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  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)  (9)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS One, CA: Public Library of Science
    Description: This article explores the interrelationship between the urinary microbiota and host antimicrobial peptides as mechanisms for urinary tract infection risk.
    Keywords: Resident Bacterial Communities ; Host Antimicrobial Peptides ; Urinary Tract Infection
    ISSN: 19326203
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2016, Vol.11(10)
    Description: Phagocytes such as dendritic cells and macrophages, which are distributed in the small intestinal mucosa, play a crucial role in maintaining mucosal homeostasis by sampling the luminal gut microbiota. However, there is limited information regarding microbial uptake in a steady state. We investigated the composition of murine gut microbiota that is engulfed by phagocytes of specific subsets in the small intestinal lamina propria (SILP) and Peyer’s patches (PP). Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences revealed that: 1) all the phagocyte subsets in the SILP primarily engulfed Lactobacillus (the most abundant microbe in the small intestine), whereas CD11b hi and CD11b hi CD11c hi cell subsets in PP mostly engulfed segmented filamentous bacteria (indigenous bacteria in rodents that are reported to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells); and 2) among the Lactobacillus species engulfed by the SILP cell subsets, L . murinus was engulfed more frequently than L . taiwanensis , although both these Lactobacillus species were abundant in the small intestine under physiological conditions. These results suggest that small intestinal microbiota is selectively engulfed by phagocytes that localize in the adjacent intestinal mucosa in a steady state. These observations may provide insight into the crucial role of phagocytes in immune surveillance of the small intestinal mucosa.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Health, 01 October 2008, Vol.7(1), p.47
    Description: Abstract Background The Yusho poisoning incident, which was caused by rice bran oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated quarterphenyls (PCQs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) generated by heat denaturation of PCB, occurred in 1968 in western Japan. Annual physical, dermatological, dental, ophthalmological and laboratory examinations were conducted for Yusho patients after the incident. From 2001, blood levels of individual PCDF congeners were also measured. The blood levels of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF), PCBs and PCQs in Yusho patients were found to be significantly higher than those of the general population. We investigated the relationships between blood concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, PCBs and PCQs in Yusho patients and the items measured in the annual medical examination. Methods Medical and laboratory examination data from 501 Yusho patients enrolled in the study from 2001 to 2004 were analyzed. The relationships between blood 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, PCB and PCQ concentrations and medical/laboratory examination data were investigated using principal components and logistic regression analyses. Results Serum Concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, PCBs and PCQs in blood tended to correlate with either acneform eruptions, black comedones, cutaneous and mucosal pigmentation, and hypersecretion of meibomian glands as well as general fatigue, headaches, cough/sputum, abdominal pain, arthralgia, increased blood sugar, increased serum γ-GTP and decreased total bilirubin. The majority of these signs and symptoms are included in the diagnostic criteria for Yusho. Conclusion After Yusho patients had suffered chronic exposure to these chlorinated compounds for more than 35 years, the serum concentration of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF in blood was significantly related to arthralgia and decreased albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio; the serum concentration of PCBs was significantly related to ophthalmologic symptoms; and the serum concentration of PCQ to increased total cholesterol. These findings suggest that the co-contaminants may affect other functions than those originally associated with Yusho.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1476-069X
    E-ISSN: 1476-069X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(5), p.e0178123
    Description: Sarcopenia is an aging and disease-related syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, with the risk of frailty and poor quality of life. Sarcopenia is diagnosed by a decrease in skeletal muscle index (SMI) and reduction of either handgrip strength or gait speed. However, measurement of SMI is difficult for general physicians because it requires special equipment for bioelectrical impedance assay or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to explore a novel, simple diagnostic method of sarcopenia evaluation in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD).We retrospectively investigated 132 inpatients with CVD (age: 72±12 years, age range: 27-93 years, males: 61%) Binomial logistic regression and correlation analyses were used to assess the associations of sarcopenia with simple physical data and biomarkers, including muscle-related inflammation makers and nutritional markers.Sarcopenia was present in 29.5% of the study population. Serum concentrations of adiponectin and sialic acid were significantly higher in sarcopenic than non-sarcopenic CVD patients. Stepwise multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis revealed that adiponectin, sialic acid, sex, age, and body mass index were independent factors for sarcopenia detection. Sarcopenia index, obtained from the diagnostic regression formula for sarcopenia detection including the five independent factors, indicated a high accuracy in ROC curve analysis (sensitivity 94.9%, specificity 69.9%) and the cutoff value for sarcopenia detection was -1.6134. Sarcopenia index had a significant correlation with the conventional diagnostic parameters of sarcopenia.Our new sarcopenia index using simple parameters would be useful for diagnosing sarcopenia in CVD patients.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    In: PLoS ONE, 2014, Vol.9(3)
    Description: Oral phosphate loading and calcitriol stimulate Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secretion, but the mechanisms underlying the stimulation of FGF23 remain to be studied. We compared the effect of intravenous phosphate loading with that of oral loading on FGF23 levels in normal and 5/6 nephrectomized uremic rats. Uremic rats (Nx) and sham-operated rats were fed a normal phosphate diet for 2 weeks and then divided into 3 groups: 1) with the same phosphate diet (NP), 2) with a high phosphate diet (HP), and 3) NP rats with intravenous phosphate infusion using a microinfusion pump (IV). Blood and urine were obtained 1 day (early phase) and 7 days (late phase) after the interventions. In the early and late phases, serum phosphate levels and fractional excretion of phosphate (FEP) were comparable in the HP and IV groups in both Sham and Nx rats. Serum phosphate levels in the HP and IV groups were equally and significantly higher than those in the NP group only in the late phase in Nx rats. In the early phase, FGF23 levels were comparable in the NP, HP, and IV groups, but were significantly higher in the HP and IV groups compared to the NP group in the late phase in Nx rats. 1α-hydroxylase and sodium dependent phosphate co-transporter 2a expression levels in the kidney in Nx rats were equally and significantly decreased in the HP and IV groups compared with the NP group, while 24-hydroxylase expression was equally and significantly increased. These results show that chronic intravenous phosphate loading increases bioactive FGF23, indicating that an alternative pathway for FGF23 regulation, in addition to the dietary route, may be present. This pathway is clearer under conditions produced by a kidney injury in which phosphate is easily overloaded.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Veterinary Science
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Redox Biology, April 2015, Vol.4, pp.74-86
    Description: Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is rapidly expressed by various stimuli and plays a key role in conversion of free arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. We have previously identified 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a lipid peroxidation-derived electrophile, as the potent Cox-2 inducer in rat epithelial RL34 cells and revealed that the HNE-induced Cox-2 expression resulted from the stabilization of Cox-2 mRNA that is mediated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. In the present study, we investigated an alternative regulatory mechanism of Cox-2 expression mediated by a transcription factor p53. In addition, to characterize the causal role for Cox-2, we examined the effects of Cox-2 overexpression in RL34 cells. To examine whether the HNE-induced Cox-2 expression was mechanistically linked to the p53 expression, we analyzed changes in Cox-2 and p53 expression levels in response to HNE and observed that the Cox-2 levels were inversely correlated with the p53 levels. Down-regulation of p53 followed by the activation of a transcription factor Sp1 was suggested to be involved in the HNE-induced Cox-2 gene expression. To characterize the effect of Cox-2 expression in the cells, we established the Cox-2-overexpressing derivatives of RL34 cells by stable transfection with Cox-2 cDNA. An oligonucleotide microarray analysis revealed a dramatic down-regulation of the proteasome subunit RC1 in the Cox-2 overexpressed cells compared to the empty-vector transfected control cells. Consistent with the Cox-2-mediated down-regulation of proteasome, a moderate reduction of the proteasome activities was observed. This proteasome dysfunction mediated by the Cox-2 overproduction was associated with the enhanced accumulation of p53 and ubiquitinated proteins, leading to the enhanced sensitivity toward electrophiles. These results suggest the existence of a causal link between Cox-2 and p53, which may represent a toxic mechanism of electrophilic lipid peroxidation products.
    Keywords: 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal ; Cyclooxygenase ; P53 ; Lipid Peroxidation ; Proteasome ; Sp1 ; Biology
    ISSN: 2213-2317
    E-ISSN: 2213-2317
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Inflammation, December 2017, Vol.15(3), pp.219-228
    Description: Relationships between inflammation and innate immunity in cancer are widely accepted today; however, the precise cell mechanisms mediating these relationships have not yet been elucidated. Interleukin (IL)-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been reported to induce inflammation in patients with autoimmune diseases. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) may contribute to the negative regulation of immune responses during cancer and inflammation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is reported to have multiple biological actions including increasing vascular permeability, neovascularization, and possible inhibition of immune function in malignant diseases. This study investigated the status of systemic inflammation and immune suppression associated with IL-17 and VEGF in patients with breast cancer. IL-17 production and the serum levels of VEGF were also increased in advanced stages of the disease. The production of IL-12, which induces Th1 cells, and the stimulation index (SI), which is a marker of cell-mediated immune function, were both shown to decrease along with disease advancement. Also, the production of IL-17 and the VEGF levels were both positively correlated with the levels of MDSC, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and C-reactive protein (CRP), and were inversely correlated with IL-12 production and the SI. Nutritional markers, including prealbumin (PA), transferrin (TF), and retinol-binding protein (RBP), were also shown to be significantly lower in patients with high production of IL-17 or high levels of VEGF. These data clearly showed that IL-17 and VEGF, whose levels correlated with each other and with those of MDSC, were significantly associated with disease advancement, systemic inflammation, suppression of cell-mediated immunity including Th1 induction, and malnutrition.
    Keywords: Breast Cancer ; Cachexia ; Il-17 ; Immunosuppression ; Mdsc ; Vegf ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1721-727X
    E-ISSN: 2058-7392
    Source: Sage Journals (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Clinical Medicine (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Health Sciences (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE STM (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Pharmacology and Biomedical (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Open Access Journals (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Communication and Media Studies (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Journals (Sage Publications)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis, 28 March 2018, Vol.8(1), pp.62-69
    Description: A 59-year-old Japanese woman was admitted for evaluation of muscle weakness. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease had been diagnosed at the age of 47 years, followed by primary aldosteronism at 53 years. At the age of 58, tolvaptan was started (60 mg/day) to treat her renal disease. After 8 months of tolvaptan therapy, hypokalemia-related muscle weakness became prominent, and hypertension became refractory. Finally, treatment with low-dose tolvaptan (30 mg/day) and high-dose spironolactone (100 mg/day) normalized serum potassium and the blood pressure. Tolvaptan can induce urinary excretion of potassium in patients with primary aldosteronism, and possible mechanisms are discussed.
    Keywords: Case Report ; Tolvaptan ; Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease ; Primary Aldosteronism
    E-ISSN: 2296-9705
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, 2012, Vol.119(4), pp.324-329
    Description: The effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of memantine (10 mg) was determined in Japanese subjects. Subjects were assigned to four groups based on baseline creatinine clearance (CL ): normal renal function (〉 80 mL/min, n = 6), and mild (50 to ≤ 80 mL/min, n = 6), moderate (30 to 〈 50 mL/min, n = 6), and severe renal impairment (5 to 〈 30 mL/min, n = 7). Mean memantine maximum plasma concentration (C ) was similar in the groups (12.66, 17.25, 15.75, and 15.83 ng/mL, respectively), as was mean time to C (6.2, 5.2, 4.3, and 5.4 h, respectively). However, exposure to memantine determined from mean area under the plasma concentration–time curve was 1.62-, 1.97-, and 2.33-times higher in subjects with mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment, respectively, as compared to controls with normal renal function. Mean memantine plasma elimination half-life increased according to increasing renal impairment (61.15, 83.00, 100.13, and 124.31 h, respectively), while mean cumulative urinary recovery of unchanged memantine in 72 h after dosing decreased according to increasing renal impairment (33.68%, 33.47%, 23.60%, and 16.17%, respectively). These results are the same as those in the previous study on caucasian individuals, when compared per body weight. It is suggested that the dose of memantine should be halved in patients with renal impairment.
    Keywords: Memantine ; Renal Impairment ; Pharmacokinetics ; Dose ; Dementia ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 1347-8613
    E-ISSN: 1347-8648
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