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  • Elsevier (CrossRef)  (16)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: NeuroImage, 01 August 2015, Vol.116, pp.177-186
    Description: Coherent percepts emerge from the accurate combination of inputs from the different sensory systems. There is an ongoing debate about the neurophysiological mechanisms of crossmodal interactions in the brain, and it has been proposed that transient synchronization of neurons might be of central importance. Oscillatory activity in lower frequency ranges (〈 30 Hz) has been implicated in mediating long-range communication as typically studied in multisensory research. In the current study, we recorded high-density electroencephalograms while human participants were engaged in a visuotactile pattern matching paradigm and analyzed oscillatory power in the theta- (4–7 Hz), alpha- (8–13 Hz) and beta-bands (13–30 Hz). Employing the same physical stimuli, separate tasks of the experiment either required the detection of predefined targets in visual and tactile modalities or the explicit evaluation of crossmodal stimulus congruence. Analysis of the behavioral data showed benefits for congruent visuotactile stimulus combinations. Differences in oscillatory dynamics related to crossmodal congruence within the two tasks were observed in the beta-band for crossmodal target detection, as well as in the theta-band for congruence evaluation. Contrasting ongoing activity preceding visuotactile stimulation between the two tasks revealed differences in the alpha- and beta-bands. Source reconstruction of between-task differences showed prominent involvement of premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, somatosensory association cortex and the supramarginal gyrus. These areas not only exhibited more involvement in the pre-stimulus interval for target detection compared to congruence evaluation, but were also crucially involved in post-stimulus differences related to crossmodal stimulus congruence within the detection task. These results add to the increasing evidence that low frequency oscillations are functionally relevant for integration in distributed brain networks, as demonstrated for crossmodal interactions in visuotactile pattern matching in the current study.
    Keywords: Cortical Oscillations ; Multisensory Integration ; Visuotactile ; Pattern Matching ; Crossmodal Congruence ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1053-8119
    E-ISSN: 1095-9572
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Psychiatry Research, 30 November 2013, Vol.210(1), pp.140-145
    Description: The prevention of relapse in recurrent depression is considered a central aim in cognitive-behavioral therapy, given the high risk of relapse. In this study, patients with recurrent major depressive disorder (currently remitted) received 16 sessions of Maintenance Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (M-CBT) over a period of 8 months, in order to prevent relapse. Therapist adherence and competence, as well as the therapeutic alliance, were investigated as predictors for reducing the risk of recurrence in depression. Videotapes of 80 participants were analyzed in order to evaluate therapist adherence and competence. Additionally, the therapeutic alliance was assessed by questionnaire. No associations were found between therapist adherence or competence, and the risk of relapse 1 year after treatment. By contrast, the therapeutic alliance was a significant predictor of the time to relapse. Moreover, we found that the number of previous depressive episodes (≥5 vs. ≤4) was a significant moderator variable. This indicates that the alliance-outcome relationship was particularly important when patients with five or more previous depressive episodes were taken into account, in comparison to patients with four or fewer episodes. For the psychotherapeutic treatment of recurrent depression and the prevention of relapse, sufficient attention should be paid to the therapeutic alliance.
    Keywords: Adherence ; Alliance ; Competence ; Maintenance Cognitive Therapy ; Outcome ; Recurrent Depression ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0165-1781
    E-ISSN: 1872-7123
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 01 October 2014, Vol.160, pp.104-111
    Description: Governments all over the world have implemented regulatory frameworks concerning food allergen labelling and established or discussed the implementation of thresholds. Therefore, quantitative methods are needed for their surveillance. DNA-based approaches using a matrix-adapted calibration, an internal standard material and a modified standard addition have been developed. In order to enable a comparative assessment of the available quantification methods, experimental framework conditions and uniform performance criteria were defined. For the evaluation of the experimental results using homogenous sample material, the recovery, repeatability and reproducibility were considered along with the limit of detection and the limit of quantification. In addition, muffin dough and muffins spiked with sesame were analysed to assess the suitability of the methods to quantify sesame in model foods. The modified standard addition emerged from the comparative assessment and the analysis of the model foods to be the most appropriate method to quantify traces of allergens in food.
    Keywords: Quantification ; Food Allergens ; Real-Time Pcr ; Modified Standard Addition ; Matrix-Adapted Quantification ; Internal Standard Material ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, September 2012, Vol.46(9), pp.1109-1117
    Description: A number of studies indicate that altered serotonergic transmission may be a risk factor for depression in the peripartum period. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms in the gene, the gene product of which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin in the central nervous system, are associated with depressive symptoms in pregnancy and the postpartum period. In a cohort of 361 Caucasians, the severity of depression was assessed prospectively during pregnancy (third trimester) and the postpartum period (2–3 days and 6–8 months) using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in and SNPs that are known to be of functional relevance were genotyped. For each haplotype block or SNP, a multifactorial linear mixed model was performed to analyse the EPDS values over time. The haplotype block in the promoter region of showed significant associations with depression values during pregnancy and 6–8 months afterwards. Additionally, a haplotype block in intron 8 had an influence on depression values during pregnancy, but not after birth. There was a significant interaction between time and haplotypes and the severity of depression. The effect of haplotypes on EPDS values was strongest during pregnancy and 6 months after birth, with a low depression rating in the first few days after delivery for all women. In this cohort, haplotypes known to be of functional relevance were found to be associated with different EPDS values during and after pregnancy. These haplotypes were associated with depressive symptoms both before and after delivery and were thus not specific for postpartum-onset depression. This underlines the relevance of these functional polymorphisms for depression in general and the importance of longitudinal assessments in research on postpartum depression.
    Keywords: Depression ; Pregnancy ; Serotonin ; Polymorphisms ; Genetics ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-3956
    E-ISSN: 1879-1379
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Gastroenterology, 2011, Vol.141(4), pp.1346-1358
    Description: The neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P, and calcium channels, which control their release from extrinsic sensory neurons, have important roles in experimental colitis. We investigated the mechanisms of colitis in 2 different models, the involvement of the irritant receptor transient receptor potential of the ankyrin type-1 (TRPA1), and the effects of CGRP and substance P. We used calcium-imaging, patch-clamp, and neuropeptide-release assays to evaluate the effects of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid (TNBS) and dextran-sulfate-sodium-salt on neurons. Colitis was induced in wild-type, knockout, and desensitized mice. TNBS induced TRPA1-dependent release of colonic substance P and CGRP, influx of Ca2+, and sustained ionic inward currents in colonic sensory neurons and transfected HEK293t cells. Analysis of mutant forms of TRPA1 revealed that TNBS bound covalently to cysteine (and lysine) residues in the cytoplasmic N-terminus. A stable sulfinic acid transformation of the cysteine-SH group, shown by mass spectrometry, might contribute to sustained sensitization of TRPA1. Mice with colitis had increased colonic neuropeptide release, mediated by TRPA1. Endogenous products of inflammatory lipid peroxidation also induced TRPA1-dependent release of colonic neuropeptides; levels of 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal increased in each model of colitis. Colitis induction by TNBS or dextran-sulfate-sodium-salt was inhibited or reduced in mice and by 2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isopro-pylphenyl)-acetamide, a pharmacologic inhibitor of TRPA1. Substance P had a proinflammatory effect that was dominant over CGRP, based on studies of knockout mice. Ablation of extrinsic sensory neurons prevented or attenuated TNBS-induced release of neuropeptides and both forms of colitis. Neuroimmune interactions control intestinal inflammation. Activation and sensitization of TRPA1 and release of substance P induce and maintain colitis in mice.
    Keywords: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases ; Nervous ; Immune System ; 4-Hne ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0016-5085
    E-ISSN: 1528-0012
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Food Control, January 2015, Vol.47, pp.246-253
    Description: Food allergies are a significant public health concern throughout the world with various symptoms that range from mild to severe or even life-threatening. As the only option for the allergenic consumer is the strict avoidance of the allergenic food, in the European Union the declaration of the most frequent food allergens on the labels of products is required. However, traces of food allergens that may be present in foods due to cross-contact are not included in this regulatory provision. Therefore, thresholds above which labeling is mandatory are being discussed. The surveillance of such thresholds requires specific, sensitive and quantitative methods. For this purpose, a tetraplex real-time PCR method was established to quantify simultaneously trace amounts of the four allergens soy bean, celery, white and brown mustard. The quantification is achieved by using the standard addition method. The approach was validated with DNA extracted from lysate mixtures of boiled sausage and the standard materials at concentration levels of 1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 100 and 400 mg/kg. The parameters recovery, repeatability and robustness were evaluated and the limits of quantification of soy bean (8.5 mg/kg), brown mustard (2.6 mg/kg), celery (3.7 mg/kg) and white mustard (36.8 mg/kg) were determined. The method was applied to commercial food products labeled with one or more of the analytes or with a “may contain traces of …” statement.
    Keywords: Quantification ; Food Allergen ; Tetraplex Real-Time Pcr ; Mustard ; Celery ; Soy Bean ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0956-7135
    E-ISSN: 1873-7129
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Indicators, July 2015, Vol.54, pp.12-30
    Description: Ancient woodlands, with their long ecological continuity, frequently harbor a high number of typical, rare and threatened species, and are therefore of particular importance for nature conservation. To pinpoint these habitats, a common application is the use of plants as “ancient woodland indicators”. The occurrence of these particular species allows for evaluating the continuity of woodland cover in time. While lists of ancient woodland vascular plants have been derived for many regions, the identification and use of bryophytes as ancient woodland indicators has been widely neglected. This is a bit surprising because certain woodland bryophytes are very sensitive to varying environmental conditions or changes in land management. It therefore appeared promising to compile an ecologically grounded list of ancient woodland indicator bryophytes for practical use. In this study, we present a set of ancient woodland indicator bryophytes based on the analysis of datasets from the North German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein. To compile this list, we systematically evaluated the bryophyte distribution data from floristic surveys in relation to ancient woodland cover data from state-wide inventories. In this way, we were able to determine ancient woodland bryophytes using consistent and repeatable statistical methods. The presented list of 31 ancient woodland indicator bryophytes is ecologically sound and corresponds well with data from the sparse literature. We could distinguish two groups of ancient woodland indicator bryophytes. The first group is linked to base-rich, semi-natural deciduous woodlands with high soil and air humidity. The second group comprises acidophilic bryophytes that occur not only in acidic beech and oak woods, but also in acidic mixed or coniferous forests on ancient woodland sites. Apart from the ancient woodland indicator bryophytes, we could identify one group of recent woodland bryophytes and four groups of bryophytes that are more or less indifferent with respect to woodland continuity. Finally, we provide recommendations for the application of ancient woodland indicator bryophytes in nature conservation practice. Management suggestions for the conservation of the typical bryophyte diversity of ancient semi-natural woodlands are also given.
    Keywords: Forest Management ; Liverworts ; Mosses ; Nature Conservation ; Recent Woodland ; Woodland Continuity ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 1470-160X
    E-ISSN: 1872-7034
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, August 2018, Vol.22, pp.66-75
    Description: Sheet-bulk metal forming (SBMF) processes are characterized by a successive and/or simultaneous occurrence of different load conditions with regard to stress and strain states. These conditions significantly influence the material flow and thus the geometrical accuracy of the produced components. To improve the product quality a control of the material flow is required. A suitable approach is given by a local modification of the tribological conditions using surface modifications of tool or workpiece. To control the material flow, methods to adjust the friction are needed. Within the present study, microstructured workpiece surfaces to reduce the friction are investigated. The aim of the study is the determination of the tribological mechanisms of this kind of surface modifications. To identify the mechanisms a combined experimental and numerical approach was used. The use of such a combined approach revealed that the structure volume and the interaction between different types of structures significantly influence the friction reducing potential of microstructured workpiece surfaces.
    Keywords: Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming ; Tribology ; Surface Modification ; Surface Analysis ; Modelling ; Engineering
    ISSN: 1755-5817
    E-ISSN: 1878-0016
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Discrete Applied Mathematics, 30 January 2014, Vol.163, pp.101-101
    Keywords: Mathematics
    ISSN: 0166-218X
    E-ISSN: 1872-6771
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: NeuroImage, 01 August 2019, Vol.196, pp.114-125
    Description: The integration of sensory signals from different modalities requires flexible interaction of remote brain areas. One candidate mechanism to establish communication in the brain is transient synchronization of oscillatory neural signals. Although there is abundant evidence for the involvement of cortical oscillations in brain functions based on the analysis of local power, assessment of the phase dynamics among spatially distributed neuronal populations and their relevance for behavior is still sparse. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between remote brain areas by analyzing high-density electroencephalogram (EEG) data obtained from human participants engaged in a visuotactile pattern matching task. We deployed an approach for purely data-driven clustering of neuronal phase coupling in source space, which allowed imaging of large-scale functional networks in space, time and frequency without defining a priori constraints. Based on the phase coupling results, we further explored how brain areas interacted across frequencies by computing phase-amplitude coupling. Several networks of interacting sources were identified with our approach, synchronizing their activity within and across the theta (∼5 Hz), alpha (∼10 Hz), and beta (∼20 Hz) frequency bands and involving multiple brain areas that have previously been associated with attention and motor control. We demonstrate the functional relevance of these networks by showing that phase delays – in contrast to spectral power – were predictive of task performance. The data-driven analysis approach employed in the current study allowed an unbiased examination of functional brain networks based on EEG source level connectivity data. Showcased for multisensory processing, our results provide evidence that large-scale neuronal coupling is vital to long-range communication in the human brain and relevant for the behavioral outcome in a cognitive task.
    Keywords: Oscillations ; Multisensory ; EEG ; Phase Locking Value ; Phase Coupling ; Phase-Amplitude Coupling ; Attention ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1053-8119
    E-ISSN: 1095-9572
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