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  • Elsevier (CrossRef)  (38)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Letters, 2009, Vol.277(1), pp.8-21
    Description: Histone deacetylases comprise a family of 18 genes, which are grouped into classes I–IV based on their homology to their respective yeast orthologues. Classes I, II, and IV consist of 11 family members, which are referred to as “classical” HDACs, whereas the 7 class III members are called sirtuins. Classical HDACs are a promising novel class of anti-cancer drug targets. First HDAC inhibitors have been evaluated in clinical trials and show activity against several cancer diseases. However, these compounds act unselectively against several or all 11 HDAC family members. As a consequence, clinical phase I trials document a wide range of side effects. Therefore, the current challenge in the field is to define the cancer relevant HDAC family member(s) in a given tumor type and to design selective inhibitors, which target cancer cells but leave out normal cells. Knockout of single HDAC family members in mice produces a variety of phenotypes ranging from early embryonic death to viable animals with only discrete alterations, indicating that potential side effects of HDAC inhibitors depend on the selectivity of the compounds. Recently, several studies have shown that certain HDAC family members are aberrantly expressed in several tumors and have non-redundant function in controlling hallmarks of cancer cells. The aim of this review is to discuss individual HDAC family members as drug targets in cancer taking into consideration their function under physiological conditions and their oncogenic potential in malignant disease.
    Keywords: Histone Deacetylase ; Hdac ; Hdac Inhibitor ; Cancer ; Development ; Therapy ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0304-3835
    E-ISSN: 1872-7980
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 01 November 2011, Vol.81(3), pp.e7-e13
    Description: To investigate treatment outcome and prognostic factors after radiation therapy in patients with medulloblastomas (MB). Sixty-six patients with histologically confirmed MB were treated at the University Hospital of Heidelberg between 1985 and 2009. Forty-two patients (64%) were pediatric (≤18 years), and 24 patients (36%) were adults. Tumor resection was performed in all patients and was complete in 47%. All patients underwent postoperative craniospinal irradiation (CSI) delivering a median craniospinal dose of 35.5 Gy with additional boosts to the posterior fossa up to 54.0 Gy. Forty-seven patients received chemotherapy, including 21 in whom chemotherapy was administered before CSI. Statistical analysis was performed using the log-rank test and the Kaplan-Meier method. Median follow-up was 93 months. Overall survival (OS) and local and distant progression-free survival (LPFS and DPFS) were 73%, 62%, and 77% at 60 months. Both local and distant recurrence predisposed for significantly reduced OS. Macroscopic complete tumor resection, desmoplastic histology and early initiation of postoperative radiation therapy within 28 days were associated with improved outcome. The addition of chemotherapy did not improve survival rates. Toxicity was moderate. Complete resection of MB followed by CSI yields long survival rates in both children and adults. Delayed initiation of CSI is associated with poor outcome. Desmoplastic histology is associated with improved survival. The role of chemotherapy, especially in the adult population, must be further investigated in clinical studies.
    Keywords: Medulloblastoma ; Radiochemotherapy ; Craniospinal Irradiation ; Prognostic Factors ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0360-3016
    E-ISSN: 1879-355X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2010, Vol.78(1), pp.237-245
    Description: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) can enhance the sensitivity of cells to photon radiation treatment (XRT) by altering numerous molecular pathways. We investigated the effect of pan-HDACIs such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) on radiation response in two osteosarcoma (OS) and two rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell lines. Clonogenic survival, cell cycle analysis, and apoptosis were examined in OS (KHOS-24OS, SAOS2) and RMS (A-204, RD) cell lines treated with HDACI and HDACI plus XRT, respectively. Protein expression was investigated via immunoblot analysis, and cell cycle analysis and measurement of apoptosis were performed using flow cytometry. SAHA induced an inhibition of cell proliferation and clonogenic survival in OS and RMS cell lines and led to a significant radiosensitization of all tumor cell lines. Other HDACI such as M344 and valproate showed similar effects as investigated in one OS cell line. Furthermore, SAHA significantly increased radiation-induced apoptosis in the OS cell lines, whereas in the RMS cell lines radiation-induced apoptosis was insignificant with and without SAHA. In all investigated sarcoma cell lines, SAHA attenuated radiation-induced DNA repair protein expression (Rad51, Ku80). Our results show that HDACIs enhance radiation action in OS and RMS cell lines. Inhibition of DNA repair, as well as increased apoptosis induction after exposure to HDACIs, can be mechanisms of radiosensitization by HDACIs.
    Keywords: Sarcoma ; Histone Deacetylase Inhibition ; Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (Saha) ; Radiosensitization ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0360-3016
    E-ISSN: 1879-355X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet, 12 January 2013, Vol.381(9861), pp.125-132
    Description: Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder leading to constitutive activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and growth of benign tumours in several organs. In the brain, growth of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas can cause life-threatening symptoms—eg, hydrocephalus, requiring surgery. In an open-label, phase 1/2 study, the mTOR inhibitor everolimus substantially and significantly reduced the volume of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. We assessed the efficacy and safety of everolimus in patients with subependymal giant cell astrocytomas associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, patients (aged 0–65 years) in 24 centres in Australia, Belgium, Canada, Germany, the UK, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Russian Federation, and the USA were randomly assigned, with an interactive internet-response system, in a 2:1 ratio to oral everolimus 4·5 mg/m per day (titrated to achieve blood trough concentrations of 5–15 ng/mL) or placebo. Eligible patients had a definite diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex and at least one lesion with a diameter of 1 cm or greater, and either serial growth of a subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, a new lesion of 1 cm or greater, or new or worsening hydrocephalus. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with confirmed response—ie, reduction in target volume of 50% or greater relative to baseline in subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with , number . 117 patients were randomly assigned to everolimus (n=78) or placebo (n=39). 27 (35%) patients in the everolimus group had at least 50% reduction in the volume of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas versus none in the placebo group (difference 35%, 95% CI 15–52; one-sided exact Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test, p〈0·0001). Adverse events were mostly grade 1 or 2; no patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events. The most common adverse events were mouth ulceration (25 [32%] in the everolimus group two [5%] in the placebo group), stomatitis (24 [31%] eight [21%]), convulsion (18 [23%] ten [26%]), and pyrexia (17 [22%] six [15%]). These results support the use of everolimus for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas associated with tuberous sclerosis. Additionally, everolimus might represent a disease-modifying treatment for other aspects of tuberous sclerosis. Novartis Pharmaceuticals.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0140-6736
    E-ISSN: 1474-547X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Chromatography B, 01 August 2014, Vol.964, pp.212-221
    Description: Vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid) is the first approved histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma after progressive disease following two systemic therapies. Intracellular access of vorinostat is essential to exert its epigenetic effects. Therefore, we studied the relationship between vorinostat extracellular (plasma) and intracellular (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMCs) concentration and assessed its concentration-effect relationship by HDAC activity testing. Assays were developed and validated for the low nanomolar quantification of vorinostat and two inactive metabolites in human plasma and PBMCs. For the vorinostat extraction from plasma and PBMCs solid-phase extraction and liquid–liquid extraction methods were applied. Extraction recoveries ranged from 88.6% to 114.4% for all analytes and extraction methods. Extracts were chromatographed on a Phenomenex Luna column isocratically (plasma) or by gradient (PBMCs) consisting of acidic ammonium acetate, acetonitrile, and methanol. The analytes were quantified using deuterated internal standards and positive electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (multiple reaction monitoring) with lower limits of quantification of 11.0 ng/mL (plasma) and 0.1 ng/3 × 10 cells (PBMCs). The calibrated ranges were linear for vorinostat in plasma 11.0–1100 (11,000) ng/mL (metabolites) and PBMCs 0.1–10.0 ng/3 × 10 cells with correlation coefficients 〉0.99, an overall accuracy varying between −6.7% and +3.8% in plasma, −8.1% and −1.5% in PBMCs, and an overall precision ranging from 3.2% to 6.1% in plasma and 0.8% to 4.0% in PBMCs (SD batch-to-batch). The application to blood samples from healthy volunteers incubated with vorinostat revealed accumulation of vorinostat in PBMCs, effective intracellular HDAC inhibition at therapeutic vorinostat concentrations and a direct vorinostat concentration dependency to HDAC inhibition.
    Keywords: Vorinostat ; Tandem Mass Spectrometry ; Plasma ; Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells ; Histone Deacetylase Activity ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 1570-0232
    E-ISSN: 1873-376X
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Cancer, July 2016, Vol.62, pp.124-131
    Description: An urgent need remains for new paediatric oncology drugs to cure children who die from cancer and to reduce drug-related sequelae in survivors. In 2007, the European Paediatric Regulation came into law requiring industry to create paediatric drug (all types of medicinal products) development programmes alongside those for adults. Unfortunately, paediatric drug development is still largely centred on adult conditions and not a mechanism of action (MoA)-based model, even though this would be more logical for childhood tumours as these have much fewer non-synonymous coding mutations than adult malignancies. Recent large-scale sequencing by International Genome Consortium and Paediatric Cancer Genome Project has further shown that the genetic and epigenetic repertoire of driver mutations in specific childhood malignancies differs from more common adult-type malignancies. To bring about much needed change, a Paediatric Platform, ACCELERATE, was proposed in 2013 by the Cancer Drug Development Forum, Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer, the European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents and the European Society for Paediatric Oncology. The Platform, comprising multiple stakeholders in paediatric oncology, has three working groups, one with responsibility for promoting and developing high-quality MoA-informed paediatric drug development programmes, including specific measures for adolescents. Key is the establishment of a freely accessible aggregated database of paediatric biological tumour drug targets to be aligned with an aggregated pipeline of drugs. This will enable prioritisation and conduct of early phase clinical paediatric trials to evaluate these drugs against promising therapeutic targets and to generate clinical paediatric efficacy and safety data in an accelerated time frame. Through this work, the Platform seeks to ensure that potentially effective drugs, where the MoA is known and thought to be relevant to paediatric malignancies, are evaluated in early phase clinical trials, and that this approach to generate pre-clinical and clinical data is systematically pursued by academia, sponsors, industry, and regulatory bodies to bring new paediatric oncology drugs to front-line therapy more rapidly.
    Keywords: Paediatric Oncology ; Mechanism of Action ; Targeted Cancer Drug Development ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0959-8049
    E-ISSN: 1879-0852
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: FEBS Letters, 1997, Vol.408(3), pp.255-260
    Description: In contrast to the cell-cycle-dependent histone genes, replacement histone genes are transcribed independently of DNA replication and their expression is upregulated during differentiation. We have investigated the transcriptional regulation of the recently characterized human replacement histone gene H3.3B. Using reporter gene assays of promoter-luciferase gene-constructs, we show that promoter activity largely depends on an intact Oct and CRE/TRE element within the proximal 145 bp of the promoter. DNase I footprinting revealed binding of proteins to a 40-bp region covering these two elements. Band shift experiments identified binding proteins as Oct-1 and factors of the CREB/ATF and AP-1 family, respectively. The unexpected transcriptional regulation of this replacement histone gene is discussed.
    Keywords: Histone Gene Regulation ; Replacement Histone Gene ; Histone H3.3b ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    E-ISSN: 1873-3468
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, July 2015, Vol.36(7), pp.481-492
    Description: Histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) is a class I histone deacetylase implicated as a therapeutic target in various diseases, including cancer, X-linked intellectual disability, and parasitic infections. It is a structurally well-characterized enzyme that also deacetylates nonhistone proteins. In cancer, HDAC8 is a major ‘epigenetic player’ that is linked to deregulated expression or interaction with transcription factors critical to tumorigenesis. In the parasite and in viral infections, HDAC8 is a novel target to subdue infection The current challenge remains in the development of potent selective inhibitors that would specifically target HDAC8 with fewer adverse effects compared with pan-HDAC inhibitors. Here, we review HDAC8 as a drug target and discuss inhibitors with respect to their structural features and therapeutic interventions.
    Keywords: Histone Deacetylases ; Hdac8 ; Cornelia de Lange Syndrome ; Cancer ; Schistosoma ; X-Ray Crystallography ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0165-6147
    E-ISSN: 1873-3735
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Redox Biology, January 2019, Vol.20, pp.60-67
    Description: Enzymes from the histone deacetylase (HDAC) family are highly regulated by different mechanisms. However, only very limited knowledge exists about the regulation of HDAC8, an established target in multiple types of cancer. A previous dedicated study of HDAC class I enzymes identified no redox-sensitive cysteinyl thiol in HDAC8. This is in contrast to the observation that HDAC8 preparations show different enzyme activities depending on the addition of reducing agents. In the light of the importance of HDAC8 in tumorigenesis a possible regulation by redox signaling was investigated using biochemical and biophysical methods combined with site directed mutagenesis. The occurrence of a characteristic disulfide bond under oxidizing conditions is associated with a complete but reversible loss of enzyme activity. Cysteines 102 and 153 are the integral components of the redox-switch. A possible regulation of HDAC8 by redox signal transduction is suggested by the observed relationship between inhibition of reactive oxygen species generating NOX and concomitant increased HDAC8 activity in neuroblastoma tumor cells. The slow kinetics for direct oxidation of HDAC8 by hydrogen peroxide suggests that transmitters of oxidative equivalents are required to transfer the H O signal to HDAC8.
    Keywords: Hdac8 Stability ; Redox Kinetics ; Redox Signaling ; Nox ; Disulfide Bond ; Ros ; Hydrogen Peroxide ; Biology
    ISSN: 2213-2317
    E-ISSN: 2213-2317
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Cell, 20 January 2012, Vol.148(1-2), pp.59-71
    Description: Genomic rearrangements are thought to occur progressively during tumor development. Recent findings, however, suggest an alternative mechanism, involving massive chromosome rearrangements in a one-step catastrophic event termed chromothripsis. We report the whole-genome sequencing-based analysis of a Sonic-Hedgehog medulloblastoma (SHH-MB) brain tumor from a patient with a germline mutation (Li-Fraumeni syndrome), uncovering massive, complex chromosome rearrangements. Integrating status with microarray and deep sequencing-based DNA rearrangement data in additional patients reveals a striking association between mutation and chromothripsis in SHH-MBs. Analysis of additional tumor entities substantiates a link between mutation and chromothripsis, and indicates a context-specific role for p53 in catastrophic DNA rearrangements. Among these, we observed a strong association between somatic mutations and chromothripsis in acute myeloid leukemia. These findings connect p53 status and chromothripsis in specific tumor types, providing a genetic basis for understanding particularly aggressive subtypes of cancer. ► Complex chromosomal alterations (chromothripsis) observed in medulloblastomas ► Cancers with such alterations harbor TP53 mutations ► Context-specific link between the status of p53 and likelihood of chromothripsis ► p53 status and chromothripsis also correlate with aggressive acute myeloid leukemia Connecting p53 status and chromothripsis in specific types of cancer provides a genetic basis for the more aggressive forms of medulloblastoma and leukemia.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0092-8674
    E-ISSN: 1097-4172
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