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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Medical Care, 2009, Vol.47(2), pp.154-160
    Description: BACKGROUND:: Disease management programs have grown in popularity over the past decade as a strategy to curb escalating healthcare costs for persons with chronic diseases. OBJECTIVES:: To evaluate the effect of the Indiana Chronic Disease Management Program (ICDMP) on the longitudinal changes in Medicaid claims statewide. RESEARCH DESIGN:: Phased implementation of a chronic disease management program in 3 regions of the state. Fourteen repeated cohorts of Medicaid members were drawn over a period of 3.5 years and the trends in claims were evaluated using a repeated measures model. SUBJECTS:: A total of 44,218 Medicaid members with diabetes and/or congestive heart failure in 3 geographic regions in Indiana. RESULTS:: Across all 3 regions and both disease classes, we found a flattening of cost trends between the pre- and post-ICDMP-initiation periods. This change in the slopes was significant for all of the models except for congestive heart failure in southern Indiana. Thus, the average per member claims paid was increasing at a faster rate before ICDMP but slowed once the program was initiated. To distinguish shorter and longer-term effects related to ICDMP, we estimated annual slopes within the pre- and post-ICDMP- time periods. A similar pattern was found in all regions: claims were increasing before ICDMP, flattened in the years around program initiation, and remained flat in the final year of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:: This analysis shows that the trend in average total claims changed significantly after the implementation of ICDMP, with a decline in the rate of increase in claims paid observed for targeted Medicaid program populations across the state of Indiana.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Public Health;
    ISSN: 0025-7079
    E-ISSN: 15371948
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  • 2
    In: Medical Care, 2005, Vol.43(10), pp.979-984
    Description: OBJECTIVE:: The objective of this study was to compare the ability of risk stratification models derived from administrative data to classify groups of patients for enrollment in a tailored chronic disease management program. SUBJECTS:: This study included 19,548 Medicaid patients with chronic heart failure or diabetes in the Indiana Medicaid data warehouse during 2001 and 2002. MEASURES:: To predict costs (total claims paid) in FY 2002, we considered candidate predictor variables available in FY 2001, including patient characteristics, the number and type of prescription medications, laboratory tests, pharmacy charges, and utilization of primary, specialty, inpatient, emergency department, nursing home, and home health care. METHODS:: We built prospective models to identify patients with different levels of expenditure. Model fit was assessed using R statistics, whereas discrimination was assessed using the weighted kappa statistic, predictive ratios, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS:: We found a simple least-squares regression model in which logged total charges in FY 2002 were regressed on the log of total charges in FY 2001, the number of prescriptions filled in FY 2001, and the FY 2001 eligibility category, performed as well as more complex models. This simple 3-parameter model had an R of 0.30 and, in terms in classification efficiency, had a sensitivity of 0.57, a specificity of 0.90, an area under the receiver operator curve of 0.80, and a weighted kappa statistic of 0.51. CONCLUSION:: This simple model based on readily available administrative data stratified Medicaid members according to predicted future utilization as well as more complicated models.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Public Health;
    ISSN: 0025-7079
    E-ISSN: 15371948
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  • 3
    In: Medical Care, 1988, Vol.26(7), pp.699-708
    Description: A multifaceted intervention was hypothesized to increase postdischarge ambulatory contacts and to reduce nonelective readmissions. Patients (N=1,001) discharged from the general medicine service were stratified by risk for nonelective readmission and randomized to the control or intervention group. Intervention patients received phone calls from nurses, mailings of appointment reminders and lists of early warning signs, and prompt rescheduling of visit failures. Patients were followed for 6 months, and the results were computed in units per patient per month. The intervention group had 10.4% more total office contacts (0.53 vs 0.48, P=0.005) than the control group. Although the intervention group had 7.6% fewer nonelective readmission days (0.85 vs 0.92), this was not statistically significant (P=0.5). Patients in the intervention group at high risk (N=181) had 28.1% more office visits (0.73 vs 0.57, P〈0.01) and 31.9% fewer nonelective readmission days (1.13 vs 1.66), but this was also not statistically significant (P=0.06). Thus, the intervention significantly increased postdischarge contacts, primarily in high-risk patients, but failed to reduce the incidence of nonelective readmission days significantly.
    Keywords: Aftercare ; Patient Readmission;
    ISSN: 0025-7079
    E-ISSN: 15371948
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  • 4
    In: Medical Care, 1988, Vol.26(11), pp.1092-1102
    Description: This study tested the hypothesis that increasing the intensity of outpatient care for patients discharged from the hospital could lower their subsequent inpatient and total health-care costs. At discharge, 1,001 patients were stratified by risk of readmission (low, medium, or high) and randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Discharge information (summaries, medications, and postdischarge needs) was provided to outpatient nurses who monitored intervention patients closely and attempted to resolve their problems. Intervention patients also received appointment reminders, and missed visits were promptly rescheduled. The cost of the intervention was $5.20 per patient per month. High-risk patients in the intervention group had significantly higher outpatient costs ($131/month vs. $107/month; P=0.02), but lower inpatient costs ($535/month vs. $800/month; P=0.02) than high-risk patients in the control group. Reduced inpatient costs in the high-risk intervention group were attributed to shorter, less intensive hospital stays. In conclusion, increasing ambulatory care resources after hospital discharge for high-risk patients may reduce health-care costs associated with readmission to the hospital.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Public Health;
    ISSN: 0025-7079
    E-ISSN: 15371948
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  • 5
    In: Medical Care, 1998, Vol.36(5), pp.661-669
    Description: OBJECTIVES.: Each year approximately 100,000 Medicare patients undergo knee replacement surgery. Patients, referring physicians, and surgeons must consider a variety of factors when deciding if knee replacement is indicated. One factor in this decision process is the likelihood of revision knee replacement after the initial surgery. This study determined the chance that a revision knee replacement will occur and which factors were associated with revision. METHODS.: Data on all primary and revision knee replacements that were performed on Medicare patients during the years 1985 through 1990 were obtained. The probability that a revision knee replacement occurred was modeled from data for all patients for whom 2 full years of follow-up data were available. Two strategies for linking revisions to a particular primary knee replacement for each patient were developed. Predictive models were developed for each linking strategy. ICD-9-CM codes were used to determine hospitalizations for primary knee replacement and revision knee replacement. RESULTS.: More than 200,000 hospitalizations for primary knee replacements were performed, with fewer than 3% of them requiring revision within 2 years. The following factors increase the chance of revision within 2 years of primary knee replacement: (1) male gender, (2) younger age, (3) longer length of hospital stay for the primary knee replacement, (4) more diagnoses at the primary knee replacement hospitalization, (5) unspecified arthritis type, (6) surgical complications during the primary knee replacement hospitalization, and (7) primary knee replacement performed at an urban hospital. CONCLUSIONS.: Revision knee replacement is uncommon. Demographic, clinical, and process factors were related to the probability of revision knee replacement.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Public Health;
    ISSN: 0025-7079
    E-ISSN: 15371948
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  • 6
    In: Medical Care, 1986, Vol.24(3), pp.189-199
    Description: Patients who fail to show for scheduled visits or who fail to contact their provider when warning symptoms occur pose important problems for the primary care physician. A group of interventions was examined to determine the effectiveness in increasing the number of prescribed office visits in patients with diabetes mellitus. This group of interventions included mailed packets with information on how to use the clinic, providersʼ names and phone numbers, after-hours phone numbers, a list of early warning signs, and a booklet on managing diabetes mellitus; mailed appointment reminders; and intense followup of visit failures for prompt rescheduling. Eight hundred fifty-nine patients on drug therapy for diabetes mellitus were stratified by risk of hospitalization and randomly assigned within strata to control and intervention groups. The intervention group received all interventions. After 1 year, the intervention group averaged 12% more total contacts than the control group (5.8 vs. 5.2, P = 0.01), due largely to an increase in kept scheduled visits (4.1 vs. 3.6, P = 0.006). These effects were greatest in those patients at higher risk of hospitalization. Also, visit failures were reduced only in high-risk patients. The effect of the interventions did not diminish during the year of study. This systematic and repetitive intervention appears effective in increasing prescribed office visits and is especially effective in patients requiring more frequent care.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Public Health;
    ISSN: 0025-7079
    E-ISSN: 15371948
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