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  • Elsevier (CrossRef)  (14)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 December 2015, Vol.536, pp.1045-1051
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.064 Byline: Martin Wiesmeier [wiesmeier@wzw.tum.de] (a,*), Rico Hubner (b), Ingrid Kogel-Knabner (a,c) Keywords Soil organic carbon; Climate change; Net primary productivity; Soil C input Highlights * C stocks in agricultural soils may be largely affected by climate change. * It is assumed that C stocks would increase due to an assumed increase of NPP. * However, crop statistics indicate stagnating yields of major crops since the 1990s. * Concurrently stagnating C inputs would lead to C decreases in the long-term. * Indications for declining agricultural C stocks were already found. Abstract The carbon (C) balance of agricultural soils may be largely affected by climate change. Increasing temperatures are discussed to cause a loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) due to enhanced decomposition of soil organic matter, which has a high intrinsic temperature sensitivity. On the other hand, several modeling studies assumed that potential SOC losses would be compensated or even outperformed by an increased C input by crop residues into agricultural soils. This assumption was based on a predicted general increase of net primary productivity (NPP) as a result of the CO.sub.2 fertilization effect and prolonged growing seasons. However, it is questionable if the crop C input into agricultural soils can be derived from NPP predictions of vegetation models. The C input in European croplands is largely controlled by the agricultural management and was strongly related to the development of crop yields in the last decades. Thus, a glance at past yield development will probably be more instructive for future estimations of the C input than previous modeling approaches based on NPP predictions. An analysis of European yield statistics indicated that yields of wheat, barley and maize are stagnating in Central and Northern Europe since the 1990s. The stagnation of crop yields can probably be related to a fundamental change of the agricultural management and to climate change effects. It is assumed that the soil C input is concurrently stagnating which would necessarily lead to a decrease of agricultural SOC stocks in the long-term given a constant temperature increase. Remarkably, for almost all European countries that are faced with yield stagnation indications for agricultural SOC decreases were already found. Potentially adverse effects of yield stagnation on the C balance of croplands call for an interdisciplinary investigation of its causes and a comprehensive monitoring of SOC stocks in agricultural soils of Europe. Author Affiliation: (a) Lehrstuhl fur Bodenkunde, Department fur Okologie und Okosystemmanagement, Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan fur Ernahrung, Landnutzung und Umwelt, Technische Universitat Munchen, 85350 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany (b) Lehrstuhl fur Strategie und Management der Landschaftsentwicklung, Department fur Okologie und Okosystemmanagement, Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan fur Ernahrung, Landnutzung und Umwelt, Technische Universitat Munchen, 85350 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany (c) Institute for Advanced Study, Technische Universitat Munchen, Lichtenbergstr. 2a, 85748 Garching, Germany * Corresponding author. Article History: Received 23 April 2015; Revised 12 July 2015; Accepted 13 July 2015 (miscellaneous) Editor: D. Barcelo
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon ; Climate Change ; Net Primary Productivity ; Soil C Input ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 01 May 2013, Vol.295, pp.162-172
    Description: ► SOC storage and its drivers of different forest types in Bavaria were investigated. ► No SOC differences were found between broadleaf, coniferous and mixed forests. ► Temperature and precipitation controlled total SOC storage in forests. ► No decrease of mineral SOC of broadleaf/mixed forests in regions with high temperatures. ► Incorporation of broadleaf species to prevent future SOC losses of coniferous forests. Temperate forest soils of central Europe are regarded as important pools for soil organic carbon (SOC) and thought to have a high potential for carbon (C) sequestration. However, comprehensive data on total SOC storage, particularly under different forest types, and its drivers is limited. In this study, we analyzed a forest data set of 596 completely sampled soil profiles down to the parent material or to a depth of 1 m within Bavaria in southeast Germany in order to determine representative SOC stocks under different forest types in central Europe and the impact of different environmental parameters. We calculated a total median SOC stock of 9.8 kg m which is considerably lower compared with many other inventories within central Europe that used modelled instead of measured soil properties. Statistical analyses revealed climate as controlling parameter for the storage of SOC with increasing stocks in cool, humid mountainous regions and a strong decrease in areas with higher temperatures. No significant differences of total SOC storage were found between broadleaf, coniferous and mixed forests. However, coniferous forests stored around 35% of total SOC in the labile organic layer that is prone to human disturbance, forest fires and rising temperatures. In contrast, mixed and broadleaf forests stored the major part of SOC in the mineral soil. Moreover, these two forest types showed unchanged or even slightly increased mineral SOC stocks with higher temperatures, whereas SOC stocks in mineral soils under coniferous forest were distinctly lower. We conclude that mixed and broadleaf forests are more advantageous for C sequestration than coniferous forests. An intensified incorporation of broadleaf species in extent coniferous forests of Bavaria would prevent substantial SOC losses as a result of rising temperatures in the course of climate change.
    Keywords: Tree Species Effect ; Soil Organic Matter ; Climate Change ; Forest Management ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 15 August 2013, Vol.176, pp.39-52
    Description: Agricultural soils have a high potential for sequestration of atmospheric carbon due to their volume and several promising management options. However, there is a remarkable lack of information about the of organic carbon in agricultural soils. In this study a comprehensive data set of 384 cropland soils and 333 grassland soils within the state of Bavaria in southeast Germany was analyzed in order to provide representative information on total amount, regional distribution and driving parameters of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (N) in agricultural soils of central Europe. The results showed that grassland soils stored higher amounts of SOC (11.8 kg m ) and N (0.92 kg m ) than cropland soils (9.0 and 0.66 kg m , respectively) due to moisture-induced accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM) in B horizons. Surprisingly, no distinct differences were found for the A horizons since tillage led to a relocation of SOM with depth in cropland soils. Statistical analyses of driving factors for SOM storage revealed soil moisture, represented by the topographic wetness index (TWI), as the most important parameter for both cropland and grassland soils. Climate effects (mean annual temperature and precipitation) were of minor importance in agricultural soils because management options counteracted them to a certain extent, particularly in cropland soils. The distribution of SOC and N stocks within Bavaria based on agricultural regions confirmed the importance of soil moisture since the highest cropland SOC and N stocks were found for tertiary hills and loess regions, which exhibited large areas with potentially high soil moisture content in extant floodplains. Grassland soils showed the highest accumulation of SOC and N in the Alps and Pre-Alps as a result of low temperatures, high amounts of precipitation and high soil moisture content in areas of glacial denudation. Soil class was identified as a further driving parameter for SOC and N storage in cropland soils. In total, cropland and grassland soils in Bavaria store 242 and 134 Mt SOC as well as 19 and 12 Mt N down to a soil depth of 1 m or the parent material, respectively.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon Stocks ; Topographic Wetness Index (Twi) ; Soil Moisture ; Carbon Sequestration ; Agricultural Soils ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 01 March 2014, Vol.185, pp.208-220
    Description: The management of soils as well as the impact of land use or climate changes are often evaluated in view of the storage of total soil organic carbon (SOC). However, as soil organic matter (SOM) is composed of different compounds with different degrees of stability and turnover times, there is the need for a soil- and land use-specific quantification of functional SOC pools. In this study, the amount of active, intermediate and passive SOC pools was determined for major soil types and land uses of Bavaria in southeast Germany. At 99 locations, soil horizons down to the parent material were fractionated according to the method of . The results showed that in cropland and grassland soils around 90% of total SOC stocks can be assigned to the intermediate and passive SOC pool. High SOC stocks in grassland soils are partly related to a higher degree of soil aggregation compared to cropland soils. The contribution of intermediate SOC in cropland soils was similar to that in grassland soils due to an increased proportion of SOM associated with silt and clay particles. The cultivation-induced loss of SOC due to aggregate disruption is at least partly compensated by increased formation of organo-mineral associations as a result of tillage that continuously promotes the contact of crop residues with reactive mineral surfaces. Contrary, forest soils were characterized by distinctly lower proportions of intermediate and passive SOC and a high amount of active SOC in form of litter and particulate organic matter which accounted for almost 40% of total SOC stocks. As both the amount of intermediate and passive SOC were lower in forest soils, we conclude that cropland and grassland soils may be more advantageous for long-term SOC storage in Bavaria. The high amount of labile SOC in forest topsoils poses the risk of considerable SOC losses caused by wildfire, mechanical disturbances or increasing temperatures.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Matter ; Soil Fractions ; Carbon Sequestration ; Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Soil & Tillage Research, 2009, Vol.104(2), pp.299-310
    Description: Overgrazing has led to severe degradation and desertification of semi-arid grasslands in Northern China over the last decades. Despite the fact that vegetation is often heterogeneously distributed in semi-arid steppes, little attention has been drawn to the effect of grazing on the spatial distribution of soil properties. We determined the spatial pattern of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (N ), total sulphur (S ), bulk density (BD), pH, Ah thickness, and carbon isotope ratios (δ C) at two continuously grazed (CG) and two ungrazed (UG79 = fenced and excluded from grazing in 1979) sites in and dominated steppe ecosystems in Inner Mongolia, Northern China. Topsoils (0–4 cm) were sampled at each site using a large grid (120 m × 150 m) with 100 sampling points and a small plot (2 m × 2 m) with 40 points. Geostatistics were applied to elucidate the spatial distribution both at field (120 m × 150 m grid) and plant (2 m × 2 m plot) scale. Concentrations and stocks of SOC, N , S were significantly lower and BD significantly higher at both CG sites. At the field scale, semivariograms of these parameters showed a heterogeneous distribution at UG79 sites and a more homogeneous distribution at CG sites, whereas nugget to sill ratios indicated a high small-scale variability. At the plant scale, semivariances of all investigated parameters were one order of magnitude higher at UG79 sites than at CG sites. The heterogeneous pattern of topsoil properties at UG79 sites can be attributed to a mosaic of vegetation patches separated by bare soil. Ranges of autocorrelation were almost congruent with spatial expansions of grass tussocks and shrubs at both steppe types. At CG sites, consumption of biomass by sheep and hoof action removed vegetation patches and led to a homogenization of chemical and physical soil properties. We propose that the spatial distribution of topsoil properties at the plant scale (〈2 m) could be used as an indicator for degradation in semi-arid grasslands. Our results further show that the maintenance of heterogeneous vegetation and associated topsoil structures is essential for the accumulation of SOM in semi-arid grassland ecosystems.
    Keywords: Semi-Arid Grassland ; Steppe Degradation ; Overgrazing ; Spatial Homogenization ; Soil Organic Matter ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0167-1987
    E-ISSN: 1879-3444
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, October 2018, Vol.125, pp.10-26
    Description: Fractionation of soil organic carbon (SOC) is crucial for mechanistic understanding and modeling of soil organic matter decomposition and stabilization processes. It is often aimed at separating the bulk SOC into fractions with varying turnover rates, but a comprehensive comparison of methods to achieve this is lacking. In this study, a total of 20 different SOC fractionation methods were tested by participating laboratories for their suitability to isolate fractions with varying turnover rates, using agricultural soils from three experimental sites with vegetation change from C3 to C4 22–36 years ago. Enrichment of C4-derived carbon was traced and used as a proxy for turnover rates in the fractions. Methods that apply a combination of physical (density, size) and chemical (oxidation, extraction) fractionation were identified as most effective in separating SOC into fractions with distinct turnover rates. Coarse light SOC separated by density fractionation was the most C4-carbon enriched fraction, while oxidation-resistant SOC left after extraction with NaOCl was the least C4-carbon enriched fraction. Surprisingly, even after 36 years of C4 crop cultivation in a temperate climate, no method was able to isolate a fraction with more than 76% turnover, which challenges the link to the most active plant-derived carbon pools in models. Particles with density 〉2.8 g cm showed similar C4-carbon enrichment as oxidation-resistant SOC, highlighting the importance of sesquioxides for SOC stabilization. The importance of clay and silt-sized particles (〈50 μm) for SOC stabilization was also confirmed. Particle size fractionation significantly outperformed aggregate size fractionation, due to the fact that larger aggregates contain smaller aggregates and organic matter particles of various sizes with different turnover rates. An evaluation scheme comprising different criteria was used to identify the most suitable methods for isolating fractions with distinct turnover rates, and potential benefits and trade-offs associated with a specific choice. Our findings can be of great help to select the appropriate method(s) for fractionation of agricultural soils.
    Keywords: Carbon Sequestration ; Carbon Stabilization ; Soil Organic Matter ; Fractionation ; Stable Isotopes ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Soil & Tillage Research, March 2015, Vol.146, pp.296-302
    Description: Numerous studies have reported substantial changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks after converting forests into agricultural land and vice versa. However, some studies suggested that agricultural soils might contain similar amounts of SOC as forest soils. Losses of SOC induced by cultivation might be overestimated due to shallow soil sampling and application of inaccurate pedotransfer functions. We investigated the impact of different land uses on total SOC storage down to the subsoil on the basis of 270 soil profiles in southeast Germany under similar climatic and pedogenic conditions using an equivalent soil mass (ESM) approach. Land use effects on SOC storage were strongly affected by soil class, which comprised soil types with similar pedogenesis. Both slightly lower (〈20%) and even higher SOC stocks were found under cropland compared with forest land for different soil classes. A comparison of different soil classes under grassland and forest land also showed no considerable differences of SOC stocks. Soil cultivation may not generally be associated with a strong decline of SOC, as tillage probably promotes the formation of organo-mineral associations and a relocation of SOC with depth may decrease its decomposition. This finding should be taken into consideration when estimating and managing the emission and sequestration of C in soils. We assume that many studies based on topsoils alone may have underestimated agricultural SOC stocks, particularly when an ESM approach is used. Our results highlight the need for soil type-specific evaluations in terms of interpreting the effects of land use management on SOC stocks.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon ; Carbon Sequestration ; Land Use Change ; Equivalent Soil Mass ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0167-1987
    E-ISSN: 1879-3444
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma Regional, September 2014, Vol.1, pp.67-78
    Description: Precise estimations of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks at large spatial scales are a precondition for national SOC inventories but challenging due to the high spatial variability of SOC. In this study, a comprehensive data set of 1460 soil profiles completely sampled down to the parent material or at least to a depth of 1 m was used to spatially predict SOC stocks for the state of Bavaria in southeast Germany using a geostatistical modeling approach. The model predicted SOC stocks of the main land uses cropland, grassland and forest with an explained variance of 52% of the total SOC variability within Bavaria. The most important factors, which control the spatial variability of SOC storage, were land use, soil type, soil moisture (indicated by the topographic wetness index) and climate (precipitation, temperature). An analysis of the generated SOC map showed that low to medium SOC stocks within the largest part of Bavaria were explained by land use whereas areas of high SOC stocks in floodplains along rivers, bogs and mountainous regions in the Alps and low mountain ranges were related to soil moisture, soil type and climate. A total SOC stock of 760 Mt was calculated for Bavaria with 223 Mt (29%) in cropland soils, 125 Mt (16%) in grassland soils, 257 Mt (34%) in forest soils, 7–29 Mt (1–4%) in bogs and 159 Mt (21%) under other land uses. In view of high SOC stocks in floodplains and mountainous areas, major anthropogenic disturbances of respective soils (e.g. intensification of the land use) should be avoided in these regions.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon ; Soil Organic Matter ; Albeluvisol ; Cambisol ; Fluvisol ; Gleysol ; Histosol ; Leptosol ; Luvisol ; Planosol ; Podzol ; Regosol ; Stagnosol ; Vertisol
    ISSN: 2352-0094
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Agronomy, November 2014, Vol.61, pp.10-23
    Description: In agricultural soils, the formation of soil organic matter largely depends on the carbon (C) input by crop residues and rhizodeposition, which is thus of decisive importance for the management and prediction of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in cropland and grassland. However, there is a remarkable lack of reliable, crop-specific C input data. We used a plant C allocation approach to estimate the C input of major crops and grassland into agricultural soils of Bavaria in southeast Germany. Historic and recent plant C allocation coefficients were estimated and C inputs were calculated for a 60-year period (1951–2010) using long-term agricultural statistics. The spatial distribution of C inputs within Bavaria was derived from county-specific statistical data. The results revealed increases of the C input by 107–139% for cereals, 173–188% for root, forage and leguminous crops and 34% for grassland in the last 60 years. This increase was related to linear yield increases until 1995 despite significant changes of plant C allocation. However, from 1995 onwards, crop yields and related C inputs stagnated, which allowed a robust estimation of recent crop-specific C input values. A total C input of 3.8–6.7 t ha yr was estimated for cereals, 5.2–6.3 t ha yr for root, forage and leguminous crops and 2.4 t ha yr for grassland. These amounts were partly higher compared to estimations in the literature. A generally high spatial variability of C inputs was detected within Bavaria with differences of up to 40% between adjacent counties. The results of this study could be used to optimize the C input of crop rotations and thus promote the formation of soil organic matter and C sequestration in agricultural soils on the basis of a soil carbon model. Moreover, recent estimations of C inputs could be used to model the future development of agricultural SOC stocks. A further stagnation of crop yields and the related C input under an ongoing temperature increase bears the risk of a future decrease of SOC stocks in cropland soils of Bavaria.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon ; Climate Change ; Crop Yield ; Root-to-Shoot Ratio ; Harvest Index ; Rhizodeposition ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 1161-0301
    E-ISSN: 1873-7331
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 01 August 2019, Vol.280, pp.118-128
    Description: Grassland management and climate change may have profound effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in temperate grasslands, but to date only limited information on the long-term SOC development derived from grassland monitoring sites is available. In 1986, the established 20 long-term grassland soil monitoring sites in the state of Bavaria, Germany. We analyzed SOC changes and their main controlling factors in these monitoring sites between 1989 and 2016 in four intervals using the machine learning algorithm conditional random forest. The results showed that changes of SOC stocks in grassland monitoring sites were affected by the multifactorial and interactive nature of changing climate conditions, pedogenic-topographic factors and management practices. Seasonal climate variables explained the highest variability of SOC stock changes in long-term grassland sites, followed by organic fertilizer application. Increasing autumn precipitation led to decreased SOC stocks, whereas increasing spring and summer precipitation led to increased SOC stocks on sites at high elevations with low slopes. Furthermore, we observed that the organic fertilizer application resulted in an increase and/or preservation of SOC stocks, whereas conventional farming with a low degree of organic fertilization resulted in SOC stock decreases. Regarding the acceleration of climate change and the complex interactions between site conditions, changing climate and management, there is an urgent need to collect improved management data in future long-term studies.
    Keywords: Random Forest ; Climate Change ; Seasonal Carbon Change ; Grassland Management ; Long-Term Experiments ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
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