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  • Health Reference Center Academic (Gale)  (31)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Pediatrics, August 2017, Vol.140(2)
    Keywords: Asperger Syndrome -- History ; Autistic Disorder -- History ; Eugenics -- History
    ISSN: 00314005
    E-ISSN: 1098-4275
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Psychopharmacology, Feb, 2010, Vol.208(2), p.353(11)
    Description: Byline: Thomas Wobrock (1), Alkomiet Hasan (1), Berend Malchow (1), Claus Wolff-Menzler (1), Birgit Guse (1), Nicolas Lang (2), Thomas Schneider-Axmann (1), Ullrich K. H. Ecker (3), Peter Falkai (1) Keywords: Schizophrenia; Substance abuse; Cortical inhibition; Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS); Cannabinoids; Electrophysiology Abstract: Rationale/objectives There is a high prevalence of substance use disorder (SUD) in first-episode schizophrenia (SZ), but its contribution to the underlying SZ pathophysiology remains unclear. Several studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have observed abnormalities in human motor cortex (M1) excitability in SZ. Studies on cortical excitability comparing SZ patients with and without comorbid substance abuse are lacking. Methods A total of 29 first-episode SZ patients participated in this study 12 had a history of comorbid cannabis abuse (SZ-SUD) and 17 did not (SZ-NSUD). We applied TMS to right and left M1 areas to assess the resting motor threshold (RMT), short-interval cortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF), and the contralateral cortical silent period (CSP). Results In SICI and ICF conditions, right M1 stimulation led to significantly higher motor evoked potential ratios in SZ-SUD compared to SZ-NSUD. This suggests lower cortical inhibition and increased ICF in first-episode SZ with previous cannabis abuse. There were no group differences in RMT and CSP duration. Neither were there any significant correlations between psychopathology (as indexed by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), disease characteristics, the extent of cannabis abuse, and TMS parameters (SICI, ICF, and CSP). Conclusions Comorbid cannabis abuse may potentiate the reduced intracortical inhibition and enhanced ICF observed in first-episode SZ patients in some previous studies. This finding suggests an increased alteration of GABA.sub.A and NMDA receptor activity in cannabis-abusing first-episode patients as compared to schizophrenia patients with no history of substance abuse. This may constitute a distinct vulnerability factor in this special population. Author Affiliation: (1) Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Georg-August-University Gottingen, Von-Siebold-Strasse 5, 37075, Gottingen, Germany (2) Department of Neurology, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, 24195, Kiel, Germany (3) School of Psychology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, 6009, Australia Article History: Registration Date: 18/11/2009 Received Date: 09/07/2009 Accepted Date: 16/11/2009 Online Date: 09/12/2009 Article note: T. Wobrock and A. Hasan contributed equally.
    Keywords: Marijuana ; Cannabinoids ; Substance Abuse ; Gaba ; N-methyl-d-aspartate ; Schizophrenia ; Comorbidity ; Psychotherapy
    ISSN: 0033-3158
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Child Development, May-June, 2002, Vol.73(3), p.752(16)
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00436 Byline: Josef Perner, Birgit Lang, Daniela Kloo Abstract: This study tested the theory that advances on theory-of-mind tasks and on executive function tasks show a strong correlation because the typically used theory-of-mind tasks pose the same executive demands. In Experiment 1 with fifty-six 3- to 6-year-old children, performance on the dimensional change card-sorting task as an executive function task was correlated with performance on the usual false-belief prediction task, r= .65, and the false-belief explanation task, r= .65, as measures of theory-of-mind development. Because the explanation version of the false-belief test is supposed to be free of the alleged executive demands inherent in the prediction version, the equally strong correlation with the executive function task suggests that this correlation cannot be due to common executive demands. In Experiment 2, the basic finding of Experiment 1 was replicated on another sample of 73 children, ages 3 to 5.5 years. The need for new theories to explain the developmental link between theory of mind and executive function development is discussed, and some existing candidates are evaluated. Author Affiliation: (1)University of Salzburg
    Keywords: Cognitive Learning -- Causes Of ; Children -- Psychological Aspects ; Child Development -- Research ; Other Minds (Theory of knowledge) -- Research ; Belief And Doubt -- Psychological Aspects;
    ISSN: 0009-3920
    E-ISSN: 14678624
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  • 4
    Language: German
    In: Biologie in unserer Zeit, December 2015, Vol.45(6), pp.388-395
    Description: Der Boden ist einer der individuen‐ und artenreichsten Lebensräume der Erde und Ort vielfältiger ökosystemarer Dienstleistungen. Aktuelle Forschungsprojekte zur Entstehung und Entwicklung von Bodentiergemeinschaften, zu den vielfältigen Wechselwirkungen innerhalb des Bodennahrungsnetzes und zur Verbreitung von Bodentieren geben unter anderem Einblick in die ökologischen Ansprüche und Anpassungsfähigkeit der Welt unter unseren Füßen und tragen so dazu bei, eine nachhaltige Nutzung der Ökoressource Boden zu gewährleisten. Soil – an underestimated biotope The soil is a biotope with high species abundances and richness. It is, furthermore, a location where important ecosystem services are realized. Recent research projects on the origin and development of soil animal communities, on the heterogeneous interactions within the soil nutrient net and the distribution of soil animals show the different ecological traits and adaptabilities of the world beneath our feet. So research contributes to maintain the eco‐resource of soil and its sustainable use. Die Generalversammlung der Vereinten Nationen hat das Jahr 2015 zum Internationalen Jahr des Bodens erklärt. Damit soll die Bedeutung der Böden für Ernährungssicherung und Produktion nachwachsender Rohstoffe, aber auch als Kohlenstoffspeicher und Ort ökosystemarer Dienstleistungen verdeutlicht werden. Was wir über Beziehungen im Boden wissen, welche Organismen beteiligt sind und wie sich Eingriffe des Menschen auswirken, stellt dieser Beitrag an ausgewählten Beispielen vor.
    Keywords: Bodenbiozönose ; Bodennahrungsnetz ; Bodenökologie ; Bodenschutz ; Jahr Des Bodens ; Edaphobase
    ISSN: 0045-205X
    E-ISSN: 1521-415X
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  • 5
    In: JDDG: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, February 2006, Vol.4(2), pp.124-130
    Description: Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma of the face and head and achieves cure rates of 92‐96 %. Different fractionation concepts of radiotherapy have been described.This study investigates the efficacy, as well as acute and chronic toxicity, of a slightly hypofractionated radiotherapy schedule. 85 patients with 104 tumors underwent radiotherapy for basal cell carcinoma of the face and head. The radiotherapy schedule was 5×3 Gray/week up to a total dose of 57 Gray in 95 % of patients. Acute and late radiotherapy toxicity and cosmetic outcome were evaluated in long‐term follow‐up. No recurrence was observed. In 87 % of tumors, only low acute toxicity occurred at the end of radiotherapy. Late toxicity, if observed, was low in most patients. “Excellent” or “good” cosmesis was achieved in 94 % of tumors at last follow‐up. Our radiotherapy schedule achieves a very high local control rate and very good cosmetic and functional results.This fractionation can be recommended as a standardized radiotherapy treatment for basal cell carcinoma of the face and head. Die Radiotherapie spielt eine wichtige Rolle in der Behandlung des Basalzellkarzinoms des Gesichts‐/Kopfbereichs und erreicht Heilungsraten von 92‐96 %. Verschiedene Radiotherapie‐Fraktionierungsschemata sind beschrieben worden. Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht die Wirksamkeit und (akute und chronische) Nebenwirkungen eines moderat hypofraktionierten Bestrahlungsschemas. 85 Patienten mit 104 Tumoren erhielten eine Radiotherapie bei einem Basalzellkarzinom des Gesichts‐/Kopfbereiches. In 95 % aller Patienten erfolgte eine Fraktionierung von 5x3 Gray/Woche bis zu einer Gesamtdosis von 57 Gray. Untersucht wurden akute und späte Radiotherapie‐Nebenwirkungen sowie das kosmetische Ergebnis. Es wurde kein Lokalrezidiv beobachtet. In 87 % aller Tumoren fanden sich zum Bestrahlungsende nur geringgradige akute Nebenwirkungen. Spätnebenwirkungen waren bei den meisten Patienten ebenfalls geringgradig ausgeprägt. In 94 % aller Tumoren konnte ein “exzellentes” oder “gutes” kosmetisches Ergebnis erreicht werden. Das verwendete Bestrahlungsschema erzielt eine sehr hohe lokale Kontrollrate und (“sehr”) “gute” kosmetische (und funktionelle) Ergebnisse. Die verwendete Fraktionierung kann insgesamt als standardisierte Behandlung für ein Basalzellkarzinom des Gesichts‐/Kopfbereiches empfohlen werden.
    Keywords: Basal Cell Carcinoma ; Radiotherapy ; Radiotherapy Dose Fractionation ; Treatment Outcome ; Basalzellkarzinom ; Radiotherapie ; Radiotherapie‐Fraktionierung ; Behandlungsergebnisse
    ISSN: 1610-0379
    E-ISSN: 1610-0387
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  • 6
    In: JDDG: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, February 2006, Vol.4(2), pp.no-no
    Description: Die Radiotherapie spielt eine wichtige Rolle in der Behandlung des Basalzellkarzinoms des Gesichts‐/Kopfbereichs und erreicht Heilungsraten von 92‐96 %. Verschiedene Radiotherapie‐Fraktionierungsschemata sind beschrieben worden. Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht die Wirksamkeit und (akute und chronische) Nebenwirkungen eines moderat hypofraktionierten Bestrahlungsschemas. 85 Patienten mit 104 Tumoren erhielten eine Radiotherapie bei einem Basalzellkarzinom des Gesichts‐/Kopfbereiches. In 95 % aller Patienten erfolgte eine Fraktionierung von 5x3 Gray/Woche bis zu einer Gesamtdosis von 57 Gray. Untersucht wurden akute und späte Radiotherapie‐Nebenwirkungen sowie das kosmetische Ergebnis. Es wurde kein Lokalrezidiv beobachtet. In 87 % aller Tumoren fanden sich zum Bestrahlungsende nur geringgradige akute Nebenwirkungen. Spätnebenwirkungen waren bei den meisten Patienten ebenfalls geringgradig ausgeprägt. In 94 % aller Tumoren konnte ein “exzellentes” oder “gutes” kosmetisches Ergebnis erreicht werden. Das verwendete Bestrahlungsschema erzielt eine sehr hohe lokale Kontrollrate und (“sehr”) “gute” kosmetische (und funktionelle) Ergebnisse. Die verwendete Fraktionierung kann insgesamt als standardisierte Behandlung für ein Basalzellkarzinom des Gesichts‐/Kopfbereiches empfohlen werden.
    Keywords: Basalzellkarzinom ; Radiotherapie ; Radiotherapie‐Fraktionierung ; Behandlungsergebnisse
    ISSN: 1610-0379
    E-ISSN: 1610-0387
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, July 30, 2015, Vol.10(7)
    Description: Cigarette smoking (CS) aggravates post-traumatic acute lung injury and increases ventilator-induced lung injury due to more severe tissue inflammation and apoptosis. Hyper-inflammation after chest trauma is due to the physical damage, the drop in alveolar PO.sub.2, and the consecutive hypoxemia and tissue hypoxia. Therefore, we tested the hypotheses that 1) CS exposure prior to blunt chest trauma causes more severe post-traumatic inflammation and thereby aggravates lung injury, and that 2) hyperoxia may attenuate this effect. Immediately after blast wave-induced blunt chest trauma, mice (n=32) with or without 3-4 weeks of CS exposure underwent 4 hours of pressure-controlled, thoraco-pulmonary compliance-titrated, lung-protective mechanical ventilation with air or 100 % O.sub.2 . Hemodynamics, lung mechanics, gas exchange, and acid-base status were measured together with blood and tissue cytokine and chemokine concentrations, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), activated caspase-3, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-[alpha] (HIF-1[alpha]) expression, nuclear factor-[kappa]B (NF-[kappa]B) activation, nitrotyrosine formation, purinergic receptor 2X.sub.4 (P2XR.sub.4) and 2X.sub.7 (P2XR.sub.7) expression, and histological scoring. CS exposure prior to chest trauma lead to higher pulmonary compliance and lower PaO.sub.2 and Horovitz-index, associated with increased tissue IL-18 and blood MCP-1 concentrations, a 2-4-fold higher inflammatory cell infiltration, and more pronounced alveolar membrane thickening. This effect coincided with increased activated caspase-3, nitrotyrosine, P2XR.sub.4, and P2XR.sub.7 expression, NF-[kappa]B activation, and reduced HIF-1[alpha] expression. Hyperoxia did not further affect lung mechanics, gas exchange, pulmonary and systemic cytokine and chemokine concentrations, or histological scoring, except for some patchy alveolar edema in CS exposed mice. However, hyperoxia attenuated tissue HIF-1[alpha], nitrotyrosine, P2XR.sub.7, and P2XR.sub.4 expression, while it increased HO-1 formation in CS exposed mice. Overall, CS exposure aggravated post-traumatic inflammation, nitrosative stress and thereby organ dysfunction and injury; short-term, lung-protective, hyperoxic mechanical ventilation have no major beneficial effect despite attenuation of nitrosative stress, possibly due to compensation of by regional alveolar hypoxia and/or consecutive hypoxemia, resulting in down-regulation of HIF-1[alpha] expression.
    Keywords: Smoking – Analysis ; Inflammation – Analysis ; Apoptosis – Analysis
    ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Physiology (Consolidated), 2010, Vol.299(4), p.C791(14)
    Description: The balance between GSH-levels and oxidative stress is critical for cell survival. The GSH-levels of erythrocytes are dramatically decreased during infection with Plasmodium spp. We therefore investigated the consequences of targeting GSH for erythrocyte and Plasmodium survival in vitro and in vivo using dimethylfumarate (DMF) at therapeutically established dosage. We first show that noninfected red blood cells (RBC) exposed to DMF undergo changes typical of apoptosis or eryptosis, such as cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with subsequent phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure. DMF did not induce appreciable hemolysis. DMF-triggered PS exposure was mediated by intracellular GSH depletion and reversed by the antioxidative N-acetyl-L-cysteine. DMF treatment controlled intraerythrocyte DNA amplification and in vitro parasitemia of Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBC. In vivo, DMF treatment had no effect on RBC count or GSH levels in noninfected mice. Consistent with its effects on infected RBC, DMF treatment abrogated parasitemia and enhanced the survival of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei from 0% to 60%. In conclusion, DMF sensitizes the erythrocytes to the effect of Plasmodium infection on PS exposure, thus accelerating the clearance of infected erythrocytes. Accordingly, DMF treatment favorably influences the clinical course of malaria. As DMF targets mechanisms within the host cell, it is not likely to generate resistance of the pathogen. infection; erythrocytes; Plasmodium; phosphatidylserine doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00014.2010.
    Keywords: Glutathione – Health Aspects ; Methyl Compounds – Health Aspects ; Malaria – Risk Factors ; Malaria – Prevention ; Red Blood Cells – Physiological Aspects
    ISSN: 0002-9513
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: BMC Anesthesiology, Dec 21, 2010, Vol.10, p.22
    Description: Background It has never been specified how many of the extended general and inflammatory variables of the 2003 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS consensus sepsis definitions are mandatory to define sepsis. Objectives To find out how many of these variables are needed to identify almost all patients with septic shock. Methods Retrospective observational single-centre study in postoperative/posttraumatic patients admitted to an University adult ICU. The survey looked at 1355 admissions, from 01/2007 to 12/2008, that were monitored daily computer-assisted for the eight general and inflammatory variables temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, significant edema, positive fluid balance, hyperglycemia, white blood cell count and C-reactive protein. A total of 507 patients with infections were classified based on the first day with the highest diagnostic category of sepsis during their stay using a cut-off of 1/8 variables compared with the corresponding classification based on a cut-off of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8/8 variables. Results Applying cut-offs of 1/8 up to 8/8 variables resulted in a decreased detection rate of cases with septic shock, i.e., from 106, 105, 103, 93, 65, 21, 3 to 0. The mortality rate increased up to a cut-off of 6/8 variables, i.e., 31% (33/106), 31% (33/105), 31% (32/103), 32% (30/93), 38% (25/65), 43% (9/21), 33% (1/3) and 0% (0/0). Conclusions Frequencies and mortality rates of diagnostic categories of sepsis differ depending on the cut-off for general and inflammatory variables. A cut-off of 3/8 variables is needed to identify almost all patients with septic shock who may benefit from optimal treatment.
    Keywords: C-reactive Protein -- Health Aspects ; Septic Shock -- Health Aspects ; Heart Rate -- Health Aspects ; Hyperglycemia -- Health Aspects ; Hospital Patients -- Health Aspects ; Infection -- Health Aspects
    ISSN: 1471-2253
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, August 2015, Vol.2015(23), pp.3850-3860
    Description: The preparation and twin polymerization of the twin monomer Si(OCHFc) [Fc = Fe(η‐CH)(η‐CH)] () by the reaction of FcCHOH () with SiCl in the presence of pyridine was explored. The electronic properties of were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, square‐wave voltammetry, and UV/Vis/near‐IR spectroelectrochemistry, which showed a redox separation caused by electrostatic repulsion. Thermally induced condensation of is characteristic, as evidenced by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry coupled mass spectrometry (TG–MS). Upon heating to 210 °C, twin polymerization occurred and a hybrid material was formed that showed similarities with known systems derived from 2,2′‐spirobi[4‐1,3,2‐benzodioxasiline] (SBS), such as the nanopatterning of the formed silicon dioxide, which is characteristic for twin polymerization. Electron microscopy of this material revealed the absence of typical microstructuring found for other twin polymers, and hence, the herein presented system can be characterized as a borderline system if compared to known twin monomers such as SBS. The copolymerization of and SBS afforded a hybrid material from which porous carbon or silica materials containing iron oxide nanoparticles could be obtained. The oxidation state of the incorporated particles was examined by Mössbauer experiments, which confirmed that only Fe was incorporated within the porous carbon and silica materials, respectively. The preparation of iron oxide containing porous carbon capsules was achieved by applying a mixture of and SBS to silicon dioxide spheres ( = 200 nm). After twin polymerization and carbonization, porous carbon capsules with incorporated iron oxide nanostructures were obtained. The straightforward preparation of iron‐rich porous carbon and silica materials by twin polymerization of Si(OCHFc) [Fc = Fe(η‐CH)(η‐CH)] and 2,2′‐spirobi[4‐1,3,2‐benzodioxasiline] is reported; the electrochemical properties of Si(OCHFc) are discussed.
    Keywords: Hybrid Materials ; Nanoparticles ; Iron ; Superparamagnetism ; Electrochemistry ; Twin Polymerization
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    E-ISSN: 1099-0682
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