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  • ERIC (U.S. Dept. of Education)  (98)
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  • 1
    In: Anatomical Sciences Education, July 2019, Vol.12(4), pp.425-431
    Description: While time spent on anatomical education in medical school curricula has been diminishing over the last decades, the recognized role of anatomical dissection has expanded. It is perceived by many students and faculty not only as the means of learning the structure and function of the human body, but also as an opportunity for the acquisition of professional competencies such as team work, patient–doctor interaction, medical epistemology, self‐awareness, and an understanding of medical ethics. This viewpoint article proposes that this learning process can be supported effectively through studying examples from the history of anatomy, as insights from this history can help illuminate contemporary ethical issues in anatomy and medicine. Anatomical education can thus provide not only the opportunity of gaining awareness of ethical questions, but also a chance to practice these new insights within the protected environment of the laboratories, in interaction with the dead and the living. Consequently, a new role has developed for anatomists, which includes the interweaving of the scholarly exploration of the history and ethics of anatomy with the practical application of research results into a reframed concept of anatomical education. Anatomy, as a foundational discipline in the medical curriculum, can thus provide a first step on the educational path of empathetic and humane medical caregivers.
    Keywords: Gross Anatomy Education ; Medical Education ; Ethics In Anatomy ; Humanities In Anatomy ; Professionalism ; Dissection Course ; Body Donors ; Reflection On Medicine
    ISSN: 1935-9772
    E-ISSN: 1935-9780
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2010, Vol.78(5), pp.681-690
    Description: Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore heterogeneity and differential treatment outcome among a sample of patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method: A latent class analysis was conducted with 205 treatment-seeking, overweight or obese individuals with BED randomized to interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioral weight loss (BWL), or guided self-help based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBTgsh). A latent transition analysis tested the predictive validity of the latent class analysis model. Results: A 4-class model yielded the best overall fit to the data. Class 1 was characterized by a lower mean body mass index (BMI) and increased physical activity. Individuals in Class 2 reported the most binge eating, shape and weight concerns, compensatory behaviors, and negative affect. Class 3 patients reported similar binge eating frequencies to Class 2, with lower levels of exercise or compensation. Class 4 was characterized by the highest average BMI, the most overeating episodes, fewer binge episodes, and an absence of compensatory behaviors. Classes 1 and 3 had the highest and lowest percentage of individuals with a past eating disorder diagnosis, respectively. The latent transition analysis found a higher probability of remission from binge eating among those receiving IPT in Class 2 and CBTgsh in Class 3. Conclusions: The latent class analysis identified 4 distinct classes using baseline measures of eating disorder and depressive symptoms, body weight, and physical activity. Implications of the observed differential treatment response are discussed.
    Keywords: Binge Eating Disorder ; Latent Class Analysis ; Latent Transition Analysis ; Treatment Specificity
    ISSN: 0022-006X
    E-ISSN: 1939-2117
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2018, Vol.44(8), pp.1254-1268
    Description: Recent research on individual differences in object cognition (OC) focused on determining how objects group together, and what type of processing lies behind the clusters—a single domain-general or multiple domain-specific processes. The expertise hypothesis suggests that all object categories are processed by the same mechanism that is responsible for differentiating visually similar objects. This ability is expected to be more specifically expressed in processing objects for which people have higher expertise. The domain-specificity hypothesis postulates that different object categories, for example, living versus nonliving objects, are processed employing different mechanisms. In the present study we aimed to study (a) how multiple objects group together in terms of individual differences; (b) the expertise hypothesis based on up-to-date statistical methods of modeling individual differences; (c) whether task difficulty influences the structure of individual differences in OC. We applied a memory task to N = 186 participants, by using multiple, theoretically chosen object categories divided into five groups—living/mobile (fish, butterflies), living/immobile (flowers, leaves), nonliving/mobile (cars, motorbikes), nonliving/immobile (houses, chairs) and faces—and report three main findings. (a) In terms of individual differences, the factor space of OC can be accounted by three factors—general OC factor along with a specific Vehicle and Face factor; (b) there is no clear evidence for the expertise hypothesis; and (c) task difficulty does not influence the OC structure. We conclude that domain-specific mechanisms in object processing cannot be dismissed.
    Keywords: Object Cognition ; Psychometric Structure ; Individual Differences ; Expertise Hypothesis ; Domain-Specificity Hypothesis
    ISSN: 0278-7393
    E-ISSN: 1939-1285
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of American College Health, 03 October 2015, Vol.63(7), pp.448-458
    Description: Objectives: To examine the relationships between self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, perceived positive relations with others, self-regulation strategy use, and academic motivation among student service members/veterans (SSM/V) enrolled in postsecondary education. Participants:...
    Keywords: Military ; Motivation ; Postsecondary ; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) ; Self-Regulation ; Social Relations ; Medicine ; Public Health ; Recreation & Sports
    ISSN: 0744-8481
    E-ISSN: 1940-3208
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Parenting for High Potential, 2014, Vol.4(2), p.4
    Description: Parents and grandparents are always looking for new ways to engage their kids and grandkids in meaningful, enriching educational activities. While there is evidence that playing games can increase numerical fluency, research also shows that parental involvement outside of school is one of the...
    Keywords: Learning Activities ; Creative Development ; Mathematics Activities ; Parents As Teachers ; Educational Games ; Educational Practices ; Parent Education
    Source: ERIC (U.S. Dept. of Education)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: ProQuest LLC, 2018
    Description: This is a study of three second-career teachers' experiences of self-transformation and the processes of socialization and identity formation each undergoes during his or her first three to five years as a full-time teacher. Each narrative offers a means through which to explore how liminal...
    Keywords: Career Change ; Socialization ; Professional Identity ; Beginning Teachers ; Teacher Motivation ; Self Concept ; Teacher Persistence ; Case Studies
    ISBN: 9780438035317
    ISBN: 0438035313
    Source: ERIC (U.S. Dept. of Education)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Learning Analytics, 2017, Vol.4(1), p.6
    Description: This article is a revised version of the keynote presented at LAK '16 in Edinburgh. The article investigates some of the assumptions of learning analytics, notably those related to behaviourism. Building on the work of Ivan Pavlov, Herbert Simon, and James Gibson as ways of "learning as a machine,"...
    Keywords: Behaviorism ; Data Processing ; Profiles ; Learning Processes ; Privacy ; Confidential Records ; Confidentiality ; Intellectual History ; Intervention ; Identification ; Prediction ; Data Analysis ; Relevance (Education) ; Behavior Theories
    ISSN: 1929-7750
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Brain and Cognition, February 2013, Vol.81(1), pp.57-66
    Description: ► Two basic strategies of adaptation are shifting or shifting expected . ► These basic processes can be studied with one physically identical design. ► In fMRI, response shifting activated premotor and parietal areas. ► Outcome shifting activated right anterior temporal cortex and right parietal regions. ► Outcome shifting also relied on the integrity of right frontal white (uncinate fascicle). Adaptation to changing situations can be mediated by two strategies: (1) Evaluation of a and (2) Evaluation of values in relation to objects. Previous studies indicate that response shifting is associated with a network comprising the left frontal cortex and parietal cortex connected by the superior longitudinal fascicle, whereas outcome evaluation is associated with a network consisting of the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala and uncinate fascicle. However, these studies rarely compared both kinds of adaptation directly and existing fMRI studies with healthy subjects are not informative about the role of the two fiber systems. We analyzed stimulus response shifting and stimulus outcome shifting in two studies, one fMRI-study on healthy participants and one study on patients with MS involving structural MRI (Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Voxel Based Morphometry, Ventricular volumetry). Two tasks were used, identical in presentation but different in instruction, controlling for effects of lower level processing. In the SRS task, participants had to perform a “Go” or “NoGo” response depending on a stimulus change: if the stimulus remained the same, they had to continue with the former type of response, if it changed they had to adapt their response pattern. In the SOS task they had to perform a “Go” response only if the presented stimulus corresponded to that of an internal alternating series. fMRI findings showed that SRS is related to a bilateral parietal-premotor network. In the left hemisphere the prefrontal cortex was also involved. SOS was lateralized to the right hemisphere, particularly to the anterior temporal pole and amygdala, and the inferior parietal cortex. MS patients impaired on this task suffered from lesions in the right uncinate fascicle and showed an enlarged right frontal lateral ventricle. With physically identical tasks, a functional neuronal segregation can be demonstrated for stimulus response shifting (bilateral activations with a focus in the left prefrontal cortex) and stimulus outcome shifting (right anterior temporal lobe and right supramarginal gyrus).
    Keywords: Response Shifting ; Outcome Shifting ; Premotor Cortex ; Parietal Cortex ; Right Amygdale ; Anatomy & Physiology ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0278-2626
    E-ISSN: 1090-2147
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Dimension, 2014, p.111
    Description: This article reports on a project designed to provide mutually beneficial solutions to challenges faced by world language teacher candidates, their preparation program, and a local community center. The project provided opportunities for teacher...
    Keywords: Spanish ; Second Language Instruction ; Language Teachers ; Service Learning ; Community Centers ; Preservice Teachers ; Teacher Education Programs ; Spanish Speaking ; Low Income Groups ; Experiential Learning ; Elementary School Students ; Qualitative Research ; Barriers ; Illinois
    Source: ERIC (U.S. Dept. of Education)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Teaching and Teacher Education, 2011, Vol.27(2), pp.416-423
    Description: This study examines motivational factors of teachers who have achieved a national standard of professionalization. Data were collected from National Board certified teachers in the United States ( = 453) using a two-part, web-based survey. Exploratory factor analysis found five motivators: improved teaching, financial gain, collaborative opportunities, self and external validation. Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs) highlighted differences in the financial gain and external validation motivations, depending on the teacher’s age at the time of certification. The results of this study reveal multiple motivators for teacher professionalization, with teachers of different ages motivated by diverse incentives. ► Motivators: improved teaching, financial gain, collaboration, self and external validation. ► Data were collected from National Board certified teachers in the United States. ► Differences in the financial gain and external validation, depending on the teacher’s age. ► Teachers in 30s more motivated by financial gain than those in 40s. ► Teachers in 30s more motivated by external validation than those in 40s and 50s
    Keywords: Teacher Certification ; Professional Development ; Teacher Motivation ; National Standards ; Teaching (Occupation) ; Education
    ISSN: 0742-051X
    E-ISSN: 1879-2480
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