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  • Health Reference Center Academic (Gale)  (12)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Respiratory Research, July 8, 2010, Vol.11, p.93
    Description: Background Legionella pneumophila is an important causative agent of severe pneumonia in humans. Human alveolar epithelium and macrophages are effective barriers for inhaled microorganisms and actively participate in the initiation of innate host defense. The beta defensin-3 (hBD-3), an antimicrobial peptide is an important component of the innate immune response of the human lung. Therefore we hypothesize that hBD-3 might be important for immune defense towards L. pneumophila. Methods We investigated the effects of L. pneumophila and different TLR agonists on pulmonary cells in regard to hBD-3 expression by ELISA. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated inhibition of TLRs as well as chemical inhibition of potential downstream signaling molecules was used for functional analysis. Results L. pneumophila induced release of hBD-3 in pulmonary epithelium and alveolar macrophages. A similar response was observed when epithelial cells were treated with different TLR agonists. Inhibition of TLR2, TLR5, and TLR9 expression led to a decreased hBD-3 expression. Furthermore expression of hBD-3 was mediated through a JNK dependent activation of AP-1 (c-Jun) but appeared to be independent of NF-[kappa]B. Additionally, we demonstrate that hBD-3 elicited a strong antimicrobial effect on L. pneumophila replication. Conclusions Taken together, human pulmonary cells produce hBD-3 upon L. pneumophila infection via a TLR-JNK-AP-1-dependent pathway which may contribute to an efficient innate immune defense.
    Keywords: Cellular Proteins -- Health Aspects ; Cellular Proteins -- Research ; Immune Response -- Health Aspects ; Immune Response -- Research ; Legionnaires' Disease -- Causes Of ; Legionnaires' Disease -- Drug Therapy ; Legionnaires' Disease -- Research
    ISSN: 1465-9921
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Respiratory Research, 01 July 2010, Vol.11(1), p.93
    Description: Abstract Background Legionella pneumophila is an important causative agent of severe pneumonia in humans. Human alveolar epithelium and macrophages are effective barriers for inhaled microorganisms and actively participate in the initiation of innate host defense. The beta defensin-3 (hBD-3), an antimicrobial peptide is an important component of the innate immune response of the human lung. Therefore we hypothesize that hBD-3 might be important for immune defense towards L. pneumophila. Methods We investigated the effects of L. pneumophila and different TLR agonists on pulmonary cells in regard to hBD-3 expression by ELISA. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated inhibition of TLRs as well as chemical inhibition of potential downstream signaling molecules was used for functional analysis. Results L. pneumophila induced release of hBD-3 in pulmonary epithelium and alveolar macrophages. A similar response was observed when epithelial cells were treated with different TLR agonists. Inhibition of TLR2, TLR5, and TLR9 expression led to a decreased hBD-3 expression. Furthermore expression of hBD-3 was mediated through a JNK dependent activation of AP-1 (c-Jun) but appeared to be independent of NF-κB. Additionally, we demonstrate that hBD-3 elicited a strong antimicrobial effect on L. pneumophila replication. Conclusions Taken together, human pulmonary cells produce hBD-3 upon L. pneumophila infection via a TLR-JNK-AP-1-dependent pathway which may contribute to an efficient innate immune defense.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1465-9921
    E-ISSN: 1465-993X
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  • 3
    In: Environmental Microbiology, June 2016, Vol.18(6), pp.1988-2000
    Description: Phosphorus () is an important macronutrient for all biota on earth but similarly a finite resource. Microorganisms play on both sides of the fence as they effectively mineralize organic and solubilize precipitated forms of soil phosphorus but conversely also take up and immobilize . Therefore, we analysed the role of microbes in two beech forest soils with high and low content by direct sequencing of metagenomic deoxyribonucleic acid. For inorganic solubilization, a significantly higher microbial potential was detected in the ‐rich soil. This trait especially referred to  olibacter usiatus, likewise one of the dominating species in the data sets. A higher microbial potential for efficient phosphate uptake systems () was detected in the ‐depleted soil. Genes involved in starvation response regulation (, ) were prevalent in both soils. This underlines the importance of effective phosphate (ho) regulon control for microorganisms to use alternative sources during phosphate limitation. Predicted genes were primarily harboured by hizobiales, ctinomycetales and cidobacteriales.
    Keywords: Soil Microbiology – Analysis ; Nucleic Acids – Analysis ; Phosphates – Analysis ; Forest Soils – Analysis ; Soil Phosphorus – Analysis;
    ISSN: 1462-2912
    E-ISSN: 1462-2920
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  • 4
    In: Environmental Microbiology, September 2016, Vol.18(8), pp.2767-2767
    Description: Byline: Fabian Bergkemper, Anne Scholer, Marion Engel, Friederike Lang, Jaane Kruger, Michael Schloter, Stefanie Schulz ***** No abstract is available for this article. *****
    Keywords: Recycling ; Forest Soils ; Soil Microbiology;
    ISSN: 1462-2912
    E-ISSN: 1462-2920
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Intensive Care Medicine, 2004, Vol.30(3), pp.430-436
    Description: Byline: Peter Schellongowski (1), Michael Benesch (2), Thomas Lang (2), Friederike Traunmuller (1), Christian Zauner (3), Klaus Laczika (1), Gottfried J. Locker (1), Michael Frass (1), Thomas Staudinger (1) Keywords: Scoring; Cancer; Critical care; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II; Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II; Mortality Probability Model II Abstract: Objective To compare three scoring systems, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and a modified Mortality Probability Model II (ICU cancer mortality model, ICMM) for their prognostic value for mortality during hospital stay in a group of cancer patients admitted to a medical ICU. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Medical ICU of a tertiary care hospital. Patients Two hundred forty-two consecutive cancer patients admitted to the ICU. Measurements and results Variables included in APACHE II, SAPS II and the ICMM scores as well as demographic data were assessed during the first 24 h of stay in the ICU. Hospital mortality was measured it was 44%. Calibration for all three scoring systems was acceptable, SAPS II yielded a significantly superior discrimination between survivors and non-survivors. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.776 for APACHE II, 0.825 for SAPS II and 0.698 for the ICMM. Conclusion The SAPS II was superior to APACHE II and ICMM. The newly developed ICMM does not improve mortality prediction in critically ill cancer patients. Author Affiliation: (1) Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18--20, 1090, Vienna, Austria (2) Institute for Medical Statistics, University of Vienna, Schwarzspanierstrasse 17, 1090, Vienna, Austria (3) Department of Internal Medicine IV, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18--20, 1090, Vienna, Austria Article History: Registration Date: 01/01/2003 Received Date: 03/04/2003 Accepted Date: 29/09/2003 Online Date: 04/11/2003
    Keywords: Scoring ; Cancer ; Critical care ; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II ; Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II ; Mortality Probability Model II
    ISSN: 0342-4642
    E-ISSN: 1432-1238
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 09 March 2010, Vol.55(10), pp.A43.E412-A43.E412
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(10)60413-5 Byline: Nora F. Lang, Matthias Sigler, Elena Merkel, Franziska Fuchs, Dieter Schumann, Dieter Klemm, Friederike Kramer, Anja Meyer, Franz Freudenthal, Christian Schroeder, Susanne Mayer, Heinrich Netz, Rainer Kozlik-Feldmann
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0735-1097
    E-ISSN: 1558-3597
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 2018, Vol.275(10), pp.2507-2513
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-018-5105-2 Byline: Kerstin Stahr (1), Laura Holtmann (1), Anke Schluter (1), Friederike Kaster (1), Michael Oeverhaus (2), Stephan Lang (1), Anja Eckstein (2), Stefan Mattheis (1) Keywords: Graves' orbitopathy; Orbital decompression; Nasal airflow; Olfactory performance; Surgical outcome Abstract: Purpose To determine the influence of anatomical changes after orbital decompression to nasal function. Methods We examined postoperative nasal function after orbital decompression in patients with GO in a prospective study. 25 patients were enrolled between 2014 and 2016. Sense of smell (Sniffin' Test) and nasal airflow (anterior rhinomanometry) were tested pre- and 6 weeks postoperatively. In addition, postoperative incidence of sinus infections, persistent pressure pain, and infraorbital hypoesthesia were assessed by means of a questionnaire. Results The olfactory performance showed a significant increase (p〈0.05) after surgery, while the nasal airflow significantly decreased (p〈0.05). Acute sinus infection occurred in three, infraorbital sensibility disorders in eight cases within the first 6 weeks after surgery. No persistent pain was recorded. Conclusion We demonstrate that decompression of the medial orbital wall leads to a decrease in nasal airflow, whereof patients should be informed before the procedure. This is most likely due to a medialization of the medial turbinate and the prolapse of orbital content into the nasal cavity. The increase of the olfactory performance is, in our opinion, more likely due to variation within the standard deviation than to anatomical changes. Author Affiliation: (1) 0000 0001 0262 7331, grid.410718.b, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, 45147, Essen, Germany (2) 0000 0001 0262 7331, grid.410718.b, Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, 45147, Essen, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 21/08/2018 Received Date: 08/06/2018 Accepted Date: 21/08/2018 Online Date: 30/08/2018
    Keywords: Graves’ orbitopathy ; Orbital decompression ; Nasal airflow ; Olfactory performance ; Surgical outcome
    ISSN: 0937-4477
    E-ISSN: 1434-4726
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  • 8
    In: Medicine, 2016, Vol.95(38), pp.e4602-e4602
    Description: ABSTRACT: We aimed to validate the liver fibrosis index FIB-4 as a model for risk stratification of hepatocellular carcinoma development in predominantly non-Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B infection seen at a tertiary referral center in Germany.We retrospectively analyzed 373 adult patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Patient demographics, hepatitis B markers, antiviral treatment, laboratory parameters, results from liver imaging and histology were recorded. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their FIB-4 levels and their hazard ratios for developing hepatocellular carcinoma were analyzed adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and antiviral medication.Median follow-up was 8.7 years (range 1–21.3 years), 93% of patients were of non-Asian origin, and 64% were male. Compared with patients with a low FIB-4 (〈1.25) patients with FIB-4 ≥1.25 showed a hazard ratio for incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma of 3.03 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24–7.41) and an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.75 (95% CI: 0.64–4.74). Notably, 68% of patients with liver cirrhosis and 68% of those who developed HCC during observation had a low FIB-4 (〈1.25).We could not confirm that a FIB-4 value ≥1.25 is a reliable clinical indicator for incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in predominantly non-Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B. Further studies in geographically and ethnically diverse populations are needed to prove its utility as a predictive tool.
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0025-7974
    E-ISSN: 15365964
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  • 9
    In: Clinical Transplantation, November 2018, Vol.32(11), pp.n/a-n/a
    Description: Byline: Felix Darstein, Friederike Hauser, Beate K. Straub, Jurgen J. Wenzel, Roland Conradi, Jens Mittler, Hauke Lang, Peter R. Galle, Tim Zimmermann Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a potential reason for elevated liver enzymes after liver transplantation (LT). Our aim was to analyze a real-world cohort of LT patients, who underwent liver biopsy for elevated transaminases and suspected acute rejection, to evaluate frequency of post-transplant HEV infection. Patients Data from 160 liver biopsies were analyzed. Seventy-one patients were biopsied on schedule after LT without elevated liver enzymes. A subgroup of 25 patients with elevated liver enzymes and suspected rejection was chosen for further analysis. Patient demographics and data were retrieved from a clinical database, patients' charts, and reports. Results Hepatitis E virus infection was diagnosed in five of 25 patients with suspected acute rejection (20%). HEV genotype 3 was detected in three of the five HEV-infected patients. Patients with HEV infection showed higher ALT levels (P = 0.014), lower De Ritis ratio (P = 0.021), and more frequent glucocorticoid therapy (P = 0.012) compared to HEV-negative patients. Conclusion We found a rate of 20% HEV infections in LT patients undergoing liver biopsy for elevated liver enzymes and suspected acute rejection. These data indicate the necessity for HEV testing in all LT patients with elevated liver enzymes and suspected acute rejection. CAPTION(S):
    Keywords: Virus Diseases – Genetic Aspects ; Virus Diseases – Analysis ; Virus Diseases – Health Aspects ; Liver Transplantation – Analysis ; Liver Transplantation – Health Aspects ; Enzymes – Analysis ; Enzymes – Health Aspects ; Liver – Analysis ; Liver – Health Aspects;
    ISSN: 0902-0063
    E-ISSN: 1399-0012
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  • 10
    In: Movement Disorders, January 2019, Vol.34(1), pp.67-77
    Description: Objectives The objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the annual rate of progression of motor and cognitive symptoms and (2) baseline predictors of different modalities for this progression in early Parkinson's disease (PD) when compared with healthy controls. Methods A total of 135 de novo PD and 109 healthy controls (of the De Novo Parkinson cohort) were investigated at baseline and after 24 and 48 months. To delineate motor progression and cognitive decline, the Movement Disorder Society‐Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (MDS‐UPDRS III) and the Mini‐Mental Status Examination (MMSE) were selected. Baseline variables used to predict progression included sociodemographic factors, comorbidities, motor/nonmotor symptoms, polysomnography, MRI, and laboratory biomarkers in serum and CSF. Results Symptoms worsened over 4 years in PD with an annual change of 1.8 points on the MDS‐UPDRS III and 0.2 points on the MMSE. Baseline predictors of worse progression of motor symptoms in PD included male sex, orthostatic blood pressure drop, diagnosis of coronary artery disease, arterial hypertension, elevated serum uric acid, and CSF neurofilament light chain. Predictors of cognitive decline in PD included previous heavy alcohol abuse, current diagnoses of diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, elevated periodic limb movement index during sleep, decreased hippocampal volume by MRI, higher baseline levels of uric acid, C‐reactive protein, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and glucose levels. Conclusion Cardiovascular risk factors, deregulated blood glucose, uric acid metabolism, and inflammation were identified as risk markers for faster disease progression. Our panel of risk parameters needs validation during our continuing follow‐up and also in independent patient cohorts. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
    Keywords: Cohort Studies ; Outcome Research ; Parkinson'S Disease/Parkinsonism
    ISSN: 0885-3185
    E-ISSN: 1531-8257
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