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  • Elsevier (CrossRef)  (175)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Water Research, 2011, Vol.45(13), pp.3999-4007
    Description: Ozone application is an effective tool to reduce loads of (micro)pollutants in wastewater, however, its ecotoxicological implications are largely unknown. Therefore, the feeding rates of a leaf-shredding invertebrate ( ) exposed to secondary (=non-ozone) or ozone treated wastewater were investigated to assess potential ecotoxicological effects. Two repetitive experiments resulted in significantly higher feeding rates for gammarids exposed to ozone compared to non-ozone treated wastewater sampled from a treatment plant equipped with a full-scale ozonation. A further experiment confirmed these results also for wastewater from the same treatment plant, when ozonation was conducted at the lab-scale. However, the deviations in dissolved organic carbon profiles of ozone and non-ozone wastewater did not seem to be the driving factor for the effects observed. Two additional experiments displayed on the one hand a higher feeding rate of if exposed to ten-fold enriched eluates from solid phase extraction cartridges loaded with ozone compared to non-ozone treated wastewater. On the other hand, the mean feeding rate of gammarids exposed to non-ozone treated wastewater, which contained hardly any (micro)pollutants (i.e. pharmaceuticals), was at the same level as wastewater from the same source additionally treated with ozone. These results suggest that not an alteration in the organic matrix but a reduction in the load of micropollutants most likely triggered the effects in the bioassay applied. Hence, the feeding rate of appears to be a well-suited bioassay to indicate alterations in ecotoxicological properties of wastewater due to the application of advanced oxidation processes like ozonation. ► Ozonation of municipal wastewater reduces ecotoxicity for gammarids. ► Alteration in organic matrix caused by ozonation did not affect gammarids. ► Loads of micropollutants seem to trigger the effects in the feeding assay. ► Feeding assays suggest to be suitable to evaluate advance oxidation techniques.
    Keywords: Pharmaceuticals ; Ozone ; By-Products ; Solid Phase Extraction ; Gammarus ; Feeding Assay ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0043-1354
    E-ISSN: 1879-2448
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, July 2013, Vol.92(5), pp.483-489
    Description: ► The invasive aquatic amphipod is more tolerant to lambda-cyhalothrin than the native one. ► Predation success on Baetis nymphs is substantially higher for than ► may contribute substantially to leaf litter decomposition. Invasive species are considered as one of the major threats for biodiversity worldwide. The Ponto-Caspian species , for instance, spread throughout continental Europe and was recorded for the first time also within Lake Constance in 2003. Although is a highly competitive species it was not capable of replacing the native completely in this ecosystem, especially in the riparian zones of the highly agriculturally used island “Reichenau”. As differences in pesticide sensitivity between both amphipod species may explain their distribution, the present study assessed the implication of the highly toxic pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin, which is authorized for application in the Lake Constance region, assuming the invasive species being more sensitive than the native one. However, both the feeding activity bioassays, which measured the leaf consumption over 7 d ( = 20), as well as the predation bioassay, which measured the predation rate upon nymphs in concert with the feeding activity on leaf material over 96 h ( = 13), revealed an up to 5-fold higher tolerance of towards lambda-cyhalothrin. These results suggest the investigated insecticide not being the trigger for the observed distribution pattern of both amphipod species. Hence, other factors like the diversity of habitat structures or the levels of ammonia may have facilitated the coexistence. Nevertheless, the present study uncovered a high leaf-shredding efficacy of the invasive species suggesting that its role in the leaf decomposition process may have been underestimated in the past.
    Keywords: Functional Feeding Group ; Insecticide ; Leaf Litter Decomposition ; Ecosystem Function ; Predator–Prey Interaction ; Freshwater Biodiversity ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 2010, Vol.408(22), pp.5405-5413
    Description: The implementation of a geodata-based probabilistic pesticide exposure assessment for surface waters in Germany offers the opportunity to base the exposure estimation on more differentiated assumptions including detailed landscape characteristics. Since these characteristics can only be estimated using field surveys, water body width and depth, hydrology, riparian buffer strip width, ground vegetation cover, existence of concentrated flow paths, and riparian vegetation were characterised at 104 water body segments in the vineyard region Palatinate (south-west Germany). Water body segments classified as permanent (n = 43) had median values of water body width and depth of 0.9 m and 0.06 m, respectively, and the determined median width:depth ratio was 15. Thus, the deterministic water body model (width = 1 m; depth = 0.3 m) assumed in regulatory exposure assessment seems unsuitable for small water bodies in the study area. Only 25% of investigated buffer strips had a dense vegetation cover (〉 70%) and allow a laminar sheet flow as required to include them as an effective pesticide runoff reduction landscape characteristic. At 77 buffer strips, bordering field paths and erosion rills leading into the water body were present, concentrating pesticide runoff and consequently decreasing buffer strip efficiency. The vegetation type shrubbery (height 〉 1.5 m) was present at 57 (29%) investigated riparian buffer strips. According to their median optical vegetation density of 75%, shrubberies may provide a spray drift reduction of 72 ± 29%. Implementing detailed knowledge in an overall assessment revealed that exposure via drift might be 2.4 and via runoff up to 1.6 fold higher than assumed by the deterministic approach. Furthermore, considering vegetated buffer strips only by their width leads to an underestimation of exposure by a factor of as much as four. Our data highlight that the deterministic model assumptions neither represent worst-case nor median values and therefore cannot simply be adopted in a probabilistic approach.
    Keywords: Probabilistic Exposure Assessment ; Pesticide ; Exposure ; Riparian Buffer Strips ; Field Survey ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 2012, Vol.146(1), pp.81-92
    Description: ► We found fungicides frequently in-stream, also in community-relevant concentrations. ► Median copper concentrations in water and sediment were 5.4 μg l and 32.3 mg kg dw. ► Runoff transport via field paths reduced pesticide reduction capacity of buffers. ► In-stream pesticide spectrum was clearly attributed to entries via erosion rills. ► Vegetated field paths or wetlands are suggested to reduce entries via erosion rills. The present study was performed to characterise in-stream pesticide exposure within the Palatinate vineyard region in south-west Germany, evaluate the influence of buffer strip widths and identify mitigation measures for the relevant entry pathways. In-stream water and sediment samples that were taken at nine sampling sites of different buffer widths following intense rainfall, and edge-of-field runoff that were sampled in erosion rills were analysed regarding 28 active ingredients of pesticides including copper. In-stream samples contained a mix of 8 ± 4 pesticide compounds, resulting in total pesticide concentrations of 1.4–8.9 μg l for water and 16–670 μg kg dw for sediment. Following an exceptional rainfall event with a previous 34-day drought period, pesticide concentrations reached 7.0–83.4 μg l . Fungicides were the most important pesticides found and were significantly correlated with the pesticide application frequency and rate. The calculated toxicity values per sample (TU ) indicated that both organic pesticides and copper concentrations likely cause ecotoxicological effects in the field. The buffer strip width was of little importance for pesticide in-stream concentrations because pesticide entry occurred mainly via the field path network and erosion rills. Pesticide in-stream concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with the concentrations detected in erosion rills ( = 0.56). As possible risk mitigation measures, we suggest the implementation of grassed field paths and vegetated ditches or wetlands.
    Keywords: Fungicide ; Copper ; Buffer Strips ; Surface Water ; Monitoring ; Exposure ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 October 2018, Vol.639, pp.516-525
    Description: The decades-long agricultural use of insecticides resulted in frequent contamination of surface waters globally regularly posing high risks for the aquatic biodiversity. However, the concentration levels of individual insecticide compounds have by now not been compiled and reported using global scale data, hampering our knowledge on the insecticide exposure of aquatic ecosystems. Here, we specify measured insecticide concentrations (MICs, comprising in total 11,300 water and sediment concentrations taken from a previous publication) for 28 important insecticide compounds covering four major insecticide classes. Results show that organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides, which dominated the global insecticide market for decades, have been detected most often and at highest concentration levels in surface waters globally. In comparison, MICs of the more recent pyrethroids and neonicotinoids were less often reported and generally at lower concentrations as a result of their later market introduction and lower application rates. An online insecticide classification calculator (ICC; available at: ) is provided in order to enable the comparison and classification of prospective MICs with available global insecticide concentrations. Spatial analyses of existing data show that most MICs were reported for surface waters in North America, Asia and Europe, whereas highest concentration levels were detected in Africa, Asia and South America. An evaluation of water and sediment MICs showed that theoretical organic carbon-water partition coefficients (K ) determined in the laboratory overestimated K values based on actual field concentrations by up to a factor of more than 20, with highest deviations found for highly sorptive pyrethroids. Overall, the comprehensive compilation of insecticide field concentrations presented here is a valuable tool for the classification of future surface water monitoring results and serves as important input data for more field relevant toxicity testing approaches and pesticide exposure and risk assessment schemes.
    Keywords: Pesticides ; Surface Water Exposure ; Monitoring ; Global Survey ; Koc ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 September 2018, Vol.635, pp.687-698
    Description: The aquatic environment is strongly connected to the surrounding agricultural landscapes, which regularly serve as sources of stressors such as agrochemicals. Genetically modified crops, which are cultivated on a large scale in many countries, may also act as stressors. Despite the commercial use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for over 20 years, their impact on the aquatic environment came into focus only 10 years ago. We present the status quo of the available scientific data in order to provide an input for informed aquatic risk assessment of GMOs. We could identify only 39 publications, including 84 studies, dealing with GMOs in the aquatic environment, and our analysis shows substantial knowledge gaps. The available information is restricted to a small number of crop plants, traits, events, and test organisms. The analysis of effect studies reveals that only a narrow range of organisms has been tested and that studies on combinatorial actions of stressors are virtually absent. The analysis of fate studies shows that many aspects, such as the fate of leached toxins, degradation of plant material, and distribution of crop residues in the aquatic habitat, are insufficiently investigated. Together with these research needs, we identify standardization of test methods as an issue of high priority, both for research and risk assessment needed for GMO regulation.
    Keywords: Genetically Modified Crops ; Aquatic Ecosystems ; Environmental Risk Assessment ; Non-Target Effects ; Bt Toxin ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 December 2015, Vol.538, pp.246-261
    Description: Terrestrial inputs into freshwater ecosystems are a classical field of environmental science. Resource fluxes (subsidy) from aquatic to terrestrial systems have been less studied, although they are of high ecological relevance particularly for the receiving ecosystem. These fluxes may, however, be impacted by anthropogenically driven alterations modifying structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we reviewed the peer-reviewed literature for studies addressing the subsidy of terrestrial by aquatic ecosystems with special emphasis on the role that anthropogenic alterations play in this water–land coupling. Our analysis revealed a continuously increasing interest in the coupling of aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems between 1990 and 2014 (total: 661 studies), while the research domains focusing on abiotic (502 studies) and biotic (159 studies) processes are strongly separated. Approximately 35% (abiotic) and 25% (biotic) of the studies focused on the propagation of anthropogenic alterations from the aquatic to the terrestrial system. Among these studies, hydromorphological and hydrological alterations were predominantly assessed, whereas water pollution and invasive species were less frequently investigated. Less than 5% of these studies considered indirect effects in the terrestrial system e.g. via food web responses, as a result of anthropogenic alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, these very few publications indicate far-reaching consequences in the receiving terrestrial ecosystem. For example, bottom-up mediated responses via soil quality can cascade over plant communities up to the level of herbivorous arthropods, while top-down mediated responses via predatory spiders can cascade down to herbivorous arthropods and even plants. Overall, the current state of knowledge calls for an integrated assessment on how these interactions within terrestrial ecosystems are affected by propagation of aquatic ecosystem alterations. To fill these gaps, we propose a scientific framework, which considers abiotic and biotic aspects based on an interdisciplinary approach.
    Keywords: Aquatic–Terrestrial Subsidies ; Flood Events ; Hot Moments ; Hot Spots ; Biogeochemical Processes ; Environmental Chemicals ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, 2012, Vol.167, pp.41-46
    Description: Neonicotinoid insecticides like thiacloprid enter agricultural surface waters, where they may affect predator prey-interactions, which are of central importance for ecosystems as well as the functions these systems provide. The effects of field relevant thiacloprid concentrations on the leaf consumption...
    Keywords: Other Biological Topics ; Annan Biologi
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 18736424
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2011, Vol.82(3), pp.355-361
    Description: Advanced oxidation technologies such as ozonation have been proposed to improve removal efficiency of micropollutants during wastewater treatment. In a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed literature, we found no ecotoxicological effects of wastewater ozonation on invertebrates ( = 82), but significant adverse effects on bacteria ( = 24) and fish ( = 5). As information on functional endpoints or trophic interactions is lacking, we applied a bioassay relating to leaf litter decomposition to fill this gap. Leaf discs exposed to ozone-treated wastewater with a high (1.04 mg O (mg DOC) , = 49) ozone concentration were significantly preferred by an aquatic detritivore, , over discs conditioned in wastewater not treated with ozone. This effect might have been mediated by reduced bacterial and elevated fungal biomass, and appears to be the first demonstration of wastewater ozonation impacts on invertebrates and an associated ecosystem process. In accordance with the food-choice trials, chemical analyses revealed significantly decreased concentrations of organic micropollutants in wastewater treated with ozone at high concentrations. Thus, food-choice trials as applied here hold promise to assess environmental effects of advanced oxidation technologies in wastewater treatment and appear to be a valuable complement to the ecotoxicological toolbox in general.
    Keywords: Food Choice ; Indirect Effects ; Gammaridae ; Litter Decomposition ; Biocides ; Psychoactive Drugs ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2011, Vol.192(2), pp.772-778
    Description: ► Meta-analysis displays reduced toxicity of wastewater due to activated carbon or ozone. ► Groups of species (invertebrates) react different than others (e.g. bacteria). ► Purification via SPE may overestimate the detoxification potential. ► bioassays showed reduced ecotoxicity due to activated carbon, ozone and TiO and UV. ► Activated carbon adsorbs nutrients, which may jeopardize any positive effect of this technique. Advanced treatment techniques, like ozone, activated carbon and TiO in combination with UV, are proposed to improve removal efficiency of micropollutants during wastewater treatment. In a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed literature, we found significantly reduced overall ecotoxicity of municipal wastewaters treated with either ozone ( = 667) or activated carbon (=113), while TiO and UV was not yet assessed. As comparative investigations regarding the detoxification potential of these advanced treatment techniques in municipal wastewater are scarce, we assessed them in four separate -feeding trials with 20 replicates per treatment. These bioassays indicate that ozone concentrations of approximately 0.8 mg ozone/mg DOC may produce toxic transformation products. However, referred effects are removed if higher ozone concentrations are used (1.3 mg ozone/mg DOC). Moreover, the application of 1 g TiO /l and ambient UV consistently reduced ecotoxicity. Although activated carbon may remove besides micropollutants also nutrients, which seemed to mask its detoxification potential, this treatment technique reduced the ecotoxicity of the wastewater following its amendment with nutrients. Hence, all three advanced treatment techniques are suitable to reduce the ecotoxicity of municipal wastewater mediated by micropollutants and may hence help to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive.
    Keywords: Meta-Analysis ; Feeding Rate ; Wastewater ; Advanced Oxidation ; Activated Carbon ; Engineering ; Law
    ISSN: 0304-3894
    E-ISSN: 1873-3336
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