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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • JSTOR Archival Journals  (4)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Microbial Ecology, 2006, Vol.52(1), pp.151-158
    Description: Soils contain the greatest reservoir of biodiversity on Earth, and the functionality of the soil ecosystem sustains the rest of the terrestrial biosphere. This functionality results from complex interactions between biological and physical processes that are strongly modulated by the soil physical structure. Using a novel combination of biochemical and biophysical indicators and synchrotron microtomography, we have discovered that soil microbes and plant roots microengineer their habitats by changing the porosity and clustering properties (i.e., spatial correlation) of the soil pores. Our results indicate that biota act to significantly alter their habitat toward a more porous, ordered, and aggregated structure that has important consequences for functional properties, including transport processes. These observations support the hypothesis that the soil–plant–microbe complex is self-organized.
    Keywords: Ecosystems;
    ISSN: 0095-3628
    E-ISSN: 1432-184X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Ecology, 1 May 2011, Vol.99(3), pp.828-837
    Description: 1. Declines in availability of plant resources to pollinators are a major cause of pollinator loss. The management of plant communities to enhance floral resources is often proposed as a way to sustain pollinator populations. Nectar, the main energetic resource for pollinators, plays a central role in behaviour and composition of pollinator communities. Abiotic and biotic factors are known to influence nectar traits at both the species and community levels, but the impact of plant community composition itself has never been investigated. 2. Below-ground interactions in plant communities can induce changes in plant development through (i) plant-derived litter amendment of the soil and (ii) competition for soil resources between plants. We tested how plant below-ground interactions affect above-ground nectar traits involved in plant attractiveness to pollinators. 3. A short-term pot experiment was carried out with three temperate grassland species Mimulus guttatus, Lamium amplexicaule, and Medicago sativa, showing distinct litter stoichiometry and competitive abilities for soil resources. Litter amendment (none, mono and tri-specific litter) and plant interaction treatments (monocultures, two- and three-species mixtures) were crossed in a factorial design. 4. Litter amendment to the soil led to an increase in total nectar sugar content in L. amplexicaule plants but not in the two other species. We also found that the presence of M. guttatus, a competitive species, reduced the total nectar sugar content in L. amplexicaule through a concomitant decrease in nectar volume per flower and in floral display size, but not in other species. Species-specific responses of nectar traits to variation in soil nitrogen availability were thus observed, suggesting consequences for plant species and community attractiveness to pollinators. However, we did not find evidence that the legume M. sativa affected nectar traits of any neighbouring plants. 5. Synthesis. Our results demonstrate that litter inputs and competition between plants for soil resources can alter nectar traits linked to plant attractiveness to pollinators. This supports the idea that below-ground plant—plant interactions for soil resources can influence above-ground plant— plant interactions for pollination services. This offers promising perspectives in studying the role of below-ground—above-ground interactions on higher trophic levels.
    Keywords: Biological sciences -- Biology -- Botany ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Botany ; Applied sciences -- Materials science -- Materials ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Botany ; Biological sciences -- Biochemistry -- Biomolecules ; Biological sciences -- Ecology -- Human ecology ; Biological sciences -- Ecology -- Natural resources ; Environmental studies -- Environmental sciences -- Developmental biology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Developmental biology
    ISSN: 00220477
    E-ISSN: 13652745
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Biogeochemistry, 09 September 2011, Vol.106, pp.5-21
    Description: he soil microbial biomass (SMB) is known to participate in key soil processes such as the decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). However, its contribution to the isotopic composition of the SOM is not clear yet. Shifts in the 13C and 15N natural abundances of the SMB and SOM fractions...
    Keywords: Environmental Sciences ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Geology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0168-2563
    E-ISSN: 1573-515X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Plant Physiology, 2005, Vol.138, pp.1690-1699
    Description: Crop improvement by genetic modification remains controversial, one of the major issues being the potential for unintended effects. Comparative safety assessment includes targeted analysis of key nutrients and antinutritional factors, but broader scale-profiling or ‘‘omics'' methods could...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Ecology, Environment ; Botany
    ISSN: 0032-0889
    E-ISSN: 1532-2548
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