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  • JSTOR Current Journals  (3)
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  • 1
    In: Journal of the North American Benthological Society June 2006, Vol.25(2), pp.313-329
    Description: Abstract Secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment is common in developed countries, but little is known about the responses of lotic ecosystems to contemporary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge. We examined the effects of WWTP discharge on various ecosystem components and functions of 2 morphologically and chemically impacted lowland streams near Berlin, Germany. We sampled one reach upstream and one reach downstream of a WWTP in each stream during each of 5 sampling campaigns. Discharge of treated wastewater resulted in increased concentrations of total organic C, total N, and total P in the sediments and in elevated macrophyte and benthic invertebrate biomasses. However, adverse effects of the WWTPs on the benthic invertebrate communities were small compared to effects reported in previous studies. This difference was a result of the higher purification efficiency of modern WWTPs, but also of significant structural degradation and eutrophication of the streams that already had impoverished the invertebrate community upstream of the WWTPs. Whole-stream community respiration (CR 24 ) and gross primary production (GPP) were both enhanced by WWTP discharge. WWTP discharge generally caused diminished NH 4 - and PO 4 -uptake efficiencies, but did not necessarily lead to diminished NO 3 -uptake efficiencies of streams. Increases in areal NO 3 -uptake rates caused by the discharge of a large municipal WWTP were high enough to result in increased load-specific NO 3 -uptake efficiencies. Our study shows that the effects of present-day WWTPs on stream ecosystem functioning clearly differ from the former impacts of poorly treated wastewater. Present-day WWTP discharges mainly cause eutrophication and subsequent side effects and low nutrient-retention efficiencies relative to the high nutrient concentrations and loads of impacted streams. Our results highlight the need for efficient tertiary treatment of wastewater and for the refinement of agricultural practices to reduce diffuse nutrient loadings. We found evidence that even efficiently treated wastewater can have extensive effects on stream ecosystem structure and function. Therefore, adequate dilution rates always should be considered when routing treated wastewater through lotic networks. Our findings on the response of key ecosystem variables to present-day WWTP loading underline the importance of scientifically based stream management.
    Keywords: Zoology;
    ISSN: 08873593
    E-ISSN: 1937237X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: BioScience, 1 November 2015, Vol.65(11), pp.1057-1065
    Description: The rationale of most restoration strategies is that with reconstruction of natural habitats comes biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning and services will follow suit. Uncertainty and frequent failure in restoration outcomes, however, are recurrent and likely related to the complexity...
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 00063568
    E-ISSN: 15253244
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Applied Ecology, December 2007, Vol.44(6), pp.1138-1144
    Description: 1 The shores of many lakes have been substantially altered by human developments such as erosion control structures or recreational beaches. Such alterations are likely to increase in the future, yet almost nothing is known about their impacts on the littoral macroinvertebrate community. 2 Macroinvertebrates were studied in seven German lowland lakes exhibiting natural shorelines (reference), retaining walls, ripraps and recreational beaches to examine impacts on the eulittoral (0–0·2 m water depth) and infralittoral (0·2–1·2 m water depth) communities associated with the three types of shoreline development. 3 Among sites, eulittoral species richness and abundance of Coleoptera, Gastropoda, Trichoptera, shredders and xylophagous species were lowest on beaches and retaining walls but ripraps did not differ significantly from natural shorelines. Retaining walls and ripraps had no significant impact on the infralittoral macroinvertebrate community. Conversely, beaches had significantly lower infralittoral species richness and abundance of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and shredders than natural shorelines. Furthermore, species richness was correlated positively with habitat heterogeneity expressed as number of habitat types. 4 Among lakes, whole‐lake littoral macroinvertebrate density increased with increasing proportion of developed shorelines due to increasing abundances of Chironomidae. The remaining macroinvertebrate major groups decreased with increasing proportion of shoreline development. 5 Synthesis and applications. The biological impacts of shoreline development in lowland lakes depend upon the extent to which structural complexity and heterogeneity of littoral habitats are reduced. Hence, we recommend that management programmes focus upon the conservation of littoral habitat complexity and habitat heterogeneity. The biological effects of shoreline development may be assessed efficiently by combining an assessment of the morphological status of lakeshores and information on macroinvertebrate indicator species with a defined response to the loss of their preferred habitats.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Coarse Woody Debris ; Habitat Complexity ; Lake Management ; Macrophytes ; Recreational Beaches ; Retaining Walls ; Riparian Clearcutting ; Ripraps
    ISSN: 0021-8901
    E-ISSN: 1365-2664
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