how microbial diversity is affected by host diversity at different spatial scales and suggest that the relationships between host diversity and overall disease risk are not always negative, as the dilution hypothesis predicts.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: BMC Bioinformatics, 01 August 2011, Vol.12(1), p.316
    Description: Abstract Background The analysis of genome synteny is a common practice in comparative genomics. With the advent of DNA sequencing technologies, individual biologists can rapidly produce their genomic sequences of interest. Although web-based synteny visualization tools are convenient for biologists to use, none of the existing ones allow biologists to upload their own data for analysis. Results We have developed the web-based Genome Synteny Viewer (GSV) that allows users to upload two data files for synteny visualization, the mandatory synteny file for specifying genomic positions of conserved regions and the optional genome annotation file. GSV presents two selected genomes in a single integrated view while still retaining the browsing flexibility necessary for exploring individual genomes. Users can browse and filter for genomic regions of interest, change the color or shape of each annotation track as well as re-order, hide or show the tracks dynamically. Additional features include downloadable images, immediate email notification and tracking of usage history. The entire GSV package is also light-weighted which enables easy local installation. Conclusions GSV provides a unique option for biologists to analyze genome synteny by uploading their own data set to a web-based comparative genome browser. A web server hosting GSV is provided at http://cas-bioinfo.cas.unt.edu/gsv, and the software is also freely available for local installations.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 1471-2105
    E-ISSN: 1471-2105
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 8
    In: PLoS ONE, 2017, Vol.12(8)
    Description: Several ecological hypotheses ( e . g ., specific plaque, non-specific plaque and keystone pathogen) regarding the etiology of periodontitis have been proposed since the 1990s, most of which have been centered on the concept of dysbiosis associated with periodontitis. Nevertheless, none of the existing hypotheses have presented mechanistic interpretations on how and why dysbiosis actually occurs. Hubbell’s neutral theory of biodiversity offers a powerful null model to test hypothesis regarding the mechanism of community assembly and diversity maintenance from the metagenomic sequencing data, which can help to understand the forces that shape the community dynamics such as dysbiosis. Here we reanalyze the dataset from Abusleme et al .’s comparative study of the oral microbial communities from periodontitis patients and healthy individuals. Our study demonstrates that 14 out of 61 communities (23%) passed the neutrality test, a percentage significantly higher than the previous reported neutrality rate of 1% in human microbiome (Li & Ma 2016, Scientific Reports ). This suggests that, while the niche selection may play a predominant role in the assembly and diversity maintenance in oral microbiome, the effect of neutral dynamics may not be ignored. However, no statistically significant differences in the neutrality passing rates were detected between the periodontitis and healthy treatments with Fisher’s exact probability test and multiple testing corrections, suggesting that the mechanism of community assembly is robust against disturbances such as periodontitis. In addition, our study confirmed previous finding that periodontitis patients exhibited higher biodiversity. These findings suggest that while periodontitis may significantly change the community composition measured by diversity ( i . e ., the exhibition or ‘phenotype’ of community assembly), it does not seem to cause the ‘mutation’ of the ‘genotype” (mechanism) of community assembly. We argue that the ‘phenotypic’ changes explain the observed link (not necessarily causal) between periodontitis and community dysbiosis, which is certainly worthy of further investigation.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    In: PLoS ONE, 2015, Vol.10(3)
    Description: Arsenic (As) mobilization in alluvial aquifers is caused by a complex interplay of hydro-geo-microbiological activities. Nevertheless, diversity and biogeochemical significance of indigenous bacteria in Bengal Delta Plain are not well documented. We have deciphered bacterial community compositions and metabolic properties in As contaminated groundwater of West Bengal to define their role in As mobilization. Groundwater samples showed characteristic high As, low organic carbon and reducing property. Culture-independent and -dependent analyses revealed presence of diverse, yet near consistent community composition mostly represented by genera Pseudomonas , Flavobacterium , Brevundimonas , Polaromonas , Rhodococcus , Methyloversatilis and Methylotenera . Along with As-resistance and -reductase activities, abilities to metabolize a wide range carbon substrates including long chain and polyaromatic hydrocarbons and HCO 3 , As 3+ as electron donor and As 5+ /Fe 3+ as terminal electron acceptor during anaerobic growth were frequently observed within the cultivable bacteria. Genes encoding cytosolic As 5+ reductase ( ars C) and As 3+ efflux/transporter [ ars B and acr 3(2)] were found to be more abundant than the dissimilatory As 5+ reductase gene arr A. The observed metabolic characteristics showed a good agreement with the same derived from phylogenetic lineages of constituent populations. Selected bacterial strains incubated anaerobically over 300 days using natural orange sand of Pleistocene aquifer showed release of soluble As mostly as As 3+ along with several other elements (Al, Fe, Mn, K, etc .). Together with the production of oxalic acid within the biotic microcosms, change in sediment composition and mineralogy indicated dissolution of orange sand coupled with As/Fe reduction. Presence of ars C gene, As 5+ reductase activity and oxalic acid production by the bacteria were found to be closely related to their ability to mobilize sediment bound As. Overall observations suggest that indigenous bacteria in oligotrophic groundwater possess adequate catabolic ability to mobilize As by a cascade of reactions, mostly linked to bacterial necessity for essential nutrients and detoxification.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLOS ONE, 1/2/2018, Vol.13(1), p.e0190266
    Description: Synechococcus is an important photosynthetic picoplankton in the temperate to tropical oceans. As a photosynthetic bacterium, Synechococcus has an efficient mechanism to adapt to the changes in salinity and light intensity. The analysis of the distributions and functions of such microorganisms in the ever changing river mouth environment, where freshwater and seawater mix, should help better understand their roles in the ecosystem. Toward this objective, we have collected and sequenced the ocean microbiome in the river mouth of Kwangyang Bay, Korea, as a function of salinity and temperature. In conjunction with comparative genomics approaches using the sequenced genomes of a wide phylogeny of Synechococcus, the ocean microbiome was analyzed in terms of their composition and clade-specific functions. The results showed significant differences in the compositions of Synechococcus sampled in different seasons. The photosynthetic functions in such enhanced Synechococcus strains were also observed in the microbiomes in summer, which is significantly different from those in other seasons.
    Keywords: Sciences (General);
    ISSN: PLOS ONE
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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