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  • Health Reference Center Academic (Gale)  (9)
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  • 1
    In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2006, Vol. 56(1), pp.79-94
    Description: The microbial communities of three different habitat types and from two sediment depths in the River Elbe were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization at various levels of complexity. Differences in the microbial community composition of free-flowing river water, water within the hyporheic interstitial and sediment-associated bacteria were quantitatively analyzed using domain- and group-specific oligonucleotide probes. Qualitative data on the presence/absence of specific bacterial taxa were gathered using genus- and species-specific probes. The complete data set was statistically processed by univariate statistical approaches, and two-dimensional ordinations of nonmetric multidimensional scaling. The analysis showed: (1) that the resolution of microbial community structures at microenvironments, habitats and locations can be regulated by targeted application of oligonucleotides on phylogenetic levels ranging from domains to species, and (2) that an extensive qualitative presence/absence analysis of multiparallel hybridization assays enables a fine-scale apportionment of spatial differences in microbial community structures that is robust against apparent limitations of fluorescence in situ hybridization such as false positive hybridization signals or inaccessibility of in situ oligonucleotide probes. A general model for the correlation of the phylogenetic depth of focus and the relative spatial resolution of microbial communities by fluorescence in situ hybridization is presented.
    Keywords: Fluorescence Hybridization ; Microbial Communities ; Multivariate Statistics ; Rivers ; Sediments
    ISSN: 01686496
    E-ISSN: 1574-6941
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 02 November 2010, Vol.5(11), pp.1-12
    Description: It is recognized that microorganisms inhabiting natural sediments significantly mediate the erosive response of the bed (‘‘ecosystem engineers'') through the secretion of naturally adhesive organic material (EPS: extracellular polymeric substances). However, little is known about the individual...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Ecology, Environment ; Life Sciences ; Microbiology and Parasitology ; Sciences (General)
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2018, Vol.13(6), p.e0199132
    Description: The application of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a considerable amount of registered commercial products inevitably will result in the continuous release of AgNPs into the natural aquatic environment. Therefore, native biofilms,...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol. 8(10)
    Description: The estuary of the River Elbe between Hamburg and the North Sea (Germany) is a sink for contaminated sediment and suspended particulate matter (SPM). One major concern is the effect of human activities on the hydrodynamics, particularlythe intensive dredging activities in this area that may result in remobilization of sediment-bound pollutants. The aim of this study was to identify pollutants contributing to the toxicological risk associated with re-suspension of sediments in the Elbe Estuary by use of an effect-directed analysis that combines chemical and biological analyses in with specific fractionation techniques. Sediments were collected from sites along the Elbe Estuary and a site from a small harbor basin of the Elbe Estuary that is known to be polluted. The sixteen priority EPA-PAHs were quantified in organic extracts of sediments. In addition, dioxin equivalents of sediments were investigated by use of the 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase assay with RTL-W1 cells and the Ah receptor-mediated luciferase transactivation assay with H4IIE-luc cells. Quantification of the 16 priorityPAHs revealed that sediments were moderately contaminated at all of the sites in the Elbe River Estuary (,0.02–0.906 mg/gdw). Sediments contained relatively small concentrations of dioxin equivalents (Bio-TEQ) with concentrations ranging from15.5 to 322 pg/g dw, which were significantly correlated with dioxin equivalents calculated based on toxicity referencevalues and concentrations of PAH. The concentration of Bio-TEQ at the reference site exceeded 200,000 pg/g dw. In apotency balance the 16 PAHs explained between 47 and 118% of the Bio-TEQ in the luciferase assay, which can be explained by the constant input of PAHs bound to SPM from the upper course of the Elbe River into its estuary. Successful identification of a significant portion of dioxin-like activity to priority PAHs in complex environmental samples such assediments has rarely been reported.
    Keywords: Natural Sciences ; Earth And Related Environmental Sciences ; Environmental Sciences ; Naturvetenskap ; Geovetenskap Och Miljövetenskap ; Miljövetenskap ; Enviromental Science ; Miljövetenskap
    ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Research and Reports in Biology, 2018, Vol.9, p.1(16)
    Description: Biofilms constitute an important issue in microbial ecology, due to their high ecological and economic relevance, but the impact of abiotic conditions and microbial key players on the development and functionality of a natural biofilm is still little understood. This study investigated the effects of light intensity (LI) and bed shear stress (BSS) and the role of dominant microbes during the formation of natural biofilms and particularly the process microbial biostabilization. A comprehensive analysis of microbial biomass, extracellular polymeric substances produced, and the identification of dominant bacterial and algal species was correlated with assessment of biofilm adhesiveness/stability. LI and BSS impacted the biofilms in very different ways: biofilm adhesiveness significantly increased with LI and decreased with BSS. Moreover, microbial biomass and the functional organization of the bacterial community increased with LI, while the dynamics in the bacterial community increased with BSS. Most stable biofilms were dominated by sessile diatoms like Achnanthidium minutissimum or Fragilaria pararumpens and bacteria with either filamentous morphology, such as Pseudanabaena biceps, or a potential high capacity for extracellular polymeric-substance production, such as Rubrivivax gelatinosus. In contrast, microbes with high motility, such as Nitzschia fonticola, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Caulobacter vibrioides, dominated the least adhesive biofilms. Their movement and potential antibiotic production could have had a disruptive impact on the biofilm matrix, which decreased its stability. This is the first study to unveil the link between abiotic conditions and resulting shifts in key microbial players to impact the ecosystem-service microbial biostabilization. Keywords: microbial biostabilization, natural biofilms, abiotic factors, microbial community, mesocosm
    Keywords: Ecosystem Components – Analysis
    ISSN: 1179-7274
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Vakuum in Forschung und Praxis, April-May, 2014, Vol.26(2), p.42(6)
    Keywords: Atomic Force Microscopy
    ISSN: 0947-076X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2008, Vol. 66(2), pp.282-294
    Description: The secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by bacteria has been recognized as important across a wide range of scientific disciplines, but in natural sediments, EPS production by microalgae as a mechanism of sediment stabilization has received much more attention than bacterial products. In the present study, the stabilization potential of a natural benthic bacterial assemblage was tested in cultures growing on noncohesive glass beads. The surface erosion resistance as determined by a cohesive strength meter was significantly enhanced over time compared with controls. Nutrient enrichment of the bacterial assemblages by a general broth (bacteria+) resulted in enhanced stabilization (× 3.6) compared with nutrient-depleted (bacteria) assemblages (× 1.8). This correlated with higher bacterial biomass and EPS concentrations in enriched cultures. Substratum stability was closely related to bacterial cell numbers ( R 2 =0.75/0.78) and EPS protein concentrations ( R 2 =0.96/0.53) (for bacteria/bacteria+ treatments, respectively), but not to EPS carbohydrates. This study implies a greater significance of extracellular proteins in substratum cohesion within the EPS complex than recognized previously. The data show both the importance of bacterial assemblages for microbial sediment stabilization and that a change in abiotic conditions can significantly affect sediment stabilization.
    Keywords: Extracellular Polymeric Substances ; Bacterial Engineering ; Sediment Stability ; Sediment Erosion
    ISSN: 01686496
    E-ISSN: 1574-6941
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: The American Journal of Cardiology, 1992, Vol.70(11), pp.1023-1027
    Description: In a prospective and parallel, randomized study, the long-term stability of epicardial defibrillation threshold was evaluated in 22 patients, using a patch-patch lead configuration at the time of implantation and generator replacement. The concomitant antiarrhythmic drug treatment consisted of either mexiletine (720 mg/day) or amiodarone (400 mg/day) and was administered to patients in a randomized and parallel manner. During a mean follow-up of 24 +/- 6 months, the defibrillation threshold increased significantly from 14.3 +/- 2.8 to 17.9 +/- 5.3 J (p 〈 0.05) for the entire patient group. The increase in the chronic defibrillation threshold was due to a marked increase in defibrillation energy needs in the subgroup of patients receiving amiodarone. Whereas no significant change in the defibrillation threshold was documented in the subgroup of patients receiving mexiletine, the mean defibrillation threshold increased from 14.1 +/- 3.0 to 20.9 +/- 5.4 J (p 〈 0.001) in those receiving amiodarone. In all patients with increased defibrillation thresholds, reevaluation showed a reduction in the defibrillation threshold after discontinuation of antiarrhythmic drug therapy. The only variable associated with an increase in the chronic defibrillation threshold was amiodarone treatment. These findings suggest that the defibrillation threshold should be measured at each generator replacement and in case of a change in antiarrhythmic drug treatment. In particular, if amiodarone treatment is initiated, it is recommended that the defibrillation threshold should be reevaluated to ensure an adequate margin of safety.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0002-9149
    E-ISSN: 1879-1913
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2018, Vol.47(1), p.55(12)
    Description: Byline: B. M. Lang, L. Biedermann, W. T. Haaften, C. Valliere, M. Schuurmans, S. Begre, J. Zeitz, M. Scharl, M. Turina, T. Greuter, P. Schreiner,H. Heinrich, T. Kuntzen, S. R. Vavricka, G. Rogler,N. Beerenwinkel,B. Misselwitz,, Claudia Anderegg, Peter Bauerfeind, Christoph Beglinger, Stefan Begre, Jose M. Bengoa, Luc Biedermann, Beat Bigler, Janek Binek, Mirjam Blattmann, Stephan Boehm, Jan Borovicka, Christian P. Braegger, Nora Brunner, Patrick Buhr, Bernard Burnand, Emanuel Burri, Sophie Buyse, Matthias Cremer, Dominique H. Criblez, Philippe de Saussure, Lukas Degen, Joakim Delarive, Christopher Doerig, Barbara Dora, Gian Dorta, Mara Egger, Tobias Ehmann, Ali El-Wafa, Matthias Engelmann, a Ezri, Christian Felley, Markus Fliegner, Nicolas Fournier, Montserrat Fraga, Pascal Frei, Remus Frei, Michael Fried, Florian Froehlich, Christian Funk, Raoul Ivano Furlano, Suzanne Gallot-Lavallee, Martin Geyer, Marc Girardin, Delphine Golay, Tanja Grandinetti, Beat Gysi, Horst Haack, Johannes Haarer, Beat Helbling, Peter Hengstler, Denise Herzog, Cyrill Hess, Klaas Heyland, Thomas Hinterleitner, Philippe Hiroz, Claudia Hirschi, Petr Hruz, Rika Iwata, Res Jost, Pascal Juillerat, Vera Kessler Brondolo, Christina Knellwolf, Christoph Knoblauch, Henrik Kohler, Rebekka Koller, Claudia Krieger-Grubel, Gerd Kullak-Ublick, Patrizia Kunzler, Markus Landolt, Rupprecht Lange, Frank Serge Lehmann, Andrew Macpherson, Philippe Maerten, Michel H. Maillard, Christine Manser, Michael Manz, Urs Marbet, George Marx, Christoph Matter, Valerie McLin, Remy Meier, Martina Mendanova, Christa Meyenberger, Pierre Michetti, Benjamin Misselwitz, Darius Moradpour, Bernhard Morell, Patrick Mosler, Christian Mottet, Christoph Muller, Pascal Muller, Beat Mullhaupt, Claudia Munger-Beyeler, Leilla Musso, Andreas Nagy, Michaela Neagu, Cristina Nichita, Jan Niess, Natacha Noel, Andreas Nydegger, Nicole Obialo, Carl Oneta, Cassandra Oropesa, Ueli Peter, Daniel Peternac, Laetitia Marie Petit, Franziska Piccoli-Gfeller, Julia Beatrice Pilz, Valerie Pittet, Nadia Raschle, Ronald Rentsch, Sophie Restellini, Jean-Pierre Richterich, Sylvia Rihs, Marc Alain Ritz, Jocelyn Roduit, Daniela Rogler, Gerhard Rogler, Jean-Benoit Rossel, Markus Sagmeister, Gaby Saner, Bernhard Sauter, Mikael Sawatzki, Michela Schappi, Michael Scharl, Martin Schelling, Susanne Schibli, Hugo Schlauri, Sybille Schmid Uebelhart, Jean-Francois Schnegg, Alain Schoepfer, Frank Seibold, Mariam Seirafi, Gian-Marco Semadeni, David Semela, Arne Senning, Marc Sidler, Christiane Sokollik, Johannes Spalinger, Holger Spangenberger, Philippe Stadler, Michael Steuerwald, Alex Straumann, Bigna Straumann-Funk, Michael Sulz, Joel Thorens, Sarah Tiedemann, Radu Tutuian, Stephan Vavricka, Francesco Viani, Jurg Vogtlin, Roland Von Kanel, Alain Vonlaufen, Dominique Vouillamoz, Rachel Vulliamy, Jurg Wermuth, Helene Werner, Paul Wiesel, Reiner Wiest, Tina Wylie, Jonas Zeitz, Dorothee Zimmermann Summary Background Smoking is a strong environmental factor leading to adverse outcomes in Crohn's disease, but a more benign course in ulcerative colitis. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with smoking quantity and behaviour. Aim To assess whether smoking-associated SNPs interact with smoking to influence the clinical course of inflammatory bowel diseases. Methods Genetic and prospectively obtained clinical data from 1434 Swiss inflammatory bowel disease cohort patients (821 Crohn's disease and 613 ulcerative colitis) were analysed. Six SNPs associated with smoking quantity and behaviour (rs588765, rs1051730, rs1329650, rs4105144, rs6474412 and rs3733829) were combined to form a risk score (range: 0-12) by adding the number of risk alleles. We calculated multivariate models for smoking, risk of surgery, fistula, Crohn's disease location and ulcerative colitis disease extent. Results In Crohn's disease patients who smoke, the number of surgeries was associated with the genetic risk score. This translates to a predicted 3.5-fold (95% confidence interval: 2.4- to 5.7-fold, P7 had a significantly shorter time to first intestinal surgery. The genetic risk score did not predict surgery in ulcerative colitis or occurrence of fistulae in Crohn's disease. SNP rs6265 was associated with ileal disease in Crohn's disease (P〈.05) and proctitis in ulcerative colitis (P〈.05). Conclusions SNPs associated with smoking quantity is associated with an increased risk for surgery in Crohn's disease patients who smoke. Our data provide an example of genetics interacting with the environment to influence the disease course of inflammatory bowel disease. Article Note: Niko Beerenwinkel and Benjamin Misselwitz contributed equally to this work. See Appendix 1. The Handling Editor for this article was Professor Ailsa Hart, and it was accepted for publication after full peer-review. CAPTION(S):
    Keywords: Gastrointestinal Diseases – Genetic Aspects ; Colitis – Genetic Aspects
    ISSN: 0269-2813
    E-ISSN: 13652036
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