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  • Journals.ASM.org (American Society of Microbiology)  (11)
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  • 1
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2002, Vol. 40(4), p.1420
    Description: Combined antigen and antibody screening (fourth-generation) assays reduce the diagnostic window period between the time of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and laboratory diagnosis by 4 days, on average, in comparison to antibody-only (third generation) enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). The aim of the present study was to assess whether the new VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra (Biomerieux, Marcy-l'Etoile, France) showed an improved sensitivity and specificity in comparison to licensed fourth-generation assays. A total of 16 seroconversion panels, 15 cell culture supernatants infected with different HIV type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes, and 257 potentially cross-reactive serum samples were tested with VIDAS DUO HIV Ultra, Genscreen Plus HIV Ag-Ab, Enzygnost HIV Integral, Enzymun-Test HIV Combi, Genscreen HIV 1/2, version 2 (third-generation EIA), and Genetic Systems HIV-1 Ag EIA (p24 antigen assay). VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra showed a comparable sensitivity to the single p24 antigen assay in seroconversion panels and a dilution series of virus lysates. The diagnostic window was reduced with VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra by 3.82 days, on average, in comparison with the fourth- generation assay with the lowest sensitivity of the antigen detection module. HIV-1 infection was detected 5.88 days earlier than with third-generation EIA. The mean time delay between reverse transcription-PCR and VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra was only 2.31 days. The specificity of fourth-generation assays after retesting ranged between 98.1 and 100%. In conclusion, VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra can replace single-antigen screening for laboratory diagnosis and screening of HIV infection in blood donors. There was no evidence for a second diagnostic window due to impaired sensitivity of the antibody detection module of all the fourth- generation EIAs evaluated in the present study. The specificity after initial and/or repeated testing of VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra was equivalent to that of a third-generation assay.
    Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus ; Human Immunodeficiency Virus ; Screening ; Immunoassays ; Antigens ; Antibodies ; Screening ; Immunoassays ; Antigens ; Antibodies ; AIDS: Immunological Aspects ; Viruses ; HIV ; HIV ; HIV;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 2
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2003, Vol. 41(1), p.135
    Description: In recent years the diagnostic industry has developed new automated immunoassays for the qualitative detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) in serum and plasma samples that are performed on analyzers that permit a high-speed throughput, random access, and primary tube sampling. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of two new automated HBsAg screening assays, IMMULITE HBsAg and IMMULITE 2000 HBsAg, from Diagnostic Products Corporation. The new HBsAg assays were compared to well-established tests (Auszyme Monoclonal (overnight incubation, version B), IMx HBsAg, AxSYM HBsAg, and Prism HBsAg (all from Abbott) and Elecsys HBsAg (Roche Diagnostics)). In the evaluation were included seroconversion panels, sera from the acute and chronic phases of infection, dilution series of various HBsAg standards, HBV subtypes and S gene mutants. To challenge the specificity of the new assays, sera from HBsAg-negative blood donors, pregnant women, and dialysis and hospitalized patients and potentially cross-reactive samples were investigated. IMMULITE HBsAg and IMMULITE 2000 HBsAg, although not as sensitive as the Elecsys HBsAg assay, were equivalent to the AxSYM HBsAg assay and showed a higher sensitivity than the Auszyme Monoclonal B and IMx HBsAg systems for detection of acute infection in seroconversion panels. The specificities (100%) of both IMMULITE assays on unselected blood donors and potentially interfering samples were comparable to those of the alternative assays after repeated testing. In conclusion, the new IMMULITE HBsAg and IMMULITE 2000 HBsAg assays show a good sensitivity for HBsAg detection compared to other well-established tests. The specificity on repeatedly tested samples was equivalent to that of the alternative assays. The rapid turnaround time, primary tube sampling, and on- board dilution make it an interesting assay system for clinical laboratory diagnosis.
    Keywords: Immunological Techniques & Reagents ; Immulite 2000 Hbsag ; Immulite Hbsag ; Hospital Patients;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2008, Vol. 46(6), p.2122
    Description: Here we describe for the first time the productive in vitro infection of human retinal pigment epithelial cells by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), resulting in a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) that is characterized by enlarged cells with increased granularity. Depending on the CPE dissemination, high titers of up to 1.6 x 10 super(6) PFU of cell-free and cryostable VZV/ml can be recovered.
    Keywords: Retinal Pigment Epithelium ; Retina ; Replication ; Pigments ; Infection ; Varicella-Zoster Virus ; Replication;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 4
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2008, Vol. 46(1), p.325
    Description: Here, we describe the association of certain varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genotypes with unique glycoprotein E (gE) gene mutations. Within 45 analyzed VZV wild-type strains of genotypes A and D, five novel gE mutations were discovered. A statistically significant (P 〈 0.0001) association of certain gE mutations with VZV genotype D was found.
    Keywords: Glycoprotein E ; Point Mutation ; Statistical Analysis ; Genotypes ; Varicella-Zoster Virus ; Genetics, Taxonomy & Structure ; Human Genetics;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 5
    In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2007, Vol. 51(9), p.3264
    Description: The objective of this study was to identify parameters among saquinavir pharmacokinetics, patients' demographics or comedications, to be addressed for improved personalized therapy. The presence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA at therapy week 48 (principal target parameter), CD4 cell count at week 48, infections and side effects during 48 weeks, indicators of liver toxicity and lipid abnormalities at week 48, and a 12-h saquinavir plasma concentration-versus-time profile were assessed in 56 patients receiving saquinavir-ritonavir (1,000 and 100 mg, respectively) twice daily (44 therapy-naïve and 12 antiretrovirally pretreated patients) for association with saquinavir plasma concentrations, demographics, baseline values of target parameters, and coadministered antiretrovirals. Antiretroviral failure was observed in 8 of the 56 patients in whom HIV-1 RNA was detectable at week 48. This therapeutic failure was not associated with individual saquinavir pharmacokinetics. More likely, therapeutic failure was related to incidences interfering with antiretroviral therapy, causing therapy interruptions or incompliance. Weak associations were, however, seen between high maximum saquinavir plasma concentrations and both CD4 counts of 〉 or =200 cells microl(-1) at week 48 (P = 0.014) and constitutional side effects during 48 weeks (P = 0.002). However, patients with high CD4 counts and constitutional side effects were not identical (P = 0.53). Saquinavir therapeutic drug monitoring in patients infected with protease inhibitor-susceptible HIV-1 taking saquinavir-ritonavir (1,000 and 100 mg, respectively) is not demanded for improving the antiretroviral effect. It may be contemplated in cases with constitutional side effects or low CD4 counts with weak immune responses.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology;
    ISSN: 0066-4804
    ISSN: 00664804
    E-ISSN: 10986596
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  • 6
    In: The Journal of Virology, 2004, Vol. 78(17), p.9007
    Description: The worldwide outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was shown to be associated with a novel coronavirus (CoV) now called SARS CoV. We report here the generation of SARS CoV S protein-pseudotyped murine leukemia virus (MLV) vector particles. The wild-type S protein pseudotyped MLV vectors, although at a low efficiency. Partial deletion of the cytoplasmic tail of S dramatically increased infectivity of pseudotypes, with titers only two- to threefold lower than those of pseudotypes generated in parallel with the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein. S-pseudotyped MLV particles were used to analyze viral tropism. MLV(SARS) pseudotypes and wild-type SARS CoV displayed similar cell types and tissue and host restrictions, indicating that the expression of a functional receptor is the major restraint in permissiveness to SARS CoV infection. Efficient gene transfer could be detected in Vero and CaCo2 cells, whereas the level of gene marking of 293T, HeLa, and HepG2 cells was only slightly above background levels. A cat cell line and a dog cell line were not susceptible. Interestingly, PK-15, a porcine kidney cell line, and primary porcine kidney cells were also highly permissive for SARS S pseudotypes and wild-type SARS CoV. This finding suggests that swine may be susceptible to SARS infection and may be a source for infection of humans. Taken together, these results indicate that MLV(SARS) pseudotypes are highly valuable for functional studies of viral tropism and entry and, in addition, can be a powerful tool for the development of therapeutic entry inhibitors without posing a biohazard to human beings.
    Keywords: Sars Coronavirus ; Murine Leukemia Virus ; Vesicular Stomatitis Virus ; Sars Coronavirus ; Murine Leukemia Virus ; Vesicular Stomatitis Virus ; Expression Vectors ; Infection ; Host Range ; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ; Kidney ; Tropism ; Leukemia ; Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein ; Gene Transfer ; Deletion ; Tails ; Infectivity ; Vesicular Stomatitis ; Background Levels ; Expression Vectors ; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ; Kidney ; Tropism ; Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein ; Gene Transfer ; Deletion ; Infectivity ; Viral Genetics Including Virus Reactivation ; Cloning Vectors ; S Protein ; S Protein;
    ISSN: 0022-538X
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 10985514
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  • 7
    In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2003, Vol. 47(1), p.54
    Description: Zidovudine resistance (ZDV-R) is associated with classic genotypic changes at codons 41, 67, 70, 210, 215, and 219 of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) gene as well as with the multinucleoside resistance (MNR) complexes (Q151M MNR complex; 6-bp insertion/A62V complex). In addition, enhanced resistance to ZDV in the context of the classic ZDV mutations plus the M184V mutation has been associated with additional mutations at positions 208, 211, 214, and 333. In this study we investigated phenotypic ZDV-R determined by a recombinant virus assay (Antivirogram; Virco) in 223 clinical samples in relation to the above genotypic changes. 150 out of 223 clinical samples had the M184V mutation. Phenotypic ZDV-R ranged from 0.3- to 5,338-fold. Sixteen samples (15 with high ZDV-R ranging from 90- to 3,571-fold) contained MNR-associated patterns. Analysis of classic mutational patterns broadly demonstrated increasing ZDV-R with increasing number of ZDV mutations. A comparable correlation was obtained when ZDV-R was analyzed only relative to the T215Y/F mutation. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments investigating the influence of the additional mutations H208Y, R211K, and L214F on ZDV-R resulted in a 7.4- or 21-fold increase in ZDV-R when the R211K/L214F or H208Y/R211K/L214F mutations, respectively, were added to a highly ZDV-R virus. In the clinical sample data set we analyzed, the combination of R211K/L214F appeared most frequently. The H208Y change was detected only in highly ZDV-R viruses, whereas the G333E/D change was distributed equally. All changes were independent of the M184V mutation. A 2.4- or 8-fold increase in ZDV-R was observed in the clinical samples with high ZDV-R containing the R211K/L214F or H208Y/R211K/L214F mutations, respectively. We have shown that the combination of the additional mutations H208Y, R211K, and L214F in HIV-1 RT may influence ZDV-R and should be considered when assessing ZDV-R.
    Keywords: Drug Resistance, Viral -- Genetics ; HIV-1 -- Genetics ; RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase -- Genetics ; Zidovudine -- Pharmacology;
    ISSN: 0066-4804
    ISSN: 00664804
    E-ISSN: 10986596
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  • 8
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2008, Vol. 46(10), p.3530
    Description: Based on analysis of 16,392 bp encompassing the complete open reading frames (ORFs) 1, 5, 31, 36, 37, 47, 60, 62, 67, and 68 of the genome of genotype M1 varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was found in swab samples originating from eight Tanzanian zoster patients. Moreover, sequence analysis suggests recombination events between different VZV genotypes within ORFs 1, 31, 60, and 67.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 9
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1998, Vol. 36(8), p.2235
    Description: In order to reduce the diagnostic window between the time of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and laboratory diagnosis, new screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) which permit the simultaneous detection of HIV antigen and antibody have been developed. Two fourth-generation assays, HIV DUO (Biomérieux) and HIV Combi (Boehringer Mannheim), for the combined detection of HIV antigen and antibody, were compared with a third-generation assay (HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd Generation Plus enzyme immunoassay [EIA]; Abbott) and a p24 antigen test (HIV-1 Ag monoclonal; Abbott). A total of 17 seroconversion panels, 15 cell culture supernatants infected with different HIV type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes, and 255 potentially cross-reactive serum samples were tested. Ten seroconversions were detected an average of 8.1 days earlier with HIV DUO and 7.5 days earlier with HIV Combi than with the third-generation ELISA. Overall, in the 17 seroconversion panels tested, HIV DUO detected HIV-1 infection an average of 4.8 days and HIV Combi detected infection an average of 4.4 days earlier than HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd Generation Plus EIA. HIV antigen was detected with HIV DUO and HIV Combi in all of the 15 cell culture supernatants infected with different HIV-1 subtypes, including subtype O. With fourth-generation assays, considerably fewer false-positive results (n = 4 to 6) were obtained, in comparison with the third-generation EIA (n = 18). Fourth-generation assays permit an earlier diagnosis of HIV infection than third-generation antibody screening assays through the detection of p24 antigen, which may be present in serum samples from individuals with recent HIV infection prior to seroconversion.
    Keywords: AIDS Serodiagnosis ; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay -- Methods ; HIV Antibodies -- Blood ; HIV Core Protein P24 -- Blood ; HIV Infections -- Diagnosis;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 10
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2007, Vol. 45(11), p.3540
    Description: In this study, we present a novel genotyping scheme to classify German wild-type varicella-zoster virus (VZV) strains and to differentiate them from the Oka vaccine strain (genotype B). This approach is based on analysis of four loci in open reading frames (ORFs) 51 to 58, encompassing a total length of 1,990 bp. The new genotyping scheme produced identical clusters in phylogenetic analyses compared to full-genome sequences from well-characterized VZV strains. Based on genotype A, D, B, and C reference strains, a dichotomous identification key (DIK) was developed and applied for VZV strains obtained from vesicle fluid and liquor samples originating from 42 patients suffering from varicella or zoster between 2003 and 2006. Sequencing of regions in ORFs 51, 52, 53, 56, 57, and 58 identified 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including two novel ones, SNP 89727 and SNP 92792 in ORF51 and ORF52, respectively. The DIK as well as phylogenetic analysis by Bayesian inference showed that 14 VZV strains belonged to genotype A, and 28 VZV strains were classified as genotype D. Neither Japanese (vaccine)-like B strains nor recombinant-like C strains were found within the samples from Germany. The novel genotyping scheme and the DIK were demonstrated to be practical and simple and allow the highly efficient replication of phylogenetic patterns in VZV initially derived from full-genome DNA sequence analyses. Therefore, this approach may allow us to draw a more comprehensive picture of wild-type VZV strains circulating in Germany and Central Europe by high-throughput procedures in the future.
    Keywords: Herpesvirus 3, Human -- Classification;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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