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  • Health Reference Center Academic (Gale)  (25)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS One, CA: Public Library of Science
    Description: This article explores the interrelationship between the urinary microbiota and host antimicrobial peptides as mechanisms for urinary tract infection risk.
    Keywords: Resident Bacterial Communities ; Host Antimicrobial Peptides ; Urinary Tract Infection
    ISSN: 19326203
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Translational Research, 2010, Vol.156(2), pp.98-105
    Description: Activating V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) gene mutations are important predictive markers for antiepidermal growth factor receptor chemotherapy in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, a rapid and accurate assay for KRAS/BRAF mutation detection from routine pathological specimens is lacking in clinical practice. We applied the cycleave polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to routine KRAS/BRAF genotyping of CRC patients at our institution from 2001 to 2009. The accuracy of cycleave PCR genotyping was shown by the high concordance with reverse transcriptase-PCR-coupled direct sequencing. KRAS gene mutations were analyzed successfully from small biopsy or cytology specimens. Although some surgical specimens could not be evaluated by cycleave PCR, corresponding biopsy specimens could be used instead. This PCR failure observed for some biopsy specimens may have been a result of the use of formalin fixation, as overfixation of surgical specimens by formalin impaired PCR amplification. In conclusion, cycleave PCR is practically applicable to KRAS/BRAF genotyping using small amounts of biopsied tumor cells. Care must be taken in the selection of pathological specimens for KRAS/BRAF testing.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1931-5244
    E-ISSN: 1878-1810
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  • 3
    In: PLoS ONE, 2016, Vol.11(10)
    Description: Phagocytes such as dendritic cells and macrophages, which are distributed in the small intestinal mucosa, play a crucial role in maintaining mucosal homeostasis by sampling the luminal gut microbiota. However, there is limited information regarding microbial uptake in a steady state. We investigated the composition of murine gut microbiota that is engulfed by phagocytes of specific subsets in the small intestinal lamina propria (SILP) and Peyer’s patches (PP). Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences revealed that: 1) all the phagocyte subsets in the SILP primarily engulfed Lactobacillus (the most abundant microbe in the small intestine), whereas CD11b hi and CD11b hi CD11c hi cell subsets in PP mostly engulfed segmented filamentous bacteria (indigenous bacteria in rodents that are reported to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells); and 2) among the Lactobacillus species engulfed by the SILP cell subsets, L . murinus was engulfed more frequently than L . taiwanensis , although both these Lactobacillus species were abundant in the small intestine under physiological conditions. These results suggest that small intestinal microbiota is selectively engulfed by phagocytes that localize in the adjacent intestinal mucosa in a steady state. These observations may provide insight into the crucial role of phagocytes in immune surveillance of the small intestinal mucosa.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    In: Molecular Microbiology, June 2007, Vol.64(5), pp.1404-1415
    Description: The mechanism of length control of the flagellar hook is under debate between two theories. One claims that the FliK directly measures the hook length as a molecular ruler, while the other claims that the cytoplasmic substructure measures the amount of hook subunits to determine the hook length. Both agree that the FliK C‐terminal domain catalyses the substrate‐specificity switch to terminate hook elongation. In this study, we systematically created mutants with deletions and insertions at various sites within the FliK N‐terminal domain and analysed their effects on the final hook length. Insertions of peptide fragments from the YscP into FliK gave rise to hooks with defined lengths, which was proportional to the molecular size of the FliK‐YscP chimeras. Among deletion mutants, only those with small truncations in three specific sites of FliK produced hooks of a defined, shortened length. For the majority of deletion mutants, FliK was secreted, but hook length was not controlled. On the other hand, for some deletion mutants FliK was not secreted, but the hook length was controlled, indicating that FliK secretion is not necessary for hook‐length control. We conclude that FliK regulates hook length as an internal molecular ruler.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 0950-382X
    E-ISSN: 1365-2958
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, Oct 2, 2008, Vol.7(47), p.47
    Description: Background The Yusho poisoning incident, which was caused by rice bran oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated quarterphenyls (PCQs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) generated by heat denaturation of PCB, occurred in 1968 in western Japan. Annual physical, dermatological, dental, ophthalmological and laboratory examinations were conducted for Yusho patients after the incident. From 2001, blood levels of individual PCDF congeners were also measured. The blood levels of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF), PCBs and PCQs in Yusho patients were found to be significantly higher than those of the general population. We investigated the relationships between blood concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, PCBs and PCQs in Yusho patients and the items measured in the annual medical examination. Methods Medical and laboratory examination data from 501 Yusho patients enrolled in the study from 2001 to 2004 were analyzed. The relationships between blood 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, PCB and PCQ concentrations and medical/laboratory examination data were investigated using principal components and logistic regression analyses. Results Serum Concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, PCBs and PCQs in blood tended to correlate with either acneform eruptions, black comedones, cutaneous and mucosal pigmentation, and hypersecretion of meibomian glands as well as general fatigue, headaches, cough/sputum, abdominal pain, arthralgia, increased blood sugar, increased serum [gamma]-GTP and decreased total bilirubin. The majority of these signs and symptoms are included in the diagnostic criteria for Yusho. Conclusion After Yusho patients had suffered chronic exposure to these chlorinated compounds for more than 35 years, the serum concentration of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF in blood was significantly related to arthralgia and decreased albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio; the serum concentration of PCBs was significantly related to ophthalmologic symptoms; and the serum concentration of PCQ to increased total cholesterol. These findings suggest that the co-contaminants may affect other functions than those originally associated with Yusho.
    Keywords: Food Poisoning -- Causes Of ; Food Poisoning -- Research ; Polychlorinated Biphenyls -- Measurement
    ISSN: 1476-069X
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  • 6
    In: FEMS Microbiology Letters, 2006, Vol. 256(1), pp.137-144
    Description: Lipophilic Malassezia species may induce catheter-associated sepsis in premature neonates and immunocompromised patients receiving parenteral lipid emulsions. To assess the participation of lipolytic enzymes in the pathogenesis of this yeast, we cloned a gene encoding the enzyme. A lipolytic enzyme in the culture supernatant of Malassezia pachydermatis was purified 210-fold to homogeneity. The enzyme showed high esterase activity toward p -nitrophenyl octanoate. The cDNA encoding the enzyme was cloned using a degenerate oligonucleotide primer constructed from the N-terminal amino acid sequence. The cDNA consisted of 1582 bp, including an open reading frame encoding 470 amino acids. The first 19 amino acids and the following 13 amino-acid sequence were predicted to be the signal peptides for secretion and prosequence, respectively. The predicted molecular mass of the 438-amino acid mature protein was 48 kDa. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed that it contains the consensus motif (Gly–X–Ser–X–Gly), which is conserved among lipolytic enzymes. Homology investigations showed that the enzyme has similarities principally with 11 lipases produced by Candida albicans (29–34% identity) and some other yeast lipases.
    Keywords: 〈Kwd〉〈Italic〉Malassezia Pachydermatis〈/Italic〉〈/Kwd〉 ; Esterase ; Lipase ; Race
    ISSN: 0378-1097
    E-ISSN: 1574-6968
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of nutrition, February 2002, Vol.132(2), pp.145-51
    Description: The relationship between nutritional status and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) gene expression in chickens was studied. Chickens (6 wk old) were food deprived for 2 d and then refed. IGFBP-2 mRNA in the brain was significantly decreased by food deprivation and levels did not increase when birds were refed for 24 h. Gizzard and hepatic IGFBP-2 mRNA levels were significantly increased by food deprivation and decreased by refeeding. Any nutrients tested decreased hepatic IGFBP-2 gene expression. In kidney, IGFBP-2 mRNA was detected but not influenced by food deprivation and refeeding. In another study, the influence of dietary protein source [isolated soybean protein vs. casein; crude protein (CP) 20%] and the supplementation of essential amino acids on IGFBP-2 gene expression of young chickens (5 wk old) was examined. The influence of feeding a low soybean protein diet (CP 5%) on tissue IGFBP-2 gene expression was also investigated. Hepatic IGFBP-2 mRNA was not detected in any group. Feeding the low protein diet for 7 d decreased brain IGFBP-2 mRNA level and increased gizzard IGFBP-2 level compared with chickens fed 20% protein diets. A significant interaction between protein source and amino acid supplementation was observed in gizzard IGFBP-2 mRNA level. In both casein-fed groups and in chickens fed 20% soybean protein diet without supplemental amino acids, the levels did not differ from one another or from the low protein diet-fed birds. The level was lower in chickens fed the amino acid-supplemented, 20% soybean protein diet. In conclusion, the response of IGFBP-2 gene expression to variations in nutritional status was rapid and different in several tissues of young chickens, which would help modulate the growth-promoting effect of circulating IGF-I by making the IGF-IGFBP complex.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Chickens -- Metabolism ; Food Deprivation -- Physiology ; Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2 -- Genetics
    ISSN: 0022-3166
    E-ISSN: 15416100
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Diabetic Medicine, 10/16/2017
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/dme.13524/abstract Byline: K. Iseri, M. Iyoda, Y. Shikida, T. Inokuchi, T. Morikawa, N. Hara, T. Hirano, T. Shibata Abstract Background Type B insulin resistance syndrome is a rare disease characterized by refractory transient hyperglycaemia and severe insulin resistance associated with circulating anti-insulin receptor antibodies. A standardized treatment regimen for type B insulin resistance syndrome has yet to be established. Case report We report the case of a 64-year-old man undergoing haemodialysis for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and diabetic nephropathy, who developed rapid onset of hyperglycaemia (glycated albumin 52.1%). Type B insulin resistance syndrome was diagnosed, on the basis of positivity for anti-insulin receptor antibodies and the man's autoimmune history of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Although severe hyperglycaemia persisted in spite of corticosteroids and high-dose insulin therapy, rituximab treatment resulted in remarkable improvement of the man's severe insulin resistance and disappearance of anti-insulin receptor antibodies without any adverse effects. Conclusions According to a literature review of 11 cases in addition to the present case, rituximab appears to be a safe and effective strategy for the treatment of corticosteroid-resistant type B insulin resistance syndrome.
    Keywords: Hyperglycemia – Development and Progression ; Hyperglycemia – Care and Treatment ; Insulin Resistance – Development and Progression ; Insulin Resistance – Care and Treatment ; Diabetic Nephropathies – Development and Progression ; Diabetic Nephropathies – Care and Treatment;
    ISSN: Diabetic Medicine
    E-ISSN: 07423071
    E-ISSN: 14645491
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(5), p.e0178123
    Description: Sarcopenia is an aging and disease-related syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, with the risk of frailty and poor quality of life. Sarcopenia is diagnosed by a decrease in skeletal muscle index (SMI) and reduction of either handgrip strength or gait speed. However, measurement of SMI is difficult for general physicians because it requires special equipment for bioelectrical impedance assay or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to explore a novel, simple diagnostic method of sarcopenia evaluation in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD).We retrospectively investigated 132 inpatients with CVD (age: 72±12 years, age range: 27-93 years, males: 61%) Binomial logistic regression and correlation analyses were used to assess the associations of sarcopenia with simple physical data and biomarkers, including muscle-related inflammation makers and nutritional markers.Sarcopenia was present in 29.5% of the study population. Serum concentrations of adiponectin and sialic acid were significantly higher in sarcopenic than non-sarcopenic CVD patients. Stepwise multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis revealed that adiponectin, sialic acid, sex, age, and body mass index were independent factors for sarcopenia detection. Sarcopenia index, obtained from the diagnostic regression formula for sarcopenia detection including the five independent factors, indicated a high accuracy in ROC curve analysis (sensitivity 94.9%, specificity 69.9%) and the cutoff value for sarcopenia detection was -1.6134. Sarcopenia index had a significant correlation with the conventional diagnostic parameters of sarcopenia.Our new sarcopenia index using simple parameters would be useful for diagnosing sarcopenia in CVD patients.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    In: PLoS ONE, 2014, Vol.9(3)
    Description: Oral phosphate loading and calcitriol stimulate Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secretion, but the mechanisms underlying the stimulation of FGF23 remain to be studied. We compared the effect of intravenous phosphate loading with that of oral loading on FGF23 levels in normal and 5/6 nephrectomized uremic rats. Uremic rats (Nx) and sham-operated rats were fed a normal phosphate diet for 2 weeks and then divided into 3 groups: 1) with the same phosphate diet (NP), 2) with a high phosphate diet (HP), and 3) NP rats with intravenous phosphate infusion using a microinfusion pump (IV). Blood and urine were obtained 1 day (early phase) and 7 days (late phase) after the interventions. In the early and late phases, serum phosphate levels and fractional excretion of phosphate (FEP) were comparable in the HP and IV groups in both Sham and Nx rats. Serum phosphate levels in the HP and IV groups were equally and significantly higher than those in the NP group only in the late phase in Nx rats. In the early phase, FGF23 levels were comparable in the NP, HP, and IV groups, but were significantly higher in the HP and IV groups compared to the NP group in the late phase in Nx rats. 1α-hydroxylase and sodium dependent phosphate co-transporter 2a expression levels in the kidney in Nx rats were equally and significantly decreased in the HP and IV groups compared with the NP group, while 24-hydroxylase expression was equally and significantly increased. These results show that chronic intravenous phosphate loading increases bioactive FGF23, indicating that an alternative pathway for FGF23 regulation, in addition to the dietary route, may be present. This pathway is clearer under conditions produced by a kidney injury in which phosphate is easily overloaded.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Veterinary Science
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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