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  • Elsevier (CrossRef)  (16)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Neuroscience, 5/2012, Vol.210, C, pp.168-178
    Description: Although exposure to social stress leads to increased depression-like and anxiety-like behavior, some individuals are more vulnerable than others to these stress-induced changes in behavior. Prior social experience is one factor that can modulate how individuals respond to stressful events. In this study, we investigated whether experience-dependent resistance to the behavioral consequences of social defeat was associated with a specific pattern of neural activation. We paired weight-matched male Syrian hamsters in daily aggressive encounters for 2 weeks, during which they formed a stable dominance relationship. We also included control animals that were exposed to an empty cage each day for 2 weeks. Twenty-four hours after the final pairing or empty cage exposure, half of the subjects were socially defeated in 3, 5-min encounters, whereas the others were not socially defeated. Twenty-four hours after social defeat, animals were tested for conditioned defeat in a 5-min social interaction test with a non-aggressive intruder. We collected brains after social defeat and processed the tissue for c-Fos immunoreactivity. We found that dominants were more likely than subordinates to counter-attack the resident aggressor during social defeat, and they showed less submissive and defensive behavior at conditioned defeat testing compared with subordinates. Also, social status was associated with distinct patterns of defeat-induced neural activation in select brain regions, including the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus, and lateral septum. Our results indicate that social status is an important form of prior experience that predicts both initial coping style and the degree of resistance to social defeat. Further, the differences in defeat-induced neural activation suggest possible brain regions that may control resistance to conditioned defeat in dominant individuals. Highlights▶Dominant individuals show reduced conditioned defeat compared with subordinates. ▶Social status leads to modest differences in baseline neural activation. ▶Social status produces distinct patterns of defeat-induced neural activation. ▶Defeat-induced neural activation in the prefrontal cortex is linked to resilience.
    Keywords: Social Defeat ; Dominance ; Stress ; Resilience ; Coping ; Conditioned Defeat ; Ah ; Anova ; Bla ; Bnst ; Dls ; Dmea ; Gs ; Il ; La ; Mpoa ; PBS ; Pl ; Pvn ; Vls ; Vmea ; Vmhl ; Vmpfc;
    ISSN: 03064522
    E-ISSN: 18737544
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Thin Solid Films, 08/2015, Vol.589, C, pp.369-375
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2015.05.036 Byline: Y.G. Fedorenko (a,1), M.A. Hughes (a), J.L. Colaux (a), C. Jeynes (a), R.M. Gwilliam (a), K. Homewood (a), B. Gholipour (b), J. Yao (b), D.W. Hewak (b), T.-H. Lee (c), S.R. Elliott (c), R.J. Curry (a) Keywords Amorphous chalcogenide; Doping; Ion implantation Highlights * Electron conductivity is observed in Bi-implanted GeTe films. * Higher conductivity in Bi-implanted films stems from increased density of electrically active defects. * Bi implanted in amorphous chalcogenides may promote formation of a more chemically ordered alloy. Abstract The impact of Bi implantation on the conductivity and the thermopower of GeTe, Ge--Sb--Te, and Ga--La--S films is investigated. The enhanced conductivity appears to be notably sensitive to a dose of an implant. Incorporation of Bi in amorphous chalcogenide films at doses up to 1 x 10.sup.15 cm.sup.- 2 is seen not to change the majority carrier type and activation energy for the conduction process. Higher implantation doses may reverse the majority carrier type in the studied films. Electron conductivity was observed in GeTe films implanted with Bi at a dose of 2 x 10.sup.16 cm.sup.- 2. These studies indicate that native coordination defects present in amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors can be deactivated by means of ion implantation. A substantial density of implantation-induced traps in the studied films and their interfaces with silicon is inferred from analysis of the space-charge-limited current and capacitance-voltage characteristics taken on Au/amorphous chalcogenide/Si structures. Author Affiliation: (a) Advanced Technology Institute, Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH, United Kingdom (b) Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom (c) Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge, CB2 1EW, United Kingdom Article History: Received 4 July 2014; Revised 15 March 2015; Accepted 20 May 2015 (footnote)1 Present address: Stephenson Institute for Renewable Energy, University of Liverpool, Chadwick Building, Peach St., Liverpool L69 7ZF, United Kingdom.
    Keywords: Semiconductors (Materials) – Analysis ; Semiconductors (Materials) – Electric Properties ; Activation Energy – Analysis ; Activation Energy – Electric Properties ; Silicon – Analysis ; Silicon – Electric Properties;
    ISSN: 00406090
    E-ISSN: 18792731
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics, 10/2016, Vol.96(2), S, p.E80
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2016.06.792 Byline: D.W. Kim, A. Niemierko, W. Hwang, A.O. Stemmer-Rachamimov, W.T. Curry, F.G. Barker, R. Martuza, J.S. Loeffler, K.S. Oh, H.A. Shih Author Affiliation: (1) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (2) Department of Biostatistics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (3) Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (4) Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (5) Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (6) Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Article Note: (footnote) Author Disclosure: D.W. Kim: None. A. Niemierko: None. W. Hwang: None. A.O. Stemmer-Rachamimov: Editorial; Brain Pathology. W.T. Curry: Consultant; Stryker CMF. F.G. Barker II: None. R. Martuza: None. J.S. Loeffler: None. K.S. Oh: Research Grant; Merck & Co, Elekta. Honoraria; HK hospital authority. Wrote several review articles; UpToDate. Reviewed and questions writing for CME section; IJROBP. H.A. Shih: Advisory Board; Genentech. Editor; International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics. Writer; UpToDate.
    Keywords: Surgery ; Radiotherapy ; Medical Schools ; Radiation (Physics);
    ISSN: 03603016
    E-ISSN: 1879355X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics, 11/2018, Vol.102(3), S, p.e226
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 03603016
    E-ISSN: 1879355X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Cardiology, 5/1985, Vol.8(1), pp.67-76
    Description: This study was performed to ascertain whether intravenous amiodarone would revert supraventricular tachycardias to sinus rhythm, and if so, whether this effect depended upon the underlying mechanism of the arrhythmia. Fourteen patients were studied. Seven had Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, 1 had dual atrioventricular nodal pathways and 1 an ectopic atrial tachycardia. Five patients had atrial fibrillation without accessory pathways. An atrial electrode was inserted to initiate tachycardias and record the electrogram. If tachycardias were stable for more than 5 min, amiodarone (5 mg/kg) diluted with dextrose saline was infused intravenously over 5 min. Two electrocardiographic leads and the right atrial electrogram were monitored. In 7 patients with atrial fibrillation (2 with accessory pathways), 6 did not revert to sinus rhythm, 1 reverted only after 1 hr. In 5 cases without accessory pathways the ventricular rate fell 5-10 min after commencing amiodarone. Four of the 5 patients with WPW syndrome and re-entrant tachycardias returned to sinus rhythm within 6 min of commencing the infusion (atrioventricular and ventriculoatrial times increased by 0-38% and 0-14% respectively). (Tachycardias terminated in the anterograde limb.) Three patients underwent intermittent right atrial stimulation for 1 hr. No tachycardias could be initiated for 30 min post amiodarone. The ectopic atrial tachycardia and that due to dual atrioventricular nodal pathways terminated within 7 and 2 min, respectively, of commencing intravenous amiodarone. Thus the use of intravenous amiodarone would be appropriate in the acute management of sustained supraventricular tachycardias.
    Keywords: Amiodarone -- Therapeutic Use ; Benzofurans -- Therapeutic Use;
    ISSN: 01675273
    E-ISSN: 18741754
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Cardiology, 1/1986, Vol.10(1), pp.65-69
    Description: We have studied the relationship between age, daily dose, plasma concentration and clinical efficacy of disopyramide in a group of paediatric patients. Twelve children with ventricular and 3 with supraventricular arrhythmias were treated with oral disopyramide. The initial dose was 3-6 mg/kg per day. This was adjusted until a pre-dose plasma concentration greater than 2 mg/I was achieved. Seven patients were judged to have responded to the treatment on clinical criteria. No symptoms or signs of toxicity were observed. In some of the children the dose of disopyramide required to achieve a plasma concentration greater than 2 mg/l was greatly in excess of the normal adult dose. Generally the youngest children required the highest dose, but the variation was wide. The dose could not be predicted from the age, the body weight or the surface area of the patient. In children high doses of disopyramide may be needed to achieve effective plasma concentrations of the drug; such doses are not associated with adverse effects. Measurement of the plasma concentration is necessary to guard against premature termination of therapy.
    Keywords: Arrhythmias, Cardiac -- Drug Therapy ; Disopyramide -- Blood;
    ISSN: 01675273
    E-ISSN: 18741754
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 03/2005, Vol.351(6-7), pp.477-481
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2004.12.013 Byline: R.J. Curry (a), S.W. Birtwell (b), A.K. Mairaj (b), X. Feng (b), D.W. Hewak (b) Abstract: The attenuation of a number of chalcogenide glass optical fibres has been studied with regard to their exposure the environment. We demonstrate that gallium lanthanum sulfide (Ga:La:S) based glasses appear to be as resilient if not more so than arsenic sulfide (As.sub.2S.sub.3) glass to the attack of moisture when stored uncoated in ambient conditions for various periods exceeding 1 year. The increase in the characteristic OH.sup.- attenuation peak was [approximately equal to]3-4dB/m for all fibres following storage. Given the significant improvements achieved in As.sub.2S.sub.3 glass technology over recent years we believe that Ga:La:S based fibres can also be improved to at least match these levels with the advantage of being non-toxic and having a significantly higher melting temperature. Studies of the time-dependant attenuation of the optical fibres during immersion in water have also been carried out. These results show that the deleterious effect of moisture on these glasses occurs over a short time, [approximately equal to]24h, thus having implications on the treatment and storage of fibre preforms prior to optical fibre drawing. Author Affiliation: (a) Advanced Technology Institute, School of Electronics and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK (b) Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK Article History: Received 3 November 2004
    Keywords: Fiber Optic Equipment -- Environmental Aspects ; Rare Earth Metal Compounds -- Environmental Aspects ; Arsenic -- Environmental Aspects ; Sulfides -- Environmental Aspects;
    ISSN: 00223093
    E-ISSN: 18734812
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Regulatory Peptides, 2/1994, Vol.50(1), pp.37-43
    Description: FMRFamide was isolated originally from neural-tissue extracts of a bivalve mollusc, since when either authentic FMRFamide or a series of structurally-related peptides have been isolated from representative arthropods, annelids and many additional molluscs. However, to date no information exists as to the definitive presence and primary structure of a FaRP in a free-living flatworm. Here, we report the isolation and primary structure of a FaRP from the free-living turbellarian, Artioposthia triangulata , a species from which NPF has been previously structurally-characterised. Unlike molluscs and insects, in which several FaRPs are expressed, only a single member of this family was detected in this turbellarian. The primary structure of this turbellarian FaRP was established as Arg-Tyr-Ile-Arg-Phe-NH 2 (RYIRFamide) and the molecular mass as 752.7 Da. These data have established unequivocally that FaRPs occur in the nervous systems of the most phylogenetically-ancient invertebrates which display bilaterally-symmetrical neuronal plans and that authentic FMRFamide is probably not the original member of the family in molecular evolutionary terms.
    Keywords: Fmrfamide ; Fmrfamide-Related Peptide ; Platyhelminth ; Turbellarian ; Primary Structure ; Molecular Evolution ; Invertebrate Neuropeptide;
    ISSN: 01670115
    E-ISSN: 18731686
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Comparative Biochemistry, 12/1993, Vol.106(4), pp.883-887
    Description: 1. In almost all studies involving localization or quantitation of regulatory peptides, an essential prerequisite is the generation of specific antisera in rabbits. Despite this almost universal practice, the primary structures of some established regulatory peptides, such as pancreatic polypeptide (PP), of the rabbit, remain unknown. 2. Here we report the full primary structure of PP isolated from extracts of rabbit pancreas. 3. PP immunoreactivity was purified using an antiserum (PP 221) generated to the highly-conserved C-terminal hexapeptide amide of mammalian PP. A single molecular form of rabbit PP was consistently resolved during sequential chromatographic fractionations. 4. Automated Edman degradation established the full primary structure as: APPEPVYPGDDATPEQMAEYVADLRRYINMLTRPRY. The molecular mass derived from this sequence (4196.7 Da), was in full agreement with that determined by mass spectroscopy (4196 Da). The peptide was deemed to be C-terminally amidated due to its full molar crossreactivity with the amide-requiring PP antiserum employed. 5. When compared with all other known mammalian PP sequences, rabbit PP displays three unique substituted sites, Pro at position 3, Glu at position 19 and Val at position 21.
    Keywords: Pancreatic Polypeptide -- Chemistry;
    ISSN: 03050491
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Cytokine, 9/1994, Vol.6(5), p.581
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 10434666
    E-ISSN: 10960023
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