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  • Health Reference Center Academic (Gale)  (549)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 23 November 2018, Vol.362(6417), pp.941-945
    Description: Animal social networks are shaped by multiple selection pressures, including the need to ensure efficient communication and functioning while simultaneously limiting disease transmission. Social animals could potentially further reduce epidemic risk by altering their social networks in the presence of pathogens, yet there is currently no evidence for such pathogen-triggered responses. We tested this hypothesis experimentally in the ant using a combination of automated tracking, controlled pathogen exposure, transmission quantification, and temporally explicit simulations. Pathogen exposure induced behavioral changes in both exposed ants and their nestmates, which helped contain the disease by reinforcing key transmission-inhibitory properties of the colony's contact network. This suggests that social network plasticity in response to pathogens is an effective strategy for mitigating the effects of disease in social groups.
    Keywords: Host-Pathogen Interactions ; Social Behavior ; Social Networking ; Ants -- Microbiology ; Metarhizium -- Pathogenicity
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Psychology, Nov, 2010, Vol.95(6), p.1121(13)
    Description: We developed a model predicting that leaders are most effective in stimulating follower cooperation when they consistently treat all group members in a fair manner and are prototypical (i.e., representative of the group's values and norms). In support of this idea, we consistently found that group members cooperated most when prototypical leaders treated themselves as well as their coworkers fairly across a laboratory experiment and 3 cross-sectional field studies. These findings highlight the important role of others' fairness experiences and perceptions in influencing one's own reactions and also the role of leaders as representing the group's values and norms. We discuss implications for fairness theory and the leader prototypicality literature. Keywords: procedural fairness, others' procedural fairness, OCB, cooperation, prototypicality DOI: 10.1037/a0020419
    Keywords: Leadership -- Research ; Leadership -- Psychological Aspects
    ISSN: 0021-9010
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Intensive Care Medicine, 2011, Vol.37(10), pp.1648-1655
    Description: Byline: Robin Cremer (1,2), Philippe Hubert (3,6), Bruno Grandbastien (4,7), Gregoire Moutel (5,6), Francis Leclerc (1,8) Keywords: Withdrawing treatments; Guideline adherence; Intensive care unit; Ethics; Child; Uncompensated care; Patient care management; Hospital costs Abstract: Purpose Our goal is to assess the prevalence of questioning about the appropriateness of initiating or maintaining life-sustaining treatments (LST) in French-speaking paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and to evaluate time utilisation related to decision-making processes (DMP). Methods 18-month, multicentre, prospective, descriptive, observational study in 15 French-speaking PICUs. Results Among the 5,602 children admitted, 410 died (7.3%), including 175 after forgoing LST (42.7% of deaths). LST was questioned in 308 children (5.5%) with a prevalence of 13.3 per 100 patient-days. More than 30% of children survived despite the appropriateness of LST being questioned (23% despite a decision to forgo treatment). Median caregiver time spent on making and presenting the decisions was 11 h per child. Conclusions In this study, on any given day in each 10-bed PICU, there was more than one child for whom a DMP was underway. Of children, 23% survived despite a decision to forgo LST being made, which underlines the need to elaborate a care plan for these children. Also, DMP represented a large amount of staff time that is undervalued but necessary to ensure optimal palliative practice in PICU. Author Affiliation: (1) Reanimation Pediatrique, Hopital Jeanne de Flandre, CHU de Lille, 59037, Lille Cedex, France (2) Espace Ethique Hospitalier et Universitaire de Lille, 1 place de Verdun, 59045, Lille Cedex, France (3) Reanimation Pediatrique, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Rue de Sevres, 75007, Paris, France (6) Universite Paris V - Descartes, 12 rue de l'ecole de medecine, 75006, Paris, France (4) Service d'Epidemiologie Regional, Hopital Calmette, CHU de Lille, 59037, Lille Cedex, France (7) Universite Lille Nord de France, 1 bis rue Georges Lefebvre, 59800, Lille, France (5) Reseau de Recherche en Ethique de l'INSERM, Laboratoire d'Ethique Medicale, Faculte de Medecine Paris-Descartes, 75270, Paris, France (8) Universite Lille Nord de France, UDSL, EA 2694, 1 bis rue Georges Lefebvre, 59800, Lille, France Article History: Registration Date: 09/07/2011 Received Date: 21/10/2010 Accepted Date: 12/04/2011 Online Date: 16/08/2011
    Keywords: Withdrawing treatments ; Guideline adherence ; Intensive care unit ; Ethics ; Child ; Uncompensated care ; Patient care management ; Hospital costs
    ISSN: 0342-4642
    E-ISSN: 1432-1238
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Human Relations, July 2013, Vol.66(7), pp.973-992
    Description: Theories that explain employees’ positive emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to fair procedures rely on control and relational processes. In the present study, we build on these models, but reverse this perspective to examine when leaders provide voice opportunities in their interactions with employees. We argued that leaders may take care of employees’ perceived individual control needs (which influence their own outcomes) by granting them voice. However, this will be the case particularly when leaders perceive that this employee also wants to belong to the organization, because this makes it more likely that employees will use their voice in a way that does not hurt the organization’s interest. Support for this predicted interaction effect was found in a laboratory experiment and a multisource field study. This research is among the first to identify factors that influence whether leaders will be more likely to act fairly, thus integrating procedural justice processes in the leadership literature.
    Keywords: Leadership ; Need to Belong ; Need for Control ; Procedural Fairness ; Voice ; Social Sciences (General)
    ISSN: 0018-7267
    E-ISSN: 1741-282X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, 17 November 2013, Vol.98(11), p.856
    Description: Oral aversion and feeding disorders occur frequently after long-term feeding via a tube. A rapid home-based tube-weaning programme that provides feeding disorder treatment under medical supervision to overcome oral aversion has been developed.
    Keywords: Nutrition ; Child Psychology ; Infant Feeding ; Growth ; Gastroenterology
    ISSN: 0003-9888
    ISSN: 00039888
    E-ISSN: 1468-2044
    E-ISSN: 14682044
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Psychology, 2010, Vol.95(3), pp.488-502
    Description: Building on fairness heuristic theory, fairness theory, and trust development models, we argue that unfairly enacted procedures decrease followers' trust in the authority particularly when authorities have high power over their followers. Moreover, we expected trust to mediate procedural fairness effects on followers' attitudes (authorities' legitimacy and charisma attributed to authorities) and organizational citizenship behavior. Procedural fairness effects on these variables, as mediated by trust, should therefore also be stronger when authority power is high. The results of a single- and multisource field study and a laboratory experiment supported these predictions. These studies support the role of authority power as a theoretically and practically relevant moderator of procedural fairness effects and show that its effectiveness is explained through trust in authorities.
    Keywords: Procedural Fairness ; Power ; Trust ; Charisma ; Ocb
    ISSN: 0021-9010
    E-ISSN: 1939-1854
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Psychology, 2010, Vol.95(2), pp.291-304
    Description: Prior research has shown that procedural fairness interacts with outcome fairness to influence employees’ work attitudes (e.g., organizational commitment) and behaviors (e.g., job performance, organizational citizenship behavior), such that employees’ tendencies to respond more positively to higher procedural fairness are stronger when outcome fairness is relatively low. In the present studies, we posited that people’s uncertainty about their standing as organizational members would have a moderating influence on this interactive relationship between procedural fairness and outcome fairness, in that the interactive relationship was expected to be more pronounced when uncertainty was high. Using different operationalizations of uncertainty of standing (i.e., length of tenure as a proxy, along with self-reports and coworkers’ reports), we found support for this hypothesis in 4 field studies spanning 3 different countries.
    Keywords: Procedural Fairness ; Outcome Fairness ; Uncertainty ; Standing
    ISSN: 0021-9010
    E-ISSN: 1939-1854
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 17 March 2015, Vol.65(10), pp.A1148-A1148
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(15)61148-2 Byline: Paul Cremer, Richard Brunken, Venu Menon, Manuel Cerqueira, Wael Jaber Author Affiliation: Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Article Note: (footnote) Poster Contributions Poster Hall B1 Saturday, March 14, 2015, 3:45 p.m.-4:30 p.m. Session Title: Cardiac PET Imaging Abstract Category: 19. Non Invasive Imaging: Nuclear Presentation Number: 1135-013
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0735-1097
    E-ISSN: 1558-3597
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 17 March 2015, Vol.65(10), pp.A1138-A1138
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(15)61138-X Byline: Paul Cremer, Muhammed Tariq, Abhishek Karwa, Scott Flamm, Allan Klein, Deborah Kwon Author Affiliation: Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Article Note: (footnote) Poster Contributions Poster Hall B1 Saturday, March 14, 2015, 3:45 p.m.-4:30 p.m. Session Title: CMR in Cardiomyopathy Abstract Category: 18. Non Invasive Imaging: MR Presentation Number: 1134-003
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0735-1097
    E-ISSN: 1558-3597
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  • 10
    In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, July 2011, Vol.24(7), pp.1455-1461
    Description: Evolutionary theories of ageing predict that life span increases with decreasing extrinsic mortality, and life span variation among queens in ant species seems to corroborate this prediction: queens, which are the only reproductive in a colony, live much longer than queens in multi‐queen colonies. The latter often inhabit ephemeral nest sites and accordingly are assumed to experience a higher mortality risk. Yet, all prior studies compared queens from different single‐ and multi‐queen species. Here, we demonstrate an effect of queen number on longevity and fecundity within a single, socially plastic species, where queens experience the similar level of extrinsic mortality. Queens from single‐ and two‐queen colonies had significantly longer lifespan and higher fecundity than queens living in associations of eight queens. As queens also differ neither in morphology nor the mode of colony foundation, our study shows that the social environment itself strongly affects ageing rate.
    Keywords: Cardiocondyla ; Longevity ; Monogyny ; Mortality ; Polygyny ; Queen Number
    ISSN: 1010-061X
    E-ISSN: 1420-9101
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