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  • Health Reference Center Academic (Gale)  (298)
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  • 1
    In: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, May 2015, Vol.73(5), pp.1844-1851
    Description: To create a robust test object for the assessment of isotropic diffusion kurtosis and to investigate the relationships between barrier concentration and kurtosis and diffusion coefficients. Diffusion kurtosis imaging is an extension of conventional diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging which provides a means of assessing the degree to which diffusion processes of spin-bearing particles are non-Gaussian, a property that is quantified by the kurtosis. We present a set of test objects, each possessing a different concentration of colloidal dispersion, allowing barrier concentration of the dispersed colloidal particles to be related to the kurtosis of the water diffusion. Diffusion coefficients from the kurtosis model and the monoexponential model are compared. A relationship between barrier concentration and kurtosis is found, demonstrating that the diffusion process becomes less Gaussian as the barrier concentration is increased. Differences in the two estimates for the diffusion coefficients are examined. The test object is robust, displaying long-term reproducibility of results. Colloidal dispersions provide a suitable and stable test object for the assessment and reproducibility measurements of kurtosis.
    Keywords: Kurtosis ; Diffusion ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    ISSN: 0740-3194
    E-ISSN: 1522-2594
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2015, Vol.29(7), p.2041(4)
    Description: The physical demands of firefighting are extensive, and firefighters face increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease, musculoskeletal injury, and cancer. To reduce these risks, a tailored wellness initiative program (FIT Firefighter) was developed and executed. Implementation of FIT Firefighter, consisting of assessment, educational, instructional, and personal coaching and training elements regarding nutrition, health, fitness, wellness, and strength and conditioning, revealed enhanced healthy behavior change including increased motivation and marked improvements in blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic fitness, body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat, back flexibility, and biceps strength among participating firefighters. Key Words program design, health coaching, first responders
    Keywords: Firefighters – Health Aspects
    ISSN: 1064-8011
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, January 2018, Vol.165, pp.161-182
    Description: Young children have difficulty in distinguishing events that violate physical laws (impossible events) from those that violate mere physical regularities (improbable events). They judge both as “impossible.” Young children also have difficulty in distinguishing events that violate moral laws (immoral events) from events that violate mere social regularities (unconventional events). They judge both as “wrong.” In this set of studies, we explored the possibility that both difficulties arise from a more general deficit in cognition, or the way in which children represent and reason about possibilities. Participants (80 children aged 3–10 years and 101 adults) were shown impossible, improbable, unconventional, and immoral events and were asked to judge whether the events could occur in real life and whether they would be okay to do. Preschool-aged children not only had difficulty distinguishing law-violating events from regularity-violating events but also had difficulty distinguishing the two modal questions themselves, judging physically abnormal events (e.g., floating in the air) as immoral and judging socially abnormal events (e.g., lying to a parent) as impossible. These findings were replicated in a second study where participants (74 children and 78 adults) judged whether the events under consideration would require magic (a specific consequence of impossibility) or would require punishment (a specific consequence of impermissibility). Our findings imply that young children’s modal representations clearly distinguish abnormal events from ordinary events but do not clearly distinguish different types of abnormal events from each other. That is, the distinction between whether an event occur and whether an event occur must be learned.
    Keywords: Moral Judgment ; Possibility Judgment ; Social Reasoning ; Physical Reasoning ; Modality ; Conceptual Development ; Social Welfare & Social Work ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0022-0965
    E-ISSN: 1096-0457
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(5), p.e96633
    Description: In Dictyostelium discoideum, the secreted proteins AprA and CfaD function as reporters of cell density and regulate cell number by inhibiting proliferation at high cell densities. AprA also functions to disperse groups of cells at high density by acting as a chemorepellent. However, the signal...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 21 December 2012, Vol.51(52), pp.13132-13135
    Description: superhelical filaments are obtained from monomeric repeat proteins by controlling the chemistry and solvent exposure at their terminal interfaces. The assembly was achieved in aqueous solution, at neutral pH value, and at room temperature. The building block was a recombinantly engineered designed tetratricopeptide repeat protein. Directed head‐to‐tail self‐assembly was driven by genetically encoded orthogonal native chemical ligation.
    Keywords: Biomaterials ; Nanostructures ; Protein Engineering ; Self‐Assembly ; Superhelical Scaffold
    ISSN: 1433-7851
    E-ISSN: 1521-3773
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 6
    In: Cognitive Science, August 2015, Vol.39(6), pp.1320-1347
    Description: The present studies investigate how the intentions of third parties influence judgments of moral responsibility for other agents who commit immoral acts. Using cases in which an agent acts under some situational constraint brought about by a third party, we ask whether the agent is blamed less for the immoral act when the third party intended for that act to occur. Study 1 demonstrates that third‐party intentions do influence judgments of blame. Study 2 finds that third‐party intentions only influence moral judgments when the agent's actions precisely match the third party's intention. Study 3 shows that this effect arises from changes in participants' causal perception that the third party was controlling the agent. Studies 4 and 5, respectively, show that the effect cannot be explained by changes in the distribution of blame or perceived differences in situational constraint faced by the agent.
    Keywords: Morality ; Intention ; Causation ; Manipulation ; Causal Chains
    ISSN: 0364-0213
    E-ISSN: 1551-6709
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  • 7
    In: River Research and Applications, February 2013, Vol.29(2), pp.149-160
    Description: Oxbow lakes, sloughs and other floodplain depressions associated with former channel positions are critical elements of floodplain hydrology, geomorphology and ecology. They comprise key elements of wetland and aquatic habitats and have important influence on the storage and routing of floodwaters. The hydrological connectivity between active river channels and floodplain depressions varies considerably in a qualitative sense, even within a single fluvial system. Several oxbows, sloughs and paleochannels were examined on the lower Sabine River, Texas/Louisiana, during a period of high but sub‐bankfull flow as well as at lower flows. Six different types of surface water connectivity with the main, active channel were identified: (i) flow through—a portion of the river flow regularly passes through the feature and returns to the main channel; (ii) flood channel—there is no hydraulic connection at normal flows, but at high flows the channels convey discharge, at least part of which returns to the main channel; (iii) fill and spill—the features fill to a threshold level at high flows and then overflow (mainly via ephemeral channels) into flood basins; (iv) fill and drain—the features fill at high river discharges but do not (except in large floods) overflow because as river discharge declines, water drains back to the river; (v) tributary occupied—tributaries draining to the abandoned channel continue to occupy it, flowing through it to the active channel; and (vi) disconnected—no flow is exchanged except during large floods. The age or stage of infilling and the relative elevation of abandoned channels are important first‐order controls of hydrological connectivity, but the lateral distance from the active channel is poorly related. Other critical controls are whether the cutoff section receives tributary input and whether a tie channel forms. The alluvial valley geomorphic context—specifically the presence of a meander belt ridge and flood basins—is also critical. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Alluvial Rivers ; Channel–Floodplain Connectivity ; Abandoned Channel Water Bodies ; Oxbow Lakes ; Sloughs ; Paleochannels
    ISSN: 1535-1459
    E-ISSN: 1535-1467
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2017, Vol.146(2), pp.165-181
    Description: Recent scientific research has settled on a purely descriptive definition of happiness that is focused solely on agents’ psychological states (high positive affect, low negative affect, high life satisfaction). In contrast to this understanding, recent research has suggested that the ordinary concept of happiness is also sensitive to the moral value of agents’ lives. Five studies systematically investigate and explain the impact of morality on ordinary assessments of happiness. Study 1 demonstrates that moral judgments influence assessments of happiness not only for untrained participants, but also for academic researchers and even in those who study happiness specifically. Studies 2 and 3 then respectively ask whether this effect may be explained by general motivational biases or beliefs in a just world. In both cases, we find evidence against these explanations. Study 4 shows that the impact of moral judgments cannot be explained by changes in the perception of descriptive psychological states. Finally, Study 5 compares the impact of moral and nonmoral value, and provides evidence that unlike nonmoral value, moral value is part of the criteria that govern the ordinary concept of happiness. Taken together, these studies provide a specific explanation of how and why the ordinary concept of happiness deviates from the definition used by researchers studying happiness.
    Keywords: Emotion ; Happiness ; Moral Cognition ; Morality ; Well-Being
    ISSN: 0096-3445
    E-ISSN: 1939-2222
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2011, Vol.6(7), p.e21765
    Description: The secreted proteins AprA and CfaD function as autocrine signals that inhibit cell proliferation in Dictyostelium discoideum, thereby regulating cell numbers by a negative feedback mechanism. We report here that the putative basic leucine zipper transcription factor BzpN plays a role in the...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Spine Deformity, November 2016, Vol.4(6), pp.463-464
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jspd.2016.09.042 Byline: Martin Herman, Jonathan Phillips Article Note: (footnote) Author disclosures: Martin Herman: None. Jonathan Phillips: Biomet; OrthoPaediatrics; Spine Advisory Board Orthopaediatrics; Journal Pediatric Orthopedics; Journal of Southern Orthopedic Association.
    ISSN: 2212-134X
    E-ISSN: 2212-1358
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