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  • Elsevier (CrossRef)  (24)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, September 2018, Vol.124, pp.168-178
    Description: Substantial amounts of organic matter are mobilized from upper soil layers during extreme precipitation events. This results in considerable fluxes of carbon from plant-associated topsoil to deeper mineral soil and to groundwater. Microbes constitute an important part of this mobile organic matter (MOM) pool. Previous work has shown that specific bacteria associated with the rhizosphere of decaying maize roots were selectively transported with seepage water upon snowmelt in winter. However, effective mechanisms of mobilization and also possible distinctions to microbial transport for living root systems remain poorly understood. In the present study, bacteria in seepage water were sampled from lysimeters at an experimental maize field after extreme rain events in summer. We show that a distinctive subset of rhizoplane-associated bacterial populations was mobilized after summer rain, especially including abundant members of the , representing a microbial conduit for fresh plant-derived carbon inputs into deeper soil layers. Marked distinctions of seepage communities were not observed between lysimeters with a different relative contribution of preferential vs. matrix flow. Time-resolved analyses of seepage water during an artificial rain event revealed temporal patterns in the mobilization of certain lineages, with members of the , , and preferentially mobilized in early and late seepage fractions, and members of the candidate phyla and mobilized mostly in intermediate fractions. While average bacterial cell counts were at ∼10  ml in seepage water, the recovery of amended fluorescently labeled cells of was low (0.2–0.6%) over seepage events. Still, mobilized bacteria clearly have the potential to influence bacterial activities and communities in subsoils. These findings demonstrate that dynamic hydraulic events must be considered for a better understanding of the connectivities between microbial populations and communities in soil, as well as of the links between distinct carbon pools over depth.
    Keywords: Natural Rain ; Artificial Rain ; Preferential Flow ; Seepage Water ; Soil Bacterial Communities ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 01 September 2018, Vol.325, pp.37-48
    Description: Organic particles including microorganisms are a significant fraction of the mobile organic matter (MOM) pool that contributes to initial pedogenesis. Still, the dynamics and the interplay of the multitude of processes that control the mobilization, transport, and retention of MOM are vastly unclear. We studied this interplay using an ‘artificial soil’ as model for a young, unstructured soil with defined initial composition employing a novel two-layer column experiment. The upstream layer was composed of a mixture of well-defined mineral phases, a sterile organic matter source and a diverse, natural microbial inoculant mimicking an organic-rich topsoil. The downstream layer, mimicking the subsoil, was composed of the mineral phases, only. Columns were run under water-unsaturated flow conditions with multiple flow interruptions to reflect natural flow regimes and to detect possible non-equilibrium processes. Pore system changes caused by flow were inspected by scanning electron microscopy and computed micro-tomography. MOM-related physicochemical effluent parameters and bacterial community diversity and abundance were assessed by molecular analysis of the effluent and the solid phase obtained after the long-term irrigation experiment (75 d). Tomographic data showed homogeneous packing of the fine-grained media (sandy loam). During flow, the initially single-grain structured artificial soil showed no connected macropores. In total, 6% of the initial top layer organic matter was mobile. The release and transport of particulate (1.2%) and dissolved organic matter (4.8%) including bacteria were controlled by non-equilibrium conditions. Bacterial cells were released and selectively transported to downstream layer resulting in a depth-dependent and selective establishment of bacterial communities in the previously sterile artificial soil. This study underlines the importance of bacterial transport from the surface or topsoil for colonization and maturation of downstream compartments. This initial colonization of pristine surfaces is the major step in forming biogeochemical interfaces - the prominent locations of intensive biological activity and element turnover that seem to play a major role for the functioning of soil.
    Keywords: Mobile Organic Matter ; Unsaturated Two-Layer Column Experiment ; Experimental Pedogenesis ; Artificial Soil ; Computed Micro-Tomography ; Molecular Analysis ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Biophysical Journal, 29 January 2013, Vol.104(2), pp.415a-416a
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0006-3495
    E-ISSN: 1542-0086
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Marine Systems, March 2017, Vol.167, pp.11-18
    Description: Large volume changes (LVCs) and major Baltic inflows (MBIs) are essential processes for the water exchange and renewal of the stagnant water in the Baltic Sea deep basins. These strong inflows are known to be forced by persistent westerly wind conditions. In this study, MBIs are considered as subset of LVCs transporting with the large water volume a big amount of highly saline and oxygenated water into the Baltic Sea. Since the early 1980s the frequency of MBIs has dropped drastically from 5 to 7 events to only one inflow per decade, and long lasting periods without MBIs became the usual state. Only in January 1993, 2003 and December 2014 MBIs occurred that were able to interrupt the stagnation periods in the deep basins of the Baltic Sea. However, in spite of the decreasing frequency of MBIs, there is no obvious decrease of LVCs. The Landsort sea level is known to reflect the mean sea level of the Baltic Sea very well, and hence LVCs have been calculated for the period 1887–2015 filtering daily time series of Landsort sea surface elevation anomalies. The cases with local minimum and maximum difference resulting in at least 60 km of water volume change excluding the volume change due to runoff have been chosen for a closer study (1948–2013) of characteristic pathways of deep cyclones. The average duration of LVCs is about 40 days. During this time, 5–6 deep cyclones move along characteristic storm tracks. Furthermore, MBIs are characterized by even higher cyclonic activity compared to average LVCs. We obtained four main routes of deep cyclones which were associated with LVCs, but also with the climatology. One is approaching from the west at about 56–60°N, passing the northern North Sea, northern Denmark, Sweden and the Island of Gotland. A second broad corridor of frequent cyclone pathways enters the study area north of Scotland between 60 and 66°N turning north-eastwards along the northern coast of Scandinavia. This branch bifurcates into smaller routes. One at about 62°N passing Oslo, southern Sweden and entering the central Baltic Sea, and another less frequent one at about 65°N, crossing Scandinavia south-eastwards passing the Sea of Bothnia and entering Finland. The conditions for LVCs to happen are temporal clustering of deep cyclones in certain trajectory corridors. We also found an increasing linear trend of the number of deep cyclones for the period 1950–2010.
    Keywords: Baltic Sea ; Major Baltic Inflows ; Large Volume Changes ; Cyclone Tracking ; Oceanography
    ISSN: 0924-7963
    E-ISSN: 1879-1573
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Microbiology, 09 November 2012, Vol.160(1-2), pp.43-52
    Description: Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (HM) are small, cell wall-less bacteria and infections are known for a wide range of animals. One possible indication of equine HM infection was given in 1978, when a ‘haemobartonellosis’ outbreak was diagnosed in Nigerian horses by microscopy. However the first molecular proof of HM in horses was not reported until 2010, when a fragment of about 900 bp of the 16S rRNA of the equine HM was obtained. This sequence was used for the development of a SYBR green I real-time PCR assay specific for equine HM. The lower detection limit of the PCR was ten 16S rDNA copy numbers per ml of blood. The newly designed assay was successfully applied for the detection and quantification of HM in horses in Germany. A high sample prevalence of 26.5% (95% CI: 18.8–35.5%) was found (31 out of 117 horses). The mean bacterial load was 1.10 × 10 16S rDNA copy number/ml blood (range: minimum 1.05 × 10 , maximum 1.27 × 10 ). Equine HM were also detected by microscopy (Giemsa and acridine orange stained blood smears), but results do not correlate very well with PCR results, as microscopy proved rather unspecific and not sensitive. In horses younger than one year, a significant correlation between PCR positive status and anemia was found. No correlation was found in PCR-positive animals older than one year. Therefore we assume that HM infection has a higher clinical relevance in young animals.
    Keywords: Hemotrophic Mycoplasma ; Horse ; Anemia ; Real-Time Pcr ; Sybr Green ; Prevalence ; Microscopic Diagnostic ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 0378-1135
    E-ISSN: 1873-2542
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, December 2014, Vol.47(2), pp.254-263
    Description: Polymorph-nuclear neutrophils (PMN) in cattle exhibit unique features when compared to human or murine PMN and are of particular interest concerning the risk of post-partum mammary gland or extra-mammary infections related to the periparturient suppression of neutrophil functions. Former studies could show that effects of IL-2 on innate immune cells such as PMN were mediated by the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) β and γ chains. In the current study we could detect IL-2Rα (CD25) expression on bovine PMN using flow-cytometric analysis. CD25 was detected on granulocytes from post-partum and early lactating cows with different inflammatory conditions. The expression of CD25 on PMN in blood and raw milk increased with disease severity. Our results suggest CD25 expression on PMN as a potential biomarker for acute infections in cattle. Furthermore, our data provide a basis to better understanding of the periparturient functional suppressions of PMN that might reveal new molecular targets for therapy or prevention of disease.
    Keywords: Cd25 ; Interleukin-2 Receptor ; Pmn ; Bovine Neutrophil ; Biomarker ; Medicine ; Biology
    ISSN: 0145-305X
    E-ISSN: 1879-0089
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Cell, 2010, Vol.38(6), pp.879-888
    Description: The proteasome, the central protease of eukaryotic cells, is composed of one core particle (CP) and one or two adjacent regulatory particles (RP), which contain multiple subunits. Several proteasome-dedicated chaperones govern the assembly of CP and RP, respectively. We sought for proteins that regulate final steps of RP-CP assembly in yeast and found Ecm29, a conserved HEAT-like repeat protein. Here, we show that Ecm29 controls the integrity of RP-CP assemblies. Ecm29 recognizes RP-CP species in which CP maturation is stalled due to the lack of distinct β subunits. Reconstitution assays revealed that Ecm29 functions as scaffold protein during the remodeling of incompletely matured RP-CP assemblies into regular enzymes. Upon the completion of CP maturation, Ecm29 is degraded and RP-CP is dissociated. ► Ecm29 controls the assembly of proteasomal core (CP) and regulatory (RP) particles ► Ecm29 binds RP-CP configured proteasomes with incompletely matured proteasomes ► In vitro Ecm29-bound proteasomes can be remodeled into regular enzymes
    Keywords: Proteins ; Biology
    ISSN: 1097-2765
    E-ISSN: 1097-4164
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Microbiology, 2010, Vol.144(3), pp.525-526
    Keywords: Mycoplasma Wenyonii ; Candidatus Mycoplasma Haemobos ; Eperythrozoonteganodes ; Eperythrozoon Tuomii ; Haemobartonella Bovis ; Cattle ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 0378-1135
    E-ISSN: 1873-2542
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: New BIOTECHNOLOGY, July 2014, Vol.31, pp.S218-S218
    Keywords: Engineering ; Biology
    ISSN: 1871-6784
    E-ISSN: 1876-4347
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Microbiology, 25 February 2015, Vol.175(2-4), pp.167-178
    Description: Cats persistently infected with the gammaretrovirus feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are at risk to die within months to years from FeLV-associated disease, such as immunosuppression, anemia or lymphoma/leukemia. The integrase inhibitor raltegravir has been demonstrated to reduce FeLV replication . The aim of the present study was to investigate raltegravir for its safety and efficacy to suppress FeLV replication. The safety was tested in three naïve specified pathogen-free (SPF) cats during a 15 weeks treatment period (initially 20 mg then 40 mg orally b.i.d.). No adverse effects were noted. The efficacy was tested in seven persistently FeLV-infected SPF cats attained from 18 cats experimentally exposed to FeLV-A/Glasgow-1. The seven cats were treated during nine weeks (40 mg then 80 mg b.i.d.). Raltegravir was well tolerated even at the higher dose. A significant decrease in plasma viral RNA loads (∼5×) was found; however, after treatment termination a rebound effect was observed. Only one cat developed anti-FeLV antibodies and viral RNA loads remained decreased after treatment termination. Of note, one of the untreated FeLV-A infected cats developed fatal FeLV-C associated anemia within 5 weeks of FeLV-A infection. Moreover, progressive FeLV infection was associated with significantly lower enFeLV loads prior to infection supporting that FeLV susceptibility may be related to the genetic background of the cat. Overall, our data demonstrate the ability of raltegravir to reduce viral replication also . However, no complete control of viremia was achieved. Further investigations are needed to find an optimized treatment against FeLV. (250 words)
    Keywords: Feline Leukemia Virus ; Retrovirus ; Viral Loads ; Antiretroviral Therapy ; Immune Response, Raltegravir ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 0378-1135
    E-ISSN: 1873-2542
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