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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 10 January 2019, Vol.647, pp.1573-1585
    Description: Forest soils represent a large carbon pool and already small changes in this pool may have an important effect on the global carbon cycle. To predict the future development of the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool, well-validated models are needed. We applied the litter and soil carbon model Yasso15 to 1838 plots of the German national forest soil inventory (NFSI) for the period between 1985 and 2014 to enables a direct comparison to the NFSI measurements. In addition, to provide data for the German Greenhouse Gas Inventory, we simulated the development of SOC with Yasso15 applying a climate projection based on the RCP8.5 scenario. The initial model-calculated SOC stocks were adjusted to the measured ones in the NFSI. On average, there were no significant differences between the simulated SOC changes (0.25 ± 0.10 Mg C ha  a ) and the NFSI data (0.39 ± 0.11 Mg C ha  a ). Comparing regional soil-unit-specific aggregates of the SOC changes, the correlation between both methods was significant (r  = 0.49) although the NFSI values had a wider range and more negative values. In the majority of forest types, representing 75% of plots, both methods produced similar estimates of the SOC balance. Opposite trends were found in mountainous coniferous forests on acidic soils. These soils had lost carbon according to the NFSI (−0.89 ± 0.30 Mg C ha  a ) whereas they had gained it according to Yasso15 (0.21 ± 0.10 Mg C ha  a ). In oligotrophic pine forests, the NFSI indicated high SOC gains (1.36 ± 0.17 Mg C ha  a ) and Yasso15 much smaller (0.29 ± 0.10 Mg C ha  a ). According to our results, German forest soils are a large carbon sink. The application of the Yasso15 model supports the results of the NFSI. The sink strength differs between forest types possibly because of differences in organic matter stabilisation.
    Keywords: Soil Carbon Changes ; Soil Organic Carbon ; Climate ; Soil Inventory ; Yasso15 ; Litter and Soil Carbon Model ; Temperate Forests ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Quaternary International, 17 July 2012, Vol.266, pp.131-141
    Description: An early to mid-Holocene humid period has been inferred from a variety of geo-bio-archives of the Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula including sabkhas, palaeo-lakes, sand dunes, wadis, speleothems or marine sediments. On the Arabian Peninsula, most of these records are located in the southern and southeastern part. Studies from the northern part are rare. This paper presents the first results from palaeo-environmental and hydrological investigations on the sabkha basin of the Tayma oasis, northwestern Saudi Arabia. Sedimentary characteristics, micro- and macrofauna, a digital elevation model based on DGPS measurements, and C-AMS data indicate the presence of a perennial lake with a minimum depth of 13 m, a stored water volume of 1.16 × 10  m and a surface of 18.45 km between 10,000–9000 cal BP. Foraminiferal test malformations and the shape of sieve pores on ostracod valves were used to detect trends in palaeo-salinity and ecological stress conditions. The reconstructed gradual contraction of the lake at least after 8500 cal BP reflects the long-term aridisation trend on the Arabian Peninsula after the early Holocene. Based on the hydrological water balance equation, quantitative data on minimum palaeo-rainfall during the early Holocene humid period were calculated. Input parameters for the equation are the minimum lake level, lake surface, and lake volume during the peak of the early Holocene humid period as well as palaeo-evapotranspiration, groundwater infiltration, and surface runoff. Accordingly, a perennial lake in the endorheic basin of the modern sabkha with a lake level at the same elevation as the uppermost shoreline deposit would have required a minimum annual precipitation of 150 ± 25 mm. This value amounts to c. 300% of recent precipitation rates.
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 1040-6182
    E-ISSN: 1873-4553
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Cellular Signalling, February 2015, Vol.27(2), pp.373-381
    Description: The Hedgehog pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several tumor types, including esophageal cancer. In our study, we show an expression of the ligand Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and its downstream mediator Gli-1 in primary resected adenocarcinoma tissue by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR in fifty percent of the cases, while matching healthy esophagus mucosa was negative for both proteins. Moreover, a functionally important regulation of Gli-1 by ErbB2–PI3K–mTORC signaling as well as a Gli-1-dependent regulation of Ihh in the ErbB2 amplified esophageal adenocarcinoma cell line OE19 was observed. Treatment of OE19 cells with the Her2 antibody trastuzumab, the PI3K–mTORC1 inhibitor NVP BEZ235 (BEZ235) or the knockdown of Akt1 resulted in a downregulation of Gli-1 and Ihh as well as in a reduction of viable OE19 cells . Interestingly, the Hedgehog receptor Smo, which acts upstream of Gli-1, was not expressed in OE19 cells and in the majority of primary human esophageal adenocarcinoma, suggesting a non-canonical upregulation of Gli-1 expression by the ErbB2–PI3K axis. To translate our findings into a therapeutic concept, we targeted ErbB2–PI3K–mTORC1 by trastuzumab and BEZ235, combining both compounds with the Gli-1/2 inhibitor GANT61. The triple combination led to significantly stronger reduction of tumor cell viability than cisplatinum or each biological alone. Therefore, concomitant blockage of the ErbB2–PI3K pathway and the Hedgehog downstream mediator Gli-1 may provide a new therapeutic strategy for esophageal cancer.
    Keywords: Esophageal Cancer ; Hedgehog ; Gli ; Non-Canonical ; Erbb2–Akt ; Biology
    ISSN: 0898-6568
    E-ISSN: 1873-3913
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