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  • JSTOR Archival Journals  (470)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 23 December 2011, Vol.334(6063), pp.1699-703
    Description: Several groups of tetrapods have expanded sesamoid (small, tendon-anchoring) bones into digit-like structures ("predigits"), such as pandas' "thumbs." Elephants similarly have expanded structures in the fat pads of their fore- and hindfeet, but for three centuries these have been overlooked as mere cartilaginous curiosities. We show that these are indeed massive sesamoids that employ a patchy mode of ossification of a massive cartilaginous precursor and that the predigits act functionally like digits. Further, we reveal clear osteological correlates of predigit joint articulation with the carpals/tarsals that are visible in fossils. Our survey shows that basal proboscideans were relatively "flat-footed" (plantigrade), whereas early elephantiforms evolved the more derived "tip-toed" (subunguligrade) morphology, including the predigits and fat pad, of extant elephants. Thus, elephants co-opted sesamoid bones into a role as false digits and used them for support as they changed their foot posture.
    Keywords: Biological Evolution ; Elephants -- Anatomy & Histology ; Foot -- Anatomy & Histology ; Sesamoid Bones -- Anatomy & Histology ; Toes -- Anatomy & Histology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant physiology, November 2011, Vol.157(3), pp.1430-9
    Description: RNA PROCESSING FACTOR1 (RPF1) and RPF2 are pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins involved in 5' processing of different mitochondrial mRNAs in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Both factors are highly similar to RESTORERS OF FERTILITY (RF), which are part of cytoplasmic male sterility/restoration systems in various plant species. These findings suggest a predominant role of RF-like PPR proteins in posttranscriptional 5' processing. To further explore the functions of this group of proteins, we examined a number of T-DNA lines carrying insertions in the corresponding PPR genes. This screening identified a nearly complete absence of mature ccmC transcripts in an At1g62930 T-DNA insertion line, a phenotype that could be restored by the introduction of the intact At1g62930 gene into the mutant. The insertion in this nuclear gene, which we now call RPF3, also leads to a severe reduction of the CcmC protein in mitochondria. The analysis of C24/rpf3-1 F2 hybrids lacking functional RPF3 genes revealed that this gene has less influence on the generation of the mature ccmC 5' transcript end derived from a distinct ccmC 5' upstream configuration found in mitochondrial DNAs from C24 and other accessions. These data show that a particular function of an RF-like protein is required only in connection with a distinct mtDNA configuration. Our new results further substantiate the fundamental role of RF-like PPR proteins in the posttranscriptional generation of plant mitochondrial 5' transcript termini.
    Keywords: Ecotype ; Arabidopsis -- Metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins -- Metabolism ; Mitochondria -- Metabolism ; Mitochondrial Proteins -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00320889
    E-ISSN: 1532-2548
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Teaching Children Mathematics, 1 March 2014, Vol.20(7), pp.464-464
    Description: This article shares ideas for using the calendar date to increase students' mental mathematics and problem-solving skills. Postscript items are designed as rich grab-and-go resources that any teacher could quickly incorporate into his or her classroom repertoire with little effort and maximum impact.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Education ; Mathematics;
    ISSN: 10735836
    E-ISSN: 23270780
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  • 4
    In: Review of International Studies, 2011, Vol.37(3), pp.1313-1333
    Description: Abstract Using the case of same-sex marriage in China, this article explores two fundamental questions: What motivates a non-democratic state to promulgate a progressive human rights policy? More importantly, when a non-democratic state adopts such policies, what is the impact on activism? I argue that same-sex marriage legislation could be used strategically to improve China's human rights reputation. While this would extend a pinnacle right to gays and lesbians, the benefits might not outweigh the costs: I show that when imposed from above, a same-sex marriage law would incur opportunity costs on activism; the passage of this progressive policy would eliminate an important issue around which the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Trans-gender/-sexual (LGBT) community might develop. Moreover, even if such policy is promulgated, the right to marry will do little to challenge the larger social pressures that make life difficult for LGBT Chinese.
    Keywords: Homosexuals ; Married Persons ; Strategic Behaviour ; Sexual Perversions ; Human Rights ; Democracy ; Activism ; Opportunity Cost ; Legislation ; Social Acceptance ; China ; U.S.A. ; Political Science;
    ISSN: 0260-2105
    E-ISSN: 1469-9044
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: new phytologist, 2012, Vol.194(2), pp.402-415
    Description: • During harvest, fleshy berry tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) were wounded at their stem scar. Within 3 d, this wound was rapidly sealed by a process covering the wound site with a membranous layer which effectively protects the tomato fruit from excessive water loss, nutrient elution and the entry of pathogens. • Chemical analysis of the de novo synthesized stem scar tissue revealed the presence of aromatic and aliphatic components characteristic of the biopolyester suberin. • Gene expression patterns associated with suberization were identified at the stem scar region. Changes in the relative abundance of different transcripts suggested a potential involvement of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in the wound‐healing processes. • The amount of ABA present in the stem scar tissue showed a significantly increased level during wound healing, whereas ABA‐deficient mutants notabilis, flacca and sitiens were largely devoid of this rise in ABA levels. The mutant fruits showed a retarded and less efficient suberization response at the stem scar wound, whereas the rate and strength of this response were positively correlated with ABA content. These results clearly indicate in vivo the involvement of ABA in the suberization‐based wound‐healing processes at the stem scar tissue of tomato fruits. ; p. 402-415.
    Keywords: Tissue Repair ; Chemical Analysis ; Abscisic Acid ; Fruits ; Gene Expression ; Correlation ; Suberization ; Pathogens ; Tomatoes ; Solanum Lycopersicum ; Suberin ; Mutants
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 14698137
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  • 6
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Teaching Children Mathematics, 1 November 2014, Vol.21(4), pp.256-256
    Description: Quick games, puzzles, activities, or instructional strategies are accompanied by suggestions for how an idea can be used by teachers of different grade bands (K–1, 2–3, 4–6). The Coin Roll game uses dice and money to help children improve numerical fluency and problem-solving skills while connecting math to their everyday world.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Education ; Mathematics;
    ISSN: 10735836
    E-ISSN: 23270780
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 08 January 2010, Vol.327(5962), pp.198-201
    Description: The liver-expressed microRNA-122 (miR-122) is essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA accumulation in cultured liver cells, but its potential as a target for antiviral intervention has not been assessed. We found that treatment of chronically infected chimpanzees with a locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified oligonucleotide (SPC3649) complementary to miR-122 leads to long-lasting suppression of HCV viremia, with no evidence of viral resistance or side effects in the treated animals. Furthermore, transcriptome and histological analyses of liver biopsies demonstrated derepression of target mRNAs with miR-122 seed sites, down-regulation of interferon-regulated genes, and improvement of HCV-induced liver pathology. The prolonged virological response to SPC3649 treatment without HCV rebound holds promise of a new antiviral therapy with a high barrier to resistance.
    Keywords: Pan Troglodytes ; Antiviral Agents -- Therapeutic Use ; Hepatitis C, Chronic -- Drug Therapy ; Micrornas -- Antagonists & Inhibitors ; Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides -- Therapeutic Use
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 8
    Language: German
    In: Antike Welt, 1 January 2013, Issue, pp.88-91
    ISSN: 0003570X
    Source: Archival Journals (JSTOR)
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  • 9
    Language: German
    In: Antike Welt, 1 January 2012, Issue, pp.6-6
    ISSN: 0003570X
    Source: Archival Journals (JSTOR)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The China Quarterly, 1 December 2011, Issue 208, pp.970-989
    Description: The Chinese government uses legal registration to manage and control the rise of social organizations. To avoid negative government attention, organizations might be expected to actively pursue such registration. However, indepth field research of Chinese NGOs in three issue areas (environmental protection, HIV/AIDS prevention, and gay and lesbian rights) reveals that this is not always the case. There are many conflicting political and economic incentives for both NGOs and government, complicating understandings of social organization registration in China. By shedding light on the process of registration, this article reveals the complexities of state-society relations and demonstrates the difficulties for social organizations to avoid significant government interference.
    ISSN: 03057410
    Source: Archival Journals (JSTOR)
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