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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • HAL (CCSd)  (16)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Environmental Quality, July 2011, Vol.40(4), pp.1068-1080
    Description: Pesticides entering agricultural surface waters threaten water quality and aquatic communities. Recently, vegetated treatment systems (VTSs) (e.g., constructed wetlands and vegetated ditches) have been proposed as pesticide risk mitigation measures. However, little is known about the effectiveness...
    Keywords: Sciences of the Universe ; Earth Sciences ; Hydrology ; Environmental Sciences ; Global Changes ; Environmental Sciences ; Environmental Engineering ; Bmp Best Management Practice ; Dt50 Time to 50% Dissipation ; HRT Hydraulic Retention Time ; Ipm Integrated Pest Management ; Koc Organic Carbon Sorption Coeffi Cient ; Loq Limit of Quantifi Cation ; Tu Toxic Unit ; Up Uniform Principle ; Vts Vegetated Treatment System ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0047-2425
    E-ISSN: 1537-2537
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, May 2002, Vol.21(5), pp.1052-1057
    Description: Acute effects of the endocrine disruptor bis (tri‐‐butyltin) oxide (TBTO) on molting‐hormone biosynthesis and imaginaldisc development were investigated in larvae of the midge Meigen). Ecdysteroid synthesis was measured by 24‐h incubation of molting‐hormone‐synthesizing tissues (prothoracic glands) in vitro with or without the addition of TBTO. The amount of ecdysteroids produced was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Developmental effects in vivo were investigated by determining the developmental phase of the genital imaginal discs before and after a 48‐h exposure to TBTO in water. Sex‐specific effects were found with both endpoints. Ecdysteroid synthesis was significantly reduced (analysis of variance [ANOVA], ≤ 0.005) in female larvae at all concentrations (TBTO‐Sn at 50, 500, and 5,000 ng/L), whereas a significant elevation of the biosynthesis rate occurred in male larvae in the 500‐ng/L treatment (ANOVA, ≤ 0.05). In vivo experiments with development of the genital imaginal disc within a 48‐h exposure period revealed a significantly slower development in female larvae and a significantly faster development in male larvae (contingency tables, ≤ 0.001) at all concentrations tested (TBTO‐Sn at 10, 50, 200, and 1,000 ng/L). These results partly coincided with the in vitro effects on molting‐hormone synthesis. The 48‐h median lethal concentration (LC50) was 25 μg/L (20–30 μg/L 95% confidence intervals). The combination of in vitro and in vivo methods has proven to be a useful approach for the detection of endocrine effects of TBTO in at levels 2,000‐fold below the LC50 value. High sensitivity and short test duration suggest that chironomids may have potential as freshwater sentinel organisms for endocrine‐disrupting chemicals.
    Keywords: Chironomidae ; Ecdysteroid ; Endocrine Disruptor ; Sex Specificity ; Tributyltin
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, September 1999, Vol.18(9), pp.1948-1955
    Description: The study aims to evaluate the impact of insecticides associated with rainfall‐induced surface runoff from arable land on macroinvertebrate populations. These effects of insecticides were distinguished from the hydraulic stress also associated with surface runoff. Transient increase in discharge and insecticide contamination (maximum 6 μg/L parathion‐ethyl in stream water, 302 μg/L fenvalerate in suspended particulates) was observed in a headwater stream subsequent to surface runoff from arable land. In the aquatic macroinvertebrate community, eight of the eleven abundant species disappeared, and the remaining three were reduced significantly in abundance following the insecticide‐contaminated runoff. Recovery within 6 months was observed for four species and recovery within 11 months for nine species. Two species remained at a low population density for over a year. The effects of insecticides were distinguished from other parameters, such as hydraulic stress associated with surface runoff, as well. The causal connection between insecticide contamination and biological response was established by eliminating increased hydraulic stress during surface runoff using in‐parallel bypass microcosms containing the dominant species and . The mortality of these species was similar to that of the same species in the stream. Additional microcosms, disconnected from the stream during runoff events, served as a control. Thus, the toxic potential of the runoff water is considered to be responsible for the observed effect on the macroinvertebrates. It is concluded that agricultural insecticide input may alter the dynamics of macroinvertebrate communities in streams.
    Keywords: Pesticides ; Headwater Stream ; Macroinvertebrates ; Recovery ; Microcosm
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Chemistry Letters, 2009, Vol.7(3), pp.205-231
    Description: Contamination caused by pesticides in agriculture is a source of environmental poor water quality in some of the European Union countries. Without treatment or targeted mitigation, this pollution is diffused in the environment. Pesticides and some metabolites are of increasing concern because of their potential impacts on the environment, wildlife and human health. Within the context of the European Union (EU) water framework directive context to promote low pesticide-input farming and best management practices, the EU LIFE project ArtWET assessed the efficiency of ecological bioengineering methods using different artificial wetland (AW) prototypes throughout Europe. We optimized physical and biological processes to mitigate agricultural nonpoint-source pesticide pollution in artificial wetland ecosystems. Mitigation solutions were implemented at full-scale demonstration and experimental sites. We tested various bioremediation methods at seven experimental sites. These sites involved (1) experimental prototypes, such as vegetated ditches, a forest microcosm and 12 wetland mesocosms, and (2) demonstration prototypes: vegetated ditches, three detention ponds enhanced with technology of constructed wetlands, an outdoor bioreactor and a biomassbed. This set up provides a variety of hydrologic conditions, with some systems permanently flooded and others temporarily flooded. It also allowed to study the processes both in field and controlled conditions. In order to compare the efficiency of the wetlands, mass balances at the inlet and outlet of the artificial wetland will be used, taking into account the partition of the studied compound in water, sediments, plants, and suspended solids. The literature background necessary to harmonize the interdisciplinary work is reviewed here and the theoretical framework regarding pesticide removal mechanisms in artificial wetland is discussed. The development and the implementation of innovative approaches concerning various water quality sampling strategies for pesticide load estimates during flood, specific biological endpoints, innovative bioprocess applied to herbicide and copper mitigation to enhance the pesticide retention time within the artificial wetland, fate and transport using a 2D mixed hybrid finite element model are introduced. These future results will be useful to optimize hydraulic functioning, e.g., pesticide resident time, and biogeochemical conditions, e.g., dissipation, inside the artificial wetlands. Hydraulic retention times are generally too low to allow an optimized adsorption on sediment and organic materials accumulated in artificial wetlands. Absorption by plants is not either effective. The control of the hydraulic design and the use of adsorbing materials can be useful to increase the pesticides residence time and the contact between pesticides and biocatalyzers. Pesticide fluxes can be reduced by 50–80% when hydraulic pathways in artificial wetlands are optimized by increasing ten times the retention time, by recirculation of water, and by deceleration of the flow. Thus, using a bioremediation method should lead to an almost complete disappearance of pesticides pollution. To retain and treat the agricultural nonpoint-source po a major stake for a sustainable development.
    Keywords: Artificial wetland ; Pesticides ; Agriculture ; Storm water system ; Vegetated ditches ; Forested plots ; Mitigation ; Bioremediation ; Nonpoint-source pollution ; Detention ; Retention ; Water
    ISSN: 1610-3653
    E-ISSN: 1610-3661
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Chemical Engineering Journal, 10 October 2019, p.123315
    Keywords: Chemical Sciences ; Chemical Sciences ; Catalysis ; Engineering
    ISSN: 1385-8947
    E-ISSN: 1873-3212
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 2011, Vol.44(17), p.174034 (9pp)
    Description: The utilization of silicon-based materials for thermoelectrics is studied with respect to the synthesis and processing of doped silicon nanoparticles from gas phase plasma synthesis. It is found that plasma synthesis enables the formation of spherical, highly crystalline and soft-agglomerated materials. We discuss the requirements for the formation of dense sintered bodies, while keeping the crystallite size small. Small particles a few tens of nanometres and below that are easily achievable from plasma synthesis, and a weak surface oxidation, both lead to a pronounced sinter activity about 350K below the temperature usually needed for the successful densification of silicon. The thermoelectric properties of our sintered materials are comparable to the best results found for nanocrystalline silicon prepared by methods other than plasma synthesis.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Physics;
    ISSN: 0022-3727
    E-ISSN: 1361-6463
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, February 2013, Vol.173, pp.157-167
    Description: Secondary salinisation of rivers and streams is a global and growing threat that might be amplified by climate change. It can have many different causes, like irrigation, mining activity or the use of salts as de-icing agents for roads. Freshwater organisms only tolerate certain ranges of water salinity. Therefore secondary salinisation has an impact at the individual, population, community and ecosystem levels, which ultimately leads to a reduction in aquatic biodiversity and compromises the goods and services that rivers and streams provide. Management of secondary salinization should be directed towards integrated catchment strategies (e.g. benefiting from the dilution capacity of the rivers) and identifying threshold salt concentrations to preserve the ecosystem integrity. Future research on the interaction of salinity with other stressors and the impact of salinization on trophic interactions and ecosystem properties is needed and the implications of this issue for human society need to be seriously considered. Secondary salinization of the world rivers and streams.
    Keywords: Secondary Salinisation ; River Salinisation ; Mining ; Road Salt ; Irrigation ; Osmoregulation ; Salinity Tolerance ; Climate Change ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 8
    In: Circulation, 2017, Vol.136(19), pp.1824-1839
    Description: BACKGROUND:: Preeclampsia is a complex and common human-specific pregnancy syndrome associated with placental pathology. The human specificity provides both intellectual and methodological challenges, lacking a robust model system. Given the role of imprinted genes in human placentation and the vulnerability of imprinted genes to loss of imprinting changes, there has been extensive speculation, but no robust evidence, that imprinted genes are involved in preeclampsia. Our study aims to investigate whether disturbed imprinting contributes to preeclampsia. METHODS:: We first aimed to confirm that preeclampsia is a disease of the placenta by generating and analyzing genome-wide molecular data on well-characterized patient material. We performed high-throughput transcriptome analyses of multiple placenta samples from healthy controls and patients with preeclampsia. Next, we identified differentially expressed genes in preeclamptic placentas and intersected them with the list of human imprinted genes. We used bioinformatics/statistical analyses to confirm association between imprinting and preeclampsia and to predict biological processes affected in preeclampsia. Validation included epigenetic and cellular assays. In terms of human specificity, we established an in vitro invasion-differentiation trophoblast model. Our comparative phylogenetic analysis involved single-cell transcriptome data of human, macaque, and mouse preimplantation embryogenesis. RESULTS:: We found disturbed placental imprinting in preeclampsia and revealed potential candidates, including GATA3 and DLX5, with poorly explored imprinted status and no prior association with preeclampsia. As a result of loss of imprinting, DLX5 was upregulated in 69% of preeclamptic placentas. Levels of DLX5 correlated with classic preeclampsia markers. DLX5 is expressed in human but not in murine trophoblast. The DLX5 phenotype resulted in reduced proliferation, increased metabolism, and endoplasmic reticulum stress-response activation in trophoblasts in vitro. The transcriptional profile of such cells mimics the transcriptome of preeclamptic placentas. Pan-mammalian comparative analysis identified DLX5 as part of the human-specific regulatory network of trophoblast differentiation. CONCLUSIONS:: Our analysis provides evidence of a true association among disturbed imprinting, gene expression, and preeclampsia. As a result of disturbed imprinting, the upregulated DLX5 affects trophoblast proliferation. Our in vitro model might fill a vital niche in preeclampsia research. Human-specific regulatory circuitry of DLX5 might help explain certain aspects of preeclampsia.
    Keywords: 10014 ; 10080 ; 10081 ; 10112 ; Original Research Articles ; Epigenetics ; Gene Expression And Regulation ; Genomic Imprinting ; Preeclampsia ; Trophoblasts;
    ISSN: 0009-7322
    E-ISSN: 15244539
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Remote Sensing, August 2018, Vol.10(8), p.1254
    Description: Data from Earth observation (EO) satellites are increasingly used to monitor the environment, understand variability and change, inform evaluations of climate model forecasts, and manage natural resources. Policymakers are progressively...
    Keywords: Sciences of the Universe ; Earth Sciences ; Climatology ; Hcho ; CO ; No2 ; Quality Assurance ; Traceability ; User Requirements ; Climate Applications ; Surface Albedo ; Lai ; Fapar ; Earth Observation Satellites ; Essential Climate Variables ; Climate Data Records ; Geography
    ISSN: 2072-4292
    E-ISSN: 2072-4292
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, June 29, 2016, Vol.16(12), p.7899
    Description: Decreasing sea ice and increasing marine navigability in northern latitudes have changed Arctic ship traffic patterns in recent years and are predicted to increase annual ship traffic in the Arctic in the future. Development of effective regulations to manage environmental impacts of shipping requires an understanding of ship emissions and atmospheric processing in the Arctic environment. As part of the summer#xC2;#xA0;2014 NETCARE (Network on Climate and Aerosols) campaign, the plume dispersion and gas and particle emission factors of effluents originating from the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Amundsen operating near Resolute Bay, NU, Canada, were investigated. The Amundsen burned distillate fuel with 1.5#xE2;#x80;#xAF;wt#xE2;#x80;#xAF;% sulfur. Emissions were studied via plume intercepts using the Polar#xC2;#xA0;6 aircraft measurements, an analytical plume dispersion model, and using the FLEXPART-WRF Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The first plume intercept by the research aircraft was carried out on 19#xC2;#xA0;July#xC2;#xA0;2014 during the operation of the Amundsen in the open water. The second and third plume intercepts were carried out on 20 and 21#xC2;#xA0;July#xC2;#xA0;2014 when the Amundsen had reached the ice edge and operated under ice-breaking conditions. Typical of Arctic marine navigation, the engine load was low compared to cruising conditions for all of the plume intercepts. The measured species included mixing ratios of CO.sub.2, NO.sub.x, CO, SO.sub.2, particle number concentration (CN), refractory black carbon (rBC), and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The results were compared to similar experimental studies in mid-latitudes. Plume expansion rates (#xCE;#xB3;) were calculated using the analytical model and found to be #xCE;#xB3;#x 2;#x80;#xAF; #xE2;#x80;#x89 =#xE2;#x80; x89;#xE2;#x80; #xAF;0.75#xE2; €#xAF;#xC2;#xB1;#xE2;#x80;#xAF;0.81, 0.93#xE2;#x80;#xAF;#xC2;#xB1;#xE2;#x80;#xAF;0.37, and 1.19#xE2;#x80;#xAF;#xC2;#xB1;#xE2;#x80;#xAF;0.39 for plumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. These rates were smaller than prior studies conducted at mid-latitudes, likely due to polar boundary layer dynamics, including reduced turbulent mixing compared to mid-latitudes. All emission factors were in agreement with prior observations at low engine loads in mid-latitudes. Ice-breaking increased the NO.sub.x emission factor from EF.sub.NO.sub.x #x 2;#x80;#xAF; #xE2;#x80;#x89 =#xE2;#x80; x89;#xE2;#x80; #xAF;43.1#xE2;#x80;#xAF;#xC2;#xB1;#xE2;#x80;#xAF;15.2 to 71.6#xE2;#x80;#xAF;#xC2;#xB1;#xE2;#x80;#xAF;9.68 and 71.4#xE2;#x80; ¯#xC2;#xB ;#xE2;#x80; xAF;4.14#xE2;#x80;#xAF;g#xE2;#x80;#xAF;kg-diesel.sup.-1 for plumes 1, 2, and 3, likely due to changes in combustion temperatures. The CO emission factor was EF.sub.CO #xE2;#x80;#x F;#xE2;#x80; #x89;=#xE2;#x8 ;#x89;#xE2; x80;#xAF;137#x 2;#x80;#xAF;#xC2;#xB1;#xE2;#x80;#xAF;120, 12.5#xE2;#x80;#xAF;#xC2;#xB1;#xE2;#x80;#xAF;3.70 and 8.13#xE2;#x80; ¯#xC2;#xB ;#xE2;#x80; xAF;1.34#xE2;#x80;#xAF;g#xE2;#x80;#xAF;kg-diesel.sup.-1 for plumes 1, 2, and 3. The rBC emission factor was EF.sub.rBC #xE2;#x80;#x F;#xE2;#x80; #x89;=#xE2;#x8 ;#x89;#xE2; x80;#xAF;0.202 xE2;#x80;#xAF;#xC2;#xB1;#xE2;#x80;#xAF;0.052 and 0.202#xE2;#x80; #xAF;#xC2;#x 1;#xE2;#x80; #xAF;0.125#xE2;#x80;#xAF;g#xE2;#x80;#xAF;kg-diesel.sup.-1 for plumes#xC2;#xA0;1 and 2. The CN emission factor was reduced while ice-breaking from EF.sub.CN #xE2;#x80;#x F;#xE2;#x80; #x89;=#xE2;#x8 ;#x89;#xE2; x80;#xAF;2.41# E2;#x80;#xAF;#xC2;#xB1;#xE2;#x80;#xAF;0.47 to 0.45#xE2;#x80;#xAF;#xC2;#xB1;#xE2;#x80;#xAF;0.082 and 0.507#xE2;#x80; #xAF;#xC2;#x 1;#xE2;#x80; #xAF;0.037#xE2; #x80;#xAF;#xE2 #x80;#x89;# C3;#x97;#xE2;#x80;#x89;#xE2;#x80;#xAF;10.sup.16 #xE2;#x80;#xAF;kg-diesel.sup.-1 for plumes 1, 2, and 3. At 0.6#xE2;#x80;#xAF;% supersaturation, the CCN emission factor was comparable to observations in mid-latitudes at low engine loads with EF.sub.CCN #xE2;#x80;#x F;#xE2;#x80; #x89;=#xE2;#x8 ;#x89;#xE2; x80;#xAF;3.03# E2;#x80;#xAF;#xC2;#xB1;#xE2;#x80;#xAF;0.933, 1.39#xE2;#x80;#xAF;#xC2;#xB1;#xE2;#x80;#xAF;0.319, and 0.650#xE2;#x80; #xAF;#xC2;#x 1;#xE2;#x80; #xAF;0.136#xE2; #x80;#xAF;#xE2 #x80;#x89;# C3;#x97;#xE2;#x80;#x89;#xE2;#x80;#xAF;10.sup.14 #xE2;#x80;#xAF;kg-diesel.sup.-1 for plumes 1, 2, and 3.
    Keywords: Marine Navigation – Laws, Regulations and Rules ; Marine Navigation – Measurement ; Marine Navigation – Environmental Aspects ; Aircraft – Laws, Regulations and Rules ; Aircraft – Measurement ; Aircraft – Environmental Aspects ; Environmental Law – Measurement ; Environmental Law – Environmental Aspects ; Aircraft Exhaust Emissions – Laws, Regulations and Rules ; Aircraft Exhaust Emissions – Measurement ; Aircraft Exhaust Emissions – Environmental Aspects ; Sea Ice – Laws, Regulations and Rules ; Sea Ice – Measurement ; Sea Ice – Environmental Aspects
    ISSN: 1680-7316
    E-ISSN: 16807324
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