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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, 01 March 2011, Vol.203(5), pp.595-601
    Description: Recently, a IL28B (rs 12979860) gene polymorphism was identified as a predictor for response to hepatitis C virus-specific treatment in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected and -infected patients with chronic hepatitis C. In an analysis of HIV-infected patients with acute hepatitis C, we found that the IL28B genotype was associated with serum levels of hepatitis C virus RNA, g-GT, and CD4 cell count. In contrast to HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C, the IL28B genotype was not significantly associated with treatment response rates in patients with acute hepatitis C. Thus, effects of the IL28B single-nucleotide polymorphism may differ in HIV-infected patients with chronic and acute hepatitis C.
    Keywords: Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; HIV Infections -- Complications ; Hepatitis C -- Genetics ; Interleukins -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 1537-6613
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental health perspectives, March 2009, Vol.117(3), pp.309-15
    Description: In their safety evaluations of bisphenol A (BPA), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and a counterpart in Europe, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), have given special prominence to two industry-funded studies that adhered to standards defined by Good Laboratory Practices (GLP). These same agencies have given much less weight in risk assessments to a large number of independently replicated non-GLP studies conducted with government funding by the leading experts in various fields of science from around the world. We reviewed differences between industry-funded GLP studies of BPA conducted by commercial laboratories for regulatory purposes and non-GLP studies conducted in academic and government laboratories to identify hazards and molecular mechanisms mediating adverse effects. We examined the methods and results in the GLP studies that were pivotal in the draft decision of the U.S. FDA declaring BPA safe in relation to findings from studies that were competitive for U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding, peer-reviewed for publication in leading journals, subject to independent replication, but rejected by the U.S. FDA for regulatory purposes. Although the U.S. FDA and EFSA have deemed two industry-funded GLP studies of BPA to be superior to hundreds of studies funded by the U.S. NIH and NIH counterparts in other countries, the GLP studies on which the agencies based their decisions have serious conceptual and methodologic flaws. In addition, the U.S. FDA and EFSA have mistakenly assumed that GLP yields valid and reliable scientific findings (i.e., "good science"). Their rationale for favoring GLP studies over hundreds of publically funded studies ignores the central factor in determining the reliability and validity of scientific findings, namely, independent replication, and use of the most appropriate and sensitive state-of-the-art assays, neither of which is an expectation of industry-funded GLP research. Public health decisions should be based on studies using appropriate protocols with appropriate controls and the most sensitive assays, not GLP. Relevant NIH-funded research using state-of-the-art techniques should play a prominent role in safety evaluations of chemicals.
    Keywords: FDA ; Food and Drug Administration ; Glp ; Bisphenol A ; Endocrine Disruptors ; Good Laboratory Practices ; Low-Dose ; Nonmonotonic ; Positive Control ; Clinical Laboratory Techniques -- Standards ; Ecotoxicology -- Methods ; Endocrine Disruptors -- Toxicity ; Phenols -- Toxicity ; Public Health Practice -- Standards
    ISSN: 00916765
    E-ISSN: 1552-9924
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