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  • Elsevier (CrossRef)  (231)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Tourism Management, December 2012, Vol.33(6), pp.1398-1407
    Description: The study of constraints in the leisure and tourism context has been a growing research theme during the past four decades. This article focused on participants' constraints that inhibit an experience of Chinese calligraphic landscapes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether three types of constraints existed in the context of a calligraphic landscape experience. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the fitness of the collected data for the hierarchical constraints model. This study also extended this hierarchical model to prove that some constraint dimensions do influence tourists' preference, participation and satisfaction. This research concluded that intrapersonal constraints had a negative influence on preference, while neither interpersonal nor structural dimension influenced tourists' participation or satisfaction. ► Our study focuses on the special culture landscape: Chinese calligraphic landscape. ► Constraints to calligraphic landscape experience is defined. ► We developed a measurement scale of constraints in such context. ► The hierarchical structure of constraints is confirmed in such context. ► Constraints do not all affect preference, participation and satisfaction.
    Keywords: Calligraphic Landscape ; Constraints ; Preference ; Participation ; Satisfaction ; Geography ; Business
    ISSN: 0261-5177
    E-ISSN: 1879-3193
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Tourism Management, June 2016, Vol.54, pp.452-464
    Description: Laden with assorted emotional factors, dark tourism behaviors are heavily influenced by emotion-related factors, such as intrapersonal constraints. By deploying a survey of tourists visiting the Memorial of the Victims of the Nanjing Massacre, which lies on the darkest edges of the dark tourism spectrum, this study probes how well one's intrapersonal constraints and past experiences relate to one's revisit intention. Results indicate that there are four sub-dimensions in intrapersonal constraints, namely culture, emotion, escape, and incuriousness. The cognitive experiences have significantly positive effects on the revisit intention either through direct effects or via the mediating variables of intrapersonal constraints, while intrapersonal constraints play an indirect-only mediating role in the relationship between affective experiences and revisit intentions. Theoretical and practical contributions of the study findings are discussed within the realm of dark tourism.
    Keywords: Dark Tourism ; Past Experience ; Intrapersonal Constraints ; Revisit Intention ; Geography ; Business
    ISSN: 0261-5177
    E-ISSN: 1879-3193
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 05 March 2016, Vol.492, pp.119-126
    Description: A electrostatic thin film of an europium-substituted tungstoborate anion with a dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex cation is prepared layer-by-layer as evidenced by ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy. The surface confined good redox behaviors of the cation and anion in the films were observed. The films showed stable and large cathodic photocurrent with a maximum photocurrent density of 2.66 μA cm was achieved for 4 layer film at an applied potential of −0.3 V versus SCE, which is 2.28 folds as great as that of similar film with an inert polymer layer instead of the anion layer. A new electrostatically self-assembled hybrid film consisting of alternating layers of europium-substituted tungstoborate anion of [Eu(BW O ) ] (EuBW) and dinuclear ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex cation of [(bpy) Ru(BPBH)Ru(bpy) ] {in which bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine and BPBH = 1,6-bis-(2-(2-phenyl)benzimidazoyl)hexane, RuBPBH} was successfully prepared. UV–vis absorption spectroscopy provided the evidences for the layer-by-layer deposition of EuBW anion and RuBPBH cation on quartz substrate. The (EuBW/RuBPBH) films showed stable electrochemical and photoelectrochemical properties with a photocurrent density of 2.66 μA/cm being found for a 4-layer film of (EuBW/RuBPBH) , while irradiated with polychromatic light (325 nm 〈 〈 730 nm) at an applied potential of −0.3 V versus saturated calomel electrode. The enhanced photocurrent generation by presence of the EuBW layer in this hybrid film has also been demonstrated as compared to the (PSS- -MS/RuBPBH) film by using a photoelectrochemical inactive polyanion of PSS- -MS instead of the EuBW anion.
    Keywords: Thin Film ; Ruthenium ; Polyoxometalate ; Photoelectrochemical Property ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0927-7757
    E-ISSN: 1873-4359
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource Technology, July 2018, Vol.259, pp.61-66
    Description: This work investigated the changes in the physical structure of autohydrolyzed poplar sapwood chips and the effect on the subsequent alkali liquor diffusion properties for chemi-mechanical pulping (CMP). An alkali impregnation process was conducted by using the autohydrolyzed poplar sapwood with different levels of autohydrolysis intensity. The results showed that the volume porosity, water constraint capacity, and saturated water absorption of the autohydrolyzed poplar sapwood chips increased. Also, the effective capillary cross-sectional area (ECCSA) in the radial direction and the diffusion coefficients of NaOH solution in both the radial and axial directions all increased. Autohydrolysis pretreatment enhanced the alkali liquor diffusion properties in poplar sapwood chips, and the diffusion coefficient was increased more greatly in the radial direction than that in the axial direction.
    Keywords: Poplar Sapwood Chips ; Autohydrolysis ; Diffusion Coefficient ; Effective Capillary Cross-Sectional Area (Eccsa) ; Pore Size Distribution ; Agriculture ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    E-ISSN: 1873-2976
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource Technology, November 2012, Vol.123, pp.72-77
    Description: Compared with traditional heating esterification (THE), microwave assisted esterification (MAE) needs less reaction time, lower reaction temperature, less energy and lower methanol additive. Thus, manufacturing biodiesel using microwave represents a fast, easy and effective route with advantages of a short reaction time, a low methanol/acidified oil mass ratio, an ease of operation, reduced energy consumption and all with lower production cost. ► We prepared CERP/PES hybrid catalytic membrane for biodiesel production. ► We conducted esterification of acidified oil under traditional heating method. ► We conducted esterification of acidified oil under microwave irradiation. ► Biodiesel production with microwave irradiation needs less time and catalyst. ► Esterification with microwave irradiation offers a fast, easy and effective route. The traditional heating and microwave assisted method for biodiesel production using cation ion-exchange resin particles (CERP)/PES catalytic membrane were comparatively studied to achieve economic and effective method for utilization of free fatty acids (FFAs) from waste cooking oil (WCO). The optimal esterification conditions of the two methods were investigated and the experimental results showed that microwave irradiation exhibited a remarkable enhanced effect for esterification compared with that of traditional heating method. The FFAs conversion of microwave assisted esterification reached 97.4% under the optimal conditions of reaction temperature 60 °C, methanol/acidified oil mass ratio 2.0:1, catalytic membrane (annealed at 120 °C) loading 3 g, microwave power 360 W and reaction time 90 min. The study results showed that it is a fast, easy and green way to produce biodiesel applying microwave irradiation.
    Keywords: Biodiesel ; Cation Ion-Exchange Resin ; Hybrid Catalytic Membrane ; Esterification ; Microwave Irradiation ; Agriculture ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    E-ISSN: 1873-2976
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource Technology, December 2016, Vol.222, pp.361-366
    Description: This work is aimed at investigating the influence of changes in the content of hemicelluloses of the autohydrolyzed poplar sapwood on the subsequent alkali impregnation for chemi-mechanical pulping (CMP). An alkali impregnation process was conducted using the autohydrolyzed poplar sapwood with different content of hemicelluloses as raw materials. The results showed that both the amount of NaOH consumption and swelling degree of poplar sapwood increased with the removal of hemicelluloses, thus enhancing the alkali impregnation effectiveness. The hemicelluloses removal can also shorten the alkali impregnation time for the autohydrolyzed poplar sapwood to achieve the similar impregnation effectiveness of unautohydrolyzed poplar sapwood. All of these can be attributed to the fact that the hemicelluloses removal would result in the exposure of more free hydroxyl groups on the cellulose and an increase in the porosity of the fiber cell walls.
    Keywords: Poplar Sapwood ; Autohydrolysis ; Alkali Impregnation ; Hemicelluloses ; Wood Swelling ; Agriculture ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    E-ISSN: 1873-2976
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource Technology, May 2012, Vol.112, pp.28-33
    Description: ► We prepared CERP/PES hybrid catalytic membrane for biodiesel production. ► We conducted esterification of acidic oil with different alcohols by the membrane. ► We studied kinetic models of the esterification of acidic oil with the alcohols. ► Butanol has the highest FFAs conversion among the four alcohols. ► The proposed kinetic model can well predict FFAs conversion. Hybrid catalytic membranes consisting of cation ion-exchange resin particles (CERP) and polyethersulfone (PES) were prepared by immersion phase inversion and used as heterogeneous catalysts for the esterification of acidified oil with methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol. The membranes were characterized by ion exchange capacity and swelling degree tests. The membranes were annealed at different temperatures to improve catalytic activity and membranes annealed at 393 K had the highest catalytic activity. Butanol allowed the highest free fatty acids (FFAs) conversion of 95.28% since it has better miscibility than the other alcohols which strengthened mass and heat transfer. Furthermore, pseudo-homogeneous kinetic models of the esterification of acidified oil with the four alcohols were established according to the experimental data. The kinetic models can well predict the FFA conversion.
    Keywords: Biodiesel ; Cation Ion-Exchange Resin ; Hybrid Catalytic Membrane ; Esterification ; Kinetic Model ; Agriculture ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    E-ISSN: 1873-2976
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Annals of Tourism Research, November 2015, Vol.55, pp.28-45
    Description: Authenticity is significant for all modern peoples, including hosts. Hosts have the right to make their own interpretation of authenticity. The model that we constructed explains the process of hosts’ authentication through structural analysis of the antecedents and consequences of hosts’ authentic experiences. The effects of personal economic benefits are indirect and hidden, with personal emotional benefits being the key factor that mediates the conflict between economic benefits and authenticity. The model explains the complex but delicate mechanism of how hosts balance their dual demands, ‘benefits from tourism’ and ‘authentic culture’. When hosts use support for tourism as power to obtain hegemony over authenticity, they focus only on objective authenticity, which also implies ethnic tourism has become superficial in China.
    Keywords: Authenticity ; Host ; Personal Benefit ; Attitude ; Support ; Resident ; Geography
    ISSN: 0160-7383
    E-ISSN: 1873-7722
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Scientia Horticulturae, 2011, Vol.127(3), pp.282-289
    Description: ▶ As we known, it is the first time to isolate and characterize resistance gene candidates from pear species including , , , , and with the method of homology-based cloning. ▶ To our knowledge, both the toll interleukin receptor (TIR) group and non-toll interleukin receptor group of RGC coexisted in pear is reported for the first time. ▶ RGC from pear were first used for expression study after inoculated with or treated with salicylic acid. According to the conservative regions of the nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeat domain (NBS–LRR) in resistance genes (R-gene), a homology-based cloning method was used to isolate disease resistance gene candidates (RGCs) from six species of pear, including , , , , , and their interspecific hybrids. Approximately 100 disease resistance gene candidates from 39 cultivars in these pear species were identified. Among these RGC, 98 of genomic sequences which could be translated into polypeptides without stop codons, while the other two sequences presented multiple stop codons. The deduced amino acid sequences of the 98 RGC displayed high diversity, ranging from 20 to 100%, and could be divided into 17 distinct RGC families ( – ) based on the phylogenetic analysis with the threshold of 68% identity. The 98 RGC contained both the toll interleukin receptor (TIR) group and non-toll interleukin receptor (non-TIR) group. RGC families and belonged to non-TIR group, the other 15 RGC families were classified to TIR group. Sequences analysis indicated that there was a strong identity of these RGCs to the known R-gene and RGC from other plants. In each RGC family, one representative RGC was selected to test the expression profile at transcriptional level, and all the 17 selected RGCs could be detected at mRNA level. In response to inoculation or salicylic acid (SA) treatment, the expression level of RGC (RGC 1) from pear scab-resistant cultivar ‘Zaosu’ pear changed while the expression level of RGC (RGC 8) from pear scab-susceptible pear cultivar ‘Dangshansu’ seemed less affected. These RGCs isolated in this study could help understand the R-gene in pear species and will serve as a potential resource for future improvement of disease resistance in pear.
    Keywords: Resistance Gene ; Pear ; Resistance Gene Candidates ; Nbs–Lrr ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0304-4238
    E-ISSN: 1879-1018
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Thin Solid Films, 30 November 2018, Vol.666, pp.161-171
    Description: α-Fe O photoanodes were prepared on Fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by annealing of electrodeposited Fe films. By controlling the synthesis parameters, the α-Fe O film prepared from the Fe film electrodeposited in 0.05 M ferrous sulfate solution (pH = 2.1) for 50 s and then annealed at 600 °C for 3 h has the optimal photocurrent density around 257.08 μA cm at 1.23 V vs. RHE (Reversible Hydrogen Electrode). In this paper, the effects of different synthesis parameters on α-Fe O photoanodes were studied systematically. The morphology and properties of the sample were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis spectra, X-ray diffractometry and photoelectrical measurements.
    Keywords: Water Oxidation ; Hematite ; Alpha Phase Ferric Oxide ; Photoanode ; Cathodic Electrodeposition ; Morphology ; Engineering ; Physics
    ISSN: 0040-6090
    E-ISSN: 1879-2731
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