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  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)  (13)
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, Jan 10, 2019
    Description: Diffuse tumor infiltration into the adjacent parenchyma is an effective dissemination mechanism of brain tumors. We have previously developed correlated high field magnetic resonance imaging and ultramicroscopy (MR-UM) to study neonangiogenesis in a glioma model. In the present study we used MR-UM to investigate tumor infiltration and neoangiogenesis in a translational approach. We compare infiltration and neoangiogenesis patterns in four brain tumor models and the human disease: whereas the U87MG glioma model resembles brain metastases with an encapsulated growth and extensive neoangiogenesis, S24 experimental gliomas mimic IDH1 wildtype glioblastomas, exhibiting infiltration into the adjacent parenchyma and along white matter tracts to the contralateral hemisphere. MR-UM resolves tumor infiltration and neoangiogenesis longitudinally based on the expression of fluorescent proteins, intravital dyes or endogenous contrasts. Our study demonstrates the huge morphological diversity of brain tumor models regarding their infiltrative and neoangiogenic capacities and further establishes MR-UM as a platform for translational neuroimaging.
    Keywords: Brain Tumors -- Diagnosis ; Brain Tumors -- Development And Progression
    ISSN: 1662-453X
    ISSN: 16624548
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(5), p.e19823
    Description: 1-methyl-D-tryptophan (1-D-MT) is currently being used in clinical trials in patients with relapsed or refractory solid tumors with the aim of inhibiting indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-mediated tumor immune escape. IDO is expressed in tumors and tumor-draining lymph nodes and degrades tryptophan (trp) to create an immunsuppressive micromilieu both by depleting trp and by accumulating immunosuppressive metabolites of the kynurenine (kyn) pathway. Here we show that proliferation of alloreactive T-cells cocultured with IDO1-positive human cancer cells paradoxically was inhibited by 1-D-MT. Surprisingly incubation with 1-D-MT increased kyn production of human cancer cells. Cell-free assays revealed that 1-D-MT did not alter IDO1 enzymatic activity. Instead, 1-D-MT induced IDO1 mRNA and protein expression through pathways involving p38 MAPK and JNK signalling. Treatment of cancer patients with 1-D-MT has transcriptional effects that may promote rather than suppress anti-tumor immune escape by increasing IDO1 in the cancer cells. These off-target effects should be carefully analyzed in the ongoing clinical trials with 1-D-MT.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Medicine ; Immunology ; Chemistry ; Molecular Biology ; Oncology ; Pharmacology ; Biochemistry
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(3), p.e0121220
    Description: To explore the correlation between Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement (NOE)-mediated signals and tumor cellularity in glioblastoma utilizing the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and cell density from histologic specimens. NOE is one type of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) that originates from mobile macromolecules such as proteins and might be associated with tumor cellularity via altered protein synthesis in proliferating cells.For 15 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, NOE-mediated CEST-contrast was acquired at 7 Tesla (asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio (MTRasym) at 3.3ppm, B1 = 0.7 μT). Contrast enhanced T1 (CE-T1), T2 and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) were acquired at 3 Tesla and coregistered. The T2 edema and the CE-T1 tumor were segmented. ADC and MTRasym values within both regions of interest were correlated voxelwise yielding the correlation coefficient rSpearman (rSp). In three patients who underwent stereotactic biopsy, cell density of 12 specimens per patient was correlated with corresponding MTRasym and ADC values of the biopsy site.Eight of 15 patients showed a weak or moderate positive correlation of MTRasym and ADC within the T2 edema (0.16≤rSp≤0.53, p〈0.05). Seven correlations were statistically insignificant (p〉0.05, n = 4) or yielded rSp≈0 (p〈0.05, n = 3). No trend towards a correlation between MTRasym and ADC was found in CE-T1 tumor (-0.31〈rSp〈0.28, p〈0.05, n = 9; p〉0.05, n = 6). The biopsy-analysis within CE-T1 tumor revealed a strong positive correlation between tumor cellularity and MTRasym values in two of the three patients (rSppatient3 = 0.69 and rSppatient15 = 0.87, p〈0.05), while the correlation of ADC and cellularity was heterogeneous (rSppatient3 = 0.545 (p = 0.067), rSppatient4 = -0.021 (p = 0.948), rSppatient15 = -0.755 (p = 0.005)).NOE-imaging is a new contrast promising insight into pathophysiologic processes in glioblastoma regarding cell density and protein content, setting itself apart from DWI. Future studies might be based on the assumption that NOE-mediated CEST visualizes cellularity more accurately than ADC, especially in the CE-T1 tumor region.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(10), p.e47663
    Description: Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is the catalytic subunit of the Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) that epigenetically silences gene transcription through histone H3 lysine trimethylation (H3K27me3). EZH2 has been implicated in stem cell maintenance and is overexpressed in hematological and solid malignancie`s including malignant glioma. EZH2 is thought to promote tumor progression by silencing tumor suppressor genes. Hence pharmacological disruption of the PRC2 is an attractive therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. Here we show that EZH2 is expressed in human glioma and correlates with malignancy. Silencing of EZH2 reduced glioma cell proliferation and invasiveness. While we did not observe induction of cell cycle-associated tumor suppressor genes by silencing or pharmacological inhibition of EZH2, microarray analyses demonstrated a strong transcriptional reduction of the AXL receptor kinase. Neither histone nor DNA methylation appeared to be involved in the positive regulation of AXL by EZH2. Silencing AXL mimicked the antiinvasive effects of EZH2 knockdown. Finally, AXL expression is found in human gliomas with high EZH2 expression. Collectively these data suggest that EZH2 drives glioma invasiveness via transcriptional control of AXL independent of histone or DNA methylation.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Genetics And Genomics ; Molecular Biology ; Computational Biology ; Oncology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2013, Vol.8(3), p.e57924
    Description: OBJECTIVES: The application of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in brain tumor imaging is mainly used to assess tumor-related "susceptibility based signals" (SBS). The origin of SBS in glioblastoma is still unknown, potentially representing calcifications or blood depositions. Reliable differentiation between both entities may be important to evaluate treatment response and to identify glioblastoma with oligodendroglial components that are supposed to present calcifications. Since calcifications and blood deposits are difficult to differentiate using conventional MRI, we investigated whether a new post-processing approach, quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), is able to distinguish between both entities reliably. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SWI, FLAIR, and T1-w images were acquired from 46 patients with glioblastoma (14 newly diagnosed, 24 treated with radiochemotherapy, 8 treated with radiochemotherapy and additional anti-angiogenic medication). Susceptibility maps were calculated from SWI data. All glioblastoma were evaluated for the appearance of hypointense or hyperintense correlates of SBS on the susceptibility maps. RESULTS: 43 of 46 glioblastoma presented only hyperintense intratumoral SBS on susceptibility maps, indicating blood deposits. Additional hypointense correlates of tumor-related SBS on susceptibility maps, indicating calcification, were identified in 2 patients being treated with radiochemotherapy and in one patient being treated with additional anti-angiogenic medication. Histopathologic reports revealed an oligodendroglial component in one patient that presented calcifications on susceptibility maps. CONCLUSIONS: QSM provides a quantitative, local MRI contrast, which reliably differentiates between blood deposits and calcifications. Thus, quantitative susceptibility mapping appears promising to identify rare variants of glioblastoma with oligodendroglial components non-invasively and may allow monitoring the role of calcification in the context of different therapy regimes.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(1), p.e0169292
    Description: To correlate histopathologic findings from biopsy specimens with their corresponding location within enhancing areas, non-enhancing areas and necrotic areas on contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRI scans (cT1).In 37 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma who underwent stereotactic biopsy, we obtained a correlation of 561 1mm3 biopsy specimens with their corresponding position on the intraoperative cT1 image at 1.5 Tesla. Biopsy points were categorized as enhancing (CE), non-enhancing (NE) or necrotic (NEC) on cT1 and tissue samples were categorized as "viable tumor cells", "blood" or "necrotic tissue (with or without cellular component)". Cell counting was done semi-automatically.NE had the highest content of tissue categorized as viable tumor cells (89% vs. 60% in CE and 30% NEC, respectively). Besides, the average cell density for NE (3764 ± 2893 cells/mm2) was comparable to CE (3506 ± 3116 cells/mm2), while NEC had a lower cell density with 2713 ± 3239 cells/mm2. If necrotic parts and bleeds were excluded, cell density in biopsies categorized as "viable tumor tissue" decreased from the center of the tumor (NEC, 5804 ± 3480 cells/mm2) to CE (4495 ± 3209 cells/mm2) and NE (4130 ± 2817 cells/mm2).The appearance of a glioblastoma on a cT1 image (circular enhancement, central necrosis, peritumoral edema) does not correspond to its diffuse histopathological composition. Cell density is elevated in both CE and NE parts. Hence, our study suggests that NE contains considerable amounts of infiltrative tumor with a high cellularity which might be considered in resection planning.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2016, Vol.11(7), p.e0160250
    Description: Several studies have analyzed a correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from diffusion-weighted MRI and the tumor cellularity of corresponding histopathological specimens in brain tumors with inconclusive findings. Here, we compared a large dataset of ADC and cellularity values of stereotactic biopsies of glioblastoma patients using a new postprocessing approach including trajectory analysis and automatic nuclei counting.Thirty-seven patients with newly diagnosed glioblastomas were enrolled in this study. ADC maps were acquired preoperatively at 3T and coregistered to the intraoperative MRI that contained the coordinates of the biopsy trajectory. 561 biopsy specimens were obtained; corresponding cellularity was calculated by semi-automatic nuclei counting and correlated to the respective preoperative ADC values along the stereotactic biopsy trajectory which included areas of T1-contrast-enhancement and necrosis.There was a weak to moderate inverse correlation between ADC and cellularity in glioblastomas that varied depending on the approach towards statistical analysis: for mean values per patient, Spearman's ρ = -0.48 (p = 0.002), for all trajectory values in one joint analysis Spearman's ρ = -0.32 (p 〈 0.001). The inverse correlation was additionally verified by a linear mixed model.Our data confirms a previously reported inverse correlation between ADC and tumor cellularity. However, the correlation in the current article is weaker than the pooled correlation of comparable previous studies. Hence, besides cell density, other factors, such as necrosis and edema might influence ADC values in glioblastomas.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Pathogens, 01 March 2016, Vol.12(3), p.e1005470
    Description: It is poorly understood how progressive brain swelling in experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) evolves in space and over time, and whether mechanisms of inflammation or microvascular sequestration/obstruction dominate the underlying pathophysiology. We therefore monitored in the Plasmodium berghei ANKA-C57BL/6 murine ECM model, disease manifestation and progression clinically, assessed by the Rapid-Murine-Coma-and-Behavioral-Scale (RMCBS), and by high-resolution in vivo MRI, including sensitive assessment of early blood-brain-barrier-disruption (BBBD), brain edema and microvascular pathology. For histological correlation HE and immunohistochemical staining for microglia and neuroblasts were obtained. Our results demonstrate that BBBD and edema initiated in the olfactory bulb (OB) and spread along the rostral-migratory-stream (RMS) to the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles, the dorsal-migratory-stream (DMS), and finally to the external capsule (EC) and brainstem (BS). Before clinical symptoms (mean RMCBS = 18.5±1) became evident, a slight, non-significant increase of quantitative T2 and ADC values was observed in OB+RMS. With clinical manifestation (mean RMCBS = 14.2±0.4), T2 and ADC values significantly increased along the OB+RMS (p = 0.049/p = 0.01). Severe ECM (mean RMCBS = 5±2.9) was defined by further spread into more posterior and deeper brain structures until reaching the BS (significant T2 elevation in DMS+EC+BS (p = 0.034)). Quantitative automated histological analyses confirmed microglial activation in areas of BBBD and edema. Activated microglia were closely associated with the RMS and neuroblasts within the RMS were severely misaligned with respect to their physiological linear migration pattern. Microvascular pathology and ischemic brain injury occurred only secondarily, after vasogenic edema formation and were both associated less with clinical severity and the temporal course of ECM. Altogether, we identified a distinct spatiotemporal pattern of microglial activation in ECM involving primarily the OB+RMS axis, a distinct pathway utilized by neuroblasts and immune cells. Our data suggest significant crosstalk between these two cell populations to be operative in deeper brain infiltration and further imply that the manifestation and progression of cerebral malaria may depend on brain areas otherwise serving neurogenesis.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 1553-7366
    E-ISSN: 1553-7374
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Sarcoma Research, 01 May 2017, Vol.7(1), pp.1-11
    Description: Abstract Background Histone 3.3 (H3.3) hotspot mutations in bone tumors occur in the vast majority of giant cell tumors of bone (GCTBs; 96%), chondroblastomas (95%) and in a few cases of osteosarcomas. However, clinical presentation, histopathological features, and additional molecular characteristics of H3.3 mutant osteosarcomas are largely unknown. Methods In this multicentre, retrospective study, a total of 106 conventional high-grade osteosarcomas, across all age groups were re-examined for hotspot mutations in the H3.3 coding genes H3F3A and H3F3B. H3.3 mutant osteosarcomas were re-evaluated in a multidisciplinary manner and analyzed for genome-wide DNA-methylation patterns and DNA copy number aberrations alongside H3.3 wild-type osteosarcomas and H3F3A G34W/L mutant GCTBs. Results Six osteosarcomas (6/106) carried H3F3A hotspot mutations. No mutations were found in H3F3B. All patients with H3F3A mutant osteosarcoma were older than 30 years with a median age of 65 years. Copy number aberrations that are commonly encountered in high-grade osteosarcomas also occurred in H3F3A mutant osteosarcomas. Unlike a single osteosarcoma with a H3F3A K27M mutation, the DNA methylation profiles of H3F3A G34W/R mutant osteosarcomas were clearly different from H3.3 wild-type osteosarcomas, but more closely related to GCTBs. The most differentially methylated promoters between H3F3A G34W/R mutant and H3.3 wild-type osteosarcomas were in KLLN/PTEN (p 〈 0.00005) and HIST1H2BB (p 〈 0.0005). Conclusions H3.3 mutations in osteosarcomas may occur in H3F3A at mutational hotspots. They are overall rare, but become more frequent in osteosarcoma patients older than 30 years. Osteosarcomas carrying H3F3A G34W/R mutations are associated with epigenetic dysregulation of KLLN/PTEN and HIST1H2BB.
    Keywords: Mutation ; H3.3 ; H3f3a ; Hist1h2bb ; Klln ; Pten ; Medicine
    E-ISSN: 2045-3329
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Acta Neuropathologica Communications, 01 August 2019, Vol.7(1), pp.1-11
    Description: Abstract Intraventricular meningiomas (IVMs) account for less than 5% of all intracranial meningiomas; hence their molecular phenotype remains unknown. In this study, we were interested whether genetic alterations in IVMs differ from meningiomas in other locations and analyzed our institutional series with respect to clinical and molecular characteristics. A total of 25 patients with surgical removal of an IVM at our department between 1986 and 2018 were identified from our institutional database. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 79 months (range of 2–319 months) and PFS at 5 years was 86%. Corresponding tumor tissue was available for 18 patients including one matching recurrence and was subjected to targeted panel sequencing of 130 selected genes frequently mutated in brain cancers by applying a custom hybrid capture approach on a NextSeq500 instrument. Loss of chromosome 22q and 1p occurred frequently in 89 and 44% of cases. Deleterious NF2 mutations were found in 44% of IVMs (n = 8/18). In non-NF2-mutated IVMs, previously reported genetic alterations including TRAF7, AKT1, SMO, KLF4, PIK3CA, and TERT were lacking, suggesting alternative genes in the pathogenesis of non-NF2 IVMs. In silico analysis revealed possible damaging mutations of APC, GABRA6, GSE1, KDR, and two SMO missense mutations differing from previously reported ones. Interestingly, all WHO°II IVMs (n = 3) harbored SMARCB1 and SMARCA4 mutations, indicating a role of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex in aggressive IVMs.
    Keywords: Intraventricular Meningioma ; Nf2 ; Targeted Panel Sequencing ; Smarcb1 ; Smarca4 ; Medicine
    E-ISSN: 2051-5960
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