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  • JSTOR Archival Journals  (5,992)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 06 April 2007, Vol.316(5821), pp.49
    Keywords: Access to Information ; Disease Outbreaks ; Health Planning ; Periodicals As Topic ; Influenza, Human -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and Institute of Medical Ethics
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Medical Ethics, 15 January 2011, Vol.37(1), p.45
    Description: The ‘best interests’ decision making standard is used in clinical care to make necessary health decisions for non-capacitated individuals for whom neither explicit nor inferred wishes are known. It has been also widely acknowledged as a basis for enrolling some non-capacitated adults into clinical research such as emergency, critical care, and dementia research. However, the best interests standard requires that choices provide the highest net benefit of available options, and clinical research rarely meets this criterion. In the context of modern norms of bioethics, the best interests standard rarely supports surrogate consent for research and should not be accepted as a routine provision.
    Keywords: Best Interests ; Surrogate Decision Making ; Informed Consent ; Research Ethics ; Philosophy of Medicine ; Third Party Consent/Incompetents ; Research on Special Populations
    ISSN: 0306-6800
    ISSN: 03066800
    E-ISSN: 1473-4257
    E-ISSN: 14734257
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Public Health Reports, May 2011, Vol.126(3), pp.428-432
    Description: This installment of Law and the Public's Health provides an overview of the federal Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).1 FOIA is important to public health practitioners for at least three reasons: its power to aid public health advocacy, its impact on government accountability and transparency, and its ability to aid public health practice and policy-making. All states also have enacted laws governing open access to governmental information, many with provisions similar to the federal FOIA.2
    Keywords: Public Health
    ISSN: 0033-3549
    E-ISSN: 1468-2877
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2012, Vol.358(1), pp.349-369
    Description: Background and aims: Replacement of beech by spruce is associated with changes in soil acidity, soil structure and humus form, which are commonly ascribed to the recalcitrance of spruce needles. It is of practical relevance to know how much beech must be admixed to pure spruce stands in order to increase litter decomposition and associated nutrient cycling. We addressed the impact of tree species mixture within forest stands and within litter on mass loss and nutritional release from litter. Methods: Litter decomposition was measured in three adjacent stands of pure spruce (Picea abies), mixed beech-spruce and pure beech (Fagus sylvatica) on three nutrient-rich sites and three nutrient-poor sites over a three-year period using the litterbag method (single species and mixed species bags). Results: Mass loss of beech litter was not higher than mass loss of spruce litter. Mass loss and nutrient release were not affected by litter mixing. Litter decay indicated non-additive patterns, since similar remaining masses under pure beech (47%) and mixed beech-spruce (48%) were significantly lower than under pure spruce stands (67%). Release of the main components of the organic substance (C sub(org), N sub(tot), P, S, lignin) and associated K were related to mass loss, while release of other nutrients was not related to mass loss. Conclusions: In contradiction to the widely held assumption of slow decomposition of spruce needles, we conclude that accumulation of litter in spruce stands is not caused by recalcitrance of spruce needles to decay; rather adverse environmental conditions in spruce stands retard decomposition. Mixed beech-spruce stands appear to be as effective as pure beech stands in counteracting these adverse conditions.
    Keywords: Decomposition ; Fagus sylvatica ; Litter quality ; Litterbag ; Mixing effects ; Picea abies
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Consumer Research, 01 October 2013, Vol.40(3), pp.580-593
    Description: How does controversy affect conversation? Five studies using both field and laboratory data address this question. Contrary to popular belief, controversial things are not necessarily more likely to be discussed. Controversy increases likelihood of discussion at low levels, but beyond a moderate level of controversy, additional controversy actually decreases likelihood of discussion. The controversy-conversation relationship is driven by two countervailing processes. Controversy increases interest (which increases likelihood of discussion) but simultaneously increases discomfort (which decreases likelihood of discussion). Contextual factors such as anonymity and whether people are talking to friends or strangers moderate the controversy-conversation relationship by impacting these component processes. Our framework sheds light on how, when, and why controversy affects whether or not things are discussed.
    Keywords: Studies ; Social Interaction ; Correlation Analysis ; Public Interest ; Disputes ; Experiment/Theoretical Treatment ; Social Trends & Culture;
    ISSN: 00935301
    E-ISSN: 15375277
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Consumer Research, 01 October 2013, Vol.40(3), pp.567-579
    Description: Consumers share word of mouth face to face, over social media, and through a host of other communication channels. But do these channels affect what people talk about and, if so, how? Laboratory experiments, as well as analysis of almost 20,000 everyday conversations, demonstrate that communicating via oral versus written communication affects the products and brands consumers discuss. Compared to oral communication, written communication leads people to mention more interesting products and brands. Further, this effect is driven by communication asynchrony and self-enhancement concerns. Written communication gives people more time to construct and refine what to say, and self-enhancement motives lead people to use this opportunity to mention more interesting things. These findings shed light on how communication channels shape interpersonal communication and the psychological drivers of word of mouth more broadly.
    Keywords: Business;
    ISSN: 00935301
    E-ISSN: 15375277
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Marketing Research, 1 April 2012, Vol.49(2), pp.192-205
    Description: Why are certain pieces of online content (e.g., advertisements, videos, news articles) more viral than others? This article takes a psychological approach to understanding diffusion. Using a unique data set of all the New York Times articles published over a three-month period, the authors examine how emotion shapes virality. The results indicate that positive content is more viral than negative content, but the relationship between emotion and social transmission is more complex than valence alone. Virality is partially driven by physiological arousal. Content that evokes high-arousal positive (awe) or negative (anger or anxiety) emotions is more viral. Content that evokes low-arousal, or deactivating, emotions (e.g., sadness) is less viral. These results hold even when the authors control for how surprising, interesting, or practically useful content is (all of which are positively linked to virality), as well as external drivers of attention (e.g., how prominently content was featured). Experimental results further demonstrate the causal impact of specific emotion on transmission and illustrate that it is driven by the level of activation induced. Taken together, these findings shed light on why people share content and how to design more effective viral marketing campaigns.
    Keywords: Behavioral sciences -- Psychology -- Cognitive psychology -- Home pages ; Behavioral sciences -- Psychology -- Cognitive psychology -- Home pages ; Business -- Business administration -- Corporate communications -- Home pages ; Behavioral sciences -- Psychology -- Cognitive psychology -- Home pages ; Applied sciences -- Technology -- Communications technology -- Home pages ; Social sciences -- Communications -- Advertising -- Home pages ; Behavioral sciences -- Psychology -- Cognitive psychology -- Home pages ; Behavioral sciences -- Psychology -- Cognitive psychology -- Home pages ; Applied sciences -- Research methods -- Observational research -- Home pages ; Behavioral sciences -- Psychology -- Cognitive psychology -- Home pages
    ISSN: 00222437
    E-ISSN: 15477193
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Marketing Research, 1 October 2011, Vol.48(5), pp.869-880
    Description: Word of mouth (WOM) affects diffusion and sales, but why are certain products talked about more than others, both right after consumers first experience them and in the months that follow? This article examines psychological drivers of immediate and ongoing WOM. The authors analyze a unique data set of everyday conversations for more than 300 products and conduct both a large field experiment across various cities and a controlled laboratory experiment with real conversations. The results indicate that more interesting products get more immediate WOM but, contrary to intuition, do not receive more ongoing WOM over multiple months or overall. In contrast, products that are cued more by the environment or are more publicly visible receive more WOM both right away and over time. Additional analyses demonstrate which promotional giveaways in WOM marketing campaigns are associated with increased WOM. Overall, the findings shed light on psychological drivers of WOM and provide insight into designing more effective WOM campaigns.
    Keywords: Business -- Business administration -- Corporate communications ; Social sciences -- Communications -- Informal communication ; Business -- Business information -- Consumer research ; Education -- Educational resources -- Instructional materials ; Business -- Business administration -- Corporate communications ; Applied sciences -- Research methods -- Modeling ; Education -- Specialized education -- Global education ; Economics -- Microeconomics -- Economic costs and benefits ; Philosophy -- Applied philosophy -- Philosophy of science ; Business -- Business administration -- Corporate communications
    ISSN: 00222437
    E-ISSN: 15477193
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2014, Vol.377(1), pp.217-234
    Description: Background and aims It is of practical relevance to know how much beech must be admixed to pure spruce stands in order to increase litter decomposition and associated nutrient cycling, since the formation of thick organic layers is commonly ascribed to the recalcitrance of spruce needles. We addressed the impact of tree species mixture within forest stands and within litter on mass loss and nutritional release from litter. Methods Litter decomposition was measured in three adjacent stands of pure spruce (Picea abies), mixed beech-spruce and pure beech (Fagus sylvatica)on a nutrient-rich site and a nutrient-poor site over a 2-year period using litterbags which were filled with five different mixtures of beech and spruce litter. Results Mass loss of beech litter was not higher than mass loss of spruce litter. Decay was primarily affected by tree species composition of the incubation stand and was faster in (mixed) beech forests stands than in spruce forests, while the influence of litter species and their mixtures on decay rates was small. Net transfers of nutrients between the two litter species (direct effects) in the mixed bags were minimal, since initial beech and spruce litter did not have different litter quality. However, in a few cases indirect effects (e.g., changing decomposer abundance and activity) caused non additive patterns for the totals within the mixed bags, hastening decomposition within the first year. Conclusions Greater accumulation of litter in spruce compared to beech stands is not a consequence of the inherent recalcitrance of needles. Adverse environmental conditions in spruce stands retard decomposition. Indirect effects on decomposition caused by stand mixture are not mimicked by litter mixtures within mesh bags. Keywords Decomposition * Fagus sylvatica * Litter quality * Litterbag * Mixing effects * Picea abies
    Keywords: Decomposition ; Fagus sylvatica ; Litter quality ; Litterbag ; Mixing effects ; Picea abies
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 10
    Language: Spanish
    In: Conservation Biology, October 2012, Vol.26(5), pp.769-777
    Description: Alces alcesp p p Ovibos moschatus
    Keywords: Conservation Policy ; Moose ; Muskoxen ; Orphans ; Overwinter Survival ; Photogrammetry ; Alce ; Buey Almizclero ; Fotogrametría ; Huérfanos ; Políticas De Conservación ; Supervivencia A La Hibernación
    ISSN: 0888-8892
    E-ISSN: 1523-1739
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