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  • Health Reference Center Academic (Gale)  (20)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS One, CA: Public Library of Science
    Description: This article explores the interrelationship between the urinary microbiota and host antimicrobial peptides as mechanisms for urinary tract infection risk.
    Keywords: Resident Bacterial Communities ; Host Antimicrobial Peptides ; Urinary Tract Infection
    ISSN: 19326203
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS One, San Francisco: Public Library of Science
    Description: Article discussing the microbial communities in male first catch urine and how these are highly similar to those paired in urethral swab specimens.
    Keywords: Microbials ; Bacteria ; Urine
    ISSN: 19326203
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(10), p.e109677
    Description: Relationships between host and microbial diversity have important ecological and applied implications. Theory predicts that these relationships will depend on the spatio-temporal scale of the analysis and the niche breadth of the organisms in question, but representative data on host-microbial community assemblage in nature is lacking. We employed a natural gradient of rodent species richness and quantified bacterial communities in rodent blood at several hierarchical spatial scales to test the hypothesis that associations between host and microbial species diversity will be positive in communities dominated by organisms with broad niches sampled at large scales. Following pyrosequencing of rodent blood samples, bacterial communities were found to be comprised primarily of broad niche lineages. These communities exhibited positive correlations between host diversity, microbial diversity and the likelihood for rare pathogens at the regional scale but not at finer scales. These findings demonstrate how microbial diversity is affected by host diversity at different spatial scales and suggest that the relationships between host diversity and overall disease risk are not always negative, as the dilution hypothesis predicts.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    In: Molecular Microbiology, April 2010, Vol.76(2), pp.409-427
    Description: attachment is mediated by the holdfast, a complex of polysaccharide anchored to the cell by HfaA, HfaB and HfaD. We show that all three proteins are surface exposed outer membrane (OM) proteins. HfaA is similar to fimbrial proteins and assembles into a high molecular weight (HMW) form requiring HfaD, but not holdfast polysaccharide. The HfaD HMW form is dependent on HfaA but not on holdfast polysaccharide. We show that HfaA and HfaD form homomultimers and that they require HfaB for stability and OM translocation. All three proteins localize to the late pre‐divisional flagellar pole, remain at this pole in swarmer cells, and localize at the stalk tip after the stalk is synthesized at the same pole. Hfa protein localization requires the holdfast polysaccharide secretion proteins and the polar localization factor PodJ. An mutant is much more severely deficient in adherence and holdfast attachment than and mutants. An , double mutant phenocopies either single mutant, suggesting that HfaB is involved in holdfast attachment beyond secretion of HfaA and HfaD. We hypothesize that HfaB secretes HfaA and HfaD across the outer membrane, and the three proteins form a complex anchoring the holdfast to the stalk.
    Keywords: Proteins ; Polysaccharides;
    ISSN: 0950-382X
    E-ISSN: 1365-2958
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Emerging infectious diseases, February 2017, Vol.23(2), pp.336-339
    Description: At a clinic in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, we observed an increase in Neisseria gonorrhoeae-negative men with suspected gonococcal urethritis who had urethral cultures positive for N. meningitidis. We describe genomes of 2 of these N. meningitidis sequence type 11 complex urethritis isolates. Clinical evidence suggests these isolates may represent an emerging urethrotropic clade.
    Keywords: Neisseria ; Neisseria Gonorrhoeae ; Neisseria Meningitidis ; Bacteria ; Genome ; Meningitis ; Sexually Transmitted Disease ; Sexually Transmitted Infections ; Urethra ; Urethritis ; Neisseria Meningitidis -- Classification ; Urethritis -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 10806040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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  • 6
    In: Evolution & Development, July 2013, Vol.15(4), pp.243-256
    Description: Byline: Elizabeth C. Raff, Mary E. Andrews, F. Rudolf Turner, Evelyn Toh, David E. Nelson, Rudolf A. Raff SUMMARY Fossils of soft tissues provide important records of early animals and embryos, and there is substantial evidence for a role for microbes in soft tissue fossilization. We are investigating the initial events in interactions of bacteria with freshly dead tissue, using marine embryos as a model system. We previously found that microbial invasion can stabilize embryo tissue that would otherwise disintegrate in hours or days by generating a bacterial pseudomorph, a three-dimensional biofilm that both replaces the tissue and replicates its morphology. In this study, we sampled seawater at different times and places near Sydney, Australia, and determined the range and frequency of different taphonomic outcomes. Although destruction was most common, bacteria in 35% of seawater samples yielded morphology-preserving biofilms. We could replicate the taphonomic pathways seen with seawater bacterial communities using single cultured strains of marine gammaproteobacteria. Each given species reproducibly generated a consistent taphonomic outcome and we identified species that yielded each of the distinct pathways produced by seawater bacterial communities. Once formed, bacterial pseudomorphs are stable for over a year and resist attack by other bacteria and destruction by proteases and other lytic enzymes. Competition studies showed that the initial action of a pseudomorphing strain can be blocked by a strain that destroys tissues. Thus embryo preservation in nature may depend on contingent interactions among bacterial species that determine if pseudomorphing occurs. We used Artemia nauplius larvae to show that bacterial biofilm replacement of tissue is not restricted to embryos, but is relevant for preservation of small multicellular organisms. We present a model for bacterial self-assembly of large-scale three-dimensional tissue pseudomorphs, based on small-scale interactions among individual bacterial cells to form local biofilms at structural boundaries within the tissue. Local biofilms then conjoin to generate the pseudomorph. Author Affiliation:
    Keywords: Seawater -- Protection And Preservation ; Seawater -- Analysis ; Fossilization -- Protection And Preservation ; Fossilization -- Analysis ; Bacteria -- Protection And Preservation ; Bacteria -- Analysis ; Pseudomorphs -- Protection And Preservation ; Pseudomorphs -- Analysis ; Embryonic Development -- Protection And Preservation ; Embryonic Development -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 1520-541X
    E-ISSN: 1525-142X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: BMC microbiology, 11 August 2016, Vol.16(1), pp.182
    Description: Domestic combustion of biomass fuels, such as wood, charcoal, crop residue and dung causes Household Air Pollution (HAP). These inhaled particulates affect more than half of the world's population, causing respiratory problems such as infection and inflammatory lung disease. We examined whether the presence of black carbon in alveolar macrophages was associated with alterations in the lung microbiome in a Malawi population. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples from 44 healthy adults were sequenced using 16S rDNA amplification to assess microbial diversity, richness and relative taxa abundance. Individuals were classified as high or low particulate exposure as determined by questionnaire and the percentage of black carbon within their alveolar macrophages. Subjects in the low and high particulate groups did not differ in terms of source of fuels used for cooking or lighting. There was no difference in alpha or beta diversity by particulate group. Neisseria and Streptococcus were significantly more abundant in samples from high particulate exposed individuals, and Tropheryma was found less abundant. Petrobacter abundance was higher in people using biomass fuel for household cooking and lighting, compared with exclusive use of electricity. Healthy adults in Malawi exposed to higher levels of particulates have higher abundances of potentially pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus, Neisseria) within their lung microbiome. Domestic biomass fuel use was associated with an uncommon environmental bacterium (Petrobacter) associated with oil-rich niches.
    Keywords: Alveolar Macrophage ; Household Air Pollution ; Petrobacter ; Respiratory Microbiome ; Air Pollution, Indoor -- Analysis ; Lung -- Microbiology ; Particulate Matter -- Analysis
    E-ISSN: 1471-2180
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Molecular microbiology, January 2019, Vol.111(1), pp.254-268
    Description: Clusters of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) urethritis among primarily heterosexual males in multiple US cities have been attributed to a unique non-encapsulated meningococcal clade (the US Nm urethritis clade, US_NmUC) within the hypervirulent clonal complex 11. Resistance to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is a key feature of urogenital pathogenesis of the closely related species, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The US_NmUC isolates were found to be highly resistant to the model AMP, polymyxin B (PmB, MICs 64-256 µg ml ). The isolates also demonstrated stable subpopulations of heteroresistant colonies that showed near total resistant to PmB (MICs 384-1024 µg ml ) and colistin (MIC 256 µg ml ) as well as enhanced LL-37 resistance. This is the first observation of heteroresistance in N. meningitidis. Consistent with previous findings, overall PmB resistance in US_NmUC isolates was due to active Mtr efflux and LptA-mediated lipid A modification. However, whole genome sequencing, variant analyses and directed mutagenesis revealed that the heteroresistance phenotypes and very high-level AMP resistance were the result of point mutations and IS1655 element movement in the pilMNOPQ operon, encoding the type IV pilin biogenesis apparatus. Cross-resistance to other classes of antibiotics was also observed in the heteroresistant colonies. High-level resistance to AMPs may contribute to the pathogenesis of US_NmUC.
    Keywords: Peptides – Analysis ; Chromosomes – Analysis ; Urethritis – Genetic Aspects ; Urethritis – Analysis ; Microbial Drug Resistance – Genetic Aspects ; Microbial Drug Resistance – Analysis;
    ISSN: 0950382X
    E-ISSN: 1365-2958
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Chemistry – A European Journal, 13 June 2016, Vol.22(25), pp.8404-8430
    Description: Enzyme mimics or artificial enzymes are a class of catalysts that have been actively pursued for decades and have heralded much interest as potentially viable alternatives to natural enzymes. Aside from having catalytic activities similar to their natural counterparts, enzyme mimics have the desired advantages of tunable structures and catalytic efficiencies, excellent tolerance to experimental conditions, lower cost, and purely synthetic routes to their preparation. Although still in the midst of development, impressive advances have already been made. Enzyme mimics have shown immense potential in the catalysis of a wide range of chemical and biological reactions, the development of chemical and biological sensing and anti‐biofouling systems, and the production of pharmaceuticals and clean fuels. This Review concerns the development of various types of enzyme mimics, namely polymeric and dendrimeric, supramolecular, nanoparticulate and proteinic enzyme mimics, with an emphasis on their synthesis, catalytic properties and technical applications. It provides an introduction to enzyme mimics and a comprehensive summary of the advances and current standings of their applications, and seeks to inspire researchers to perfect the design and synthesis of enzyme mimics and to tailor their functionality for a much wider range of applications. : This review provides a comprehensive summary of advances in enzyme mimics research, covering supramolecular, dendrimeric, polymeric, nanoparticulate and proteinic enzyme mimics. The accessibility and tunability of different scaffolds allow enzyme mimics to have a wide variety of applications, which have been categorised herein as biological reactions, biosensors, medical uses, production of fuels, green chemistry and anti‐biofouling.
    Keywords: Catalysis ; Enzymes ; Host–Guest Systems ; Macrocycles ; Supramolecular Chemistry
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    E-ISSN: 1521-3765
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Cancer, 15 January 2013, Vol.119(2), pp.380-387
    Description: BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of linifanib (ABT-869), a selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, were assessed in this phase 2, single-arm, open-label, multicenter trial.METHODS: Eligible patients had unresectable or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma and had received ≤ 1 prior systemic therapy. Patients received oral linifanib at a fasting dose of 0.25 mg/kg,. The primary endpoint was the progression-free rate at 16 weeks. Tumor response was assessed every 8 weeks. Secondary endpoints included the time to disease progression, overall survival, and objective response rate. Safety was also assessed.RESULTS: Of the 44 patients enrolled, the majority were Asian (89%), had received no prior systemic therapy (82%), had Child-Pugh class A hepatic function (86%), and had hepatitis B virus infection (61%). The estimated progression-free rate at 16 weeks was 31.8% (34.2% for patients with Child-Pugh class A hepatic function), the estimated objective response rate was 9.1% (10.5% for patients with Child-Pugh class A hepatic function), the median time to disease progression was 3.7 months (3.7 months for patients with Child-Pugh class A hepatic function), and the median overall survival was 9.7 months (10.4 months for patients with Child-Pugh class A hepatic function). The most common linifanib-related adverse events were diarrhea (55%) and fatigue (52%). The most common linifanib-related grade 3/4 adverse events were hypertension (25%) and fatigue (14%). Serum levels of biomarkers cancer antigen (CA) 125, cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA)21.1, and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA) demonstrated potential as prognostic indicators of patient response or outcome.CONCLUSIONS: Single-agent linifanib was found to be clinically active in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, with an acceptable safety profile.
    Keywords: Angiogenesis ; Hepatocellular Carcinoma Hcc ; Platelet‐Derived Growth Factor Receptor Pdgfr ; Sorafenib ; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Vegfr ; Linifanib
    ISSN: 0008-543X
    E-ISSN: 1097-0142
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