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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 01 January 2019, Vol.333, pp.149-162
    Description: The capacity of soils to store organic carbon represents a key function of soils that is not only decisive for climate regulation but also affects other soil functions. Recent efforts to assess the impact of land management on soil functionality proposed that an indicator- or proxy-based approach is a promising alternative to quantify soil functions compared to time- and cost-intensive measurements, particularly when larger regions are targeted. The objective of this review is to identify measurable biotic or abiotic properties that control soil organic carbon (SOC) storage at different spatial scales and could serve as indicators for an efficient quantification of SOC. These indicators should enable both an estimation of actual SOC storage as well as a prediction of the SOC storage potential, which is an important aspect in land use and management planning. There are many environmental conditions that affect SOC storage at different spatial scales. We provide a thorough overview of factors from micro-scales (particles to pedons) to the global scale and discuss their suitability as indicators for SOC storage: clay mineralogy, specific surface area, metal oxides, Ca and Mg cations, microorganisms, soil fauna, aggregation, texture, soil type, natural vegetation, land use and management, topography, parent material and climate. As a result, we propose a set of indicators that allow for time- and cost-efficient estimates of actual and potential SOC storage from the local to the regional and subcontinental scale. As a key element, the fine mineral fraction was identified to determine SOC stabilization in most soils. The quantification of SOC can be further refined by including climatic proxies, particularly elevation, as well as information on land use, soil management and vegetation characteristics. To enhance its indicative power towards land management effects, further “functional soil characteristics”, particularly soil structural properties and changes in the soil microbial biomass pool should be included in this indicator system. The proposed system offers the potential to efficiently estimate the SOC storage capacity by means of simplified measures, such as soil fractionation procedures or infrared spectroscopic approaches.
    Keywords: Clay Mineralogy ; Specific Surface Area ; Metal Oxides ; Microorganisms ; Soil Fauna ; Soil Aggregation ; Soil Texture ; Soil Type ; Natural Vegetation ; Land Use and Management ; Topography ; Parent Material ; Climate ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Mutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 2001, Vol.480, pp.129-138
    Description: This article gives a short overview on the present state of knowledge of the effects of the intestinal microflora on the health hazards of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs). Results of single cell gel electrophoresis assays with conventional, germ free and human flora associated rats indicate that the presence of intestinal microorganisms strongly enhances the induction of DNA-damage in colon and liver cells by IQ. Furthermore, it was found that supplementation of the feed with Lactobacilli attenuates the induction of colon cancer by this same amine. These recent findings suggest that the intestinal microflora and lactic acid bacilli in dairy products strongly affect the health risks of HAs. Nevertheless, most previous experiments with HAs focused on the involvement of mammalian enzymes in the biotransformation of these compounds and only a few articles are available which concern interactions of bacteria with HAs. Some of these studies suggested that the formation of directly mutagenic hydroxy-metabolites of the amines by fecal bacteria might be an important activation pathway but it turned out that the hydroxy-derivative of IQ is not genotoxic in mammalian cells and does not cause colon cancer in laboratory rodents. There is some evidence that hydrolysis of HA-metabolites by bacterial ß-glucuronidase might play a role in the activation of HAs but experimental data are scarce and no firm conclusions can be drawn at present. The most important detoxification mechanism appears to be the direct binding of the HAs to the cell walls of certain bacterial strains contained in fermented foods. It was shown that these effects do also take place under physiologically relevant conditions. Overall, it seems that intestinal bacteria play a key role in the activation and detoxification of HAs which has been an area of research long ignored. The elucidation of these mechanisms may enable the development of biomarkers for colon cancer risk and nutritional strategies of protection.
    Keywords: Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines ; Genotoxicity ; Carcinogenicity ; Intestinal Bacteria ; Lactic Bacilli ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0027-5107
    E-ISSN: 1873-135X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Mutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 2001, Vol.480, pp.285-297
    Description: Epidemiological studies give evidence that cruciferous vegetables (CF) protect humans against cancer, and also results from animal experiments show that they reduce chemically induced tumor formation. These properties have been attributed to alterations in the metabolism of carcinogens by breakdown products of glucosinolates, which are constituents of CF. The present article gives an overview on the present state of knowledge on the impact of CF and their constituents on enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of DNA-reactive carcinogens. The development of in vitro models with metabolically competent cell lines led to the detection of potent enzyme inducers contained in CF such as sulforaphane. Recently, we showed that Brassica juices induce glutathione- S -transferases (GST) and cytochrome P-450 1A2 in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and protect against the genotoxic effects of B(a)P and other carcinogens. Earlier in vivo experiments with rodents indicated that indoles and isothiocyanates, two major groups of glucosinolate breakdown products, attenuate the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrosamines via induction of GST and inhibition of cytochrome-P450 isoenzymes, respectively. Our own investigations showed that CF are also protective towards heterocyclic amines (HAs): Brussels sprouts- and garden cress juices attenuated IQ-induced DNA-damage and preneoplastic lesions in colon and liver of rats. These effects were paralleled by induction of uridine-di-phospho-glucuronosyl transferase (UDPGT) which is very probably the mechanism of protection against HAs by cruciferous vegetables. There is also evidence that consumption of CF might protect humans against cancer. In matched control intervention studies with these vegetables, it was shown that they induce GST-activities in humans but overall, results were inconclusive. Recently, we carried out crossover intervention studies and found pronounced GST-induction upon consumption of Brussels sprouts and red cabbage, whereas no effects were seen with white cabbage and broccoli. Furthermore, we found that the isoenzyme induced was GST-π which plays an important role in protection against breast, bladder, colon and testicular cancer. No induction of the GST-α isoform could be detected. Urinary mutagenicity experiments gave further evidence that CF affect drug metabolism in humans. Consumption of red cabbage led to changes in the pattern of meat-derived urinary mutagenicity. Overall, CF are among the most promising chemopreventive dietary constituents and further elucidation of their protective mechanisms and the identification of active constituents may contribute to the development of highly protective Brassica varieties.
    Keywords: Cruciferous Vegetables ; Chemoprevention ; Enzymes ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0027-5107
    E-ISSN: 1873-135X
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