Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Applied and environmental microbiology, February 2013, Vol.79(4), pp.1410-3
    Description: To study the role of broad-host-range IncP-1 plasmids in bacterial adaptability to irregular environmental challenges, a quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed that specifically detects the korB gene, which is conserved in all IncP-1 plasmids, in environmental samples. IncP-1 plasmid dynamics in a biopurification system for pesticide wastes were analyzed.
    Keywords: Environmental Microbiology ; Bacteroidetes -- Genetics ; Plasmids -- Analysis
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 1098-5336
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Applied and environmental microbiology, December 2012, Vol.78(23), pp.8492-7
    Description: Leaf lesions of Mandevilla sanderi were shown to be caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi. While BOX fingerprints were similar for P. savastanoi isolates from different host plants, plasmid restriction patterns and sequencing of plasmid-located pathogenicity determinants revealed that Mandevilla isolates contained similar plasmids distinct from those of other isolates. A repA-based detection method was established.
    Keywords: Apocynaceae -- Microbiology ; Plant Diseases -- Microbiology ; Pseudomonas -- Isolation & Purification
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 1098-5336
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Applied and environmental microbiology, March 2013, Vol.79(5), pp.1704-11
    Description: Spreading manure containing antibiotics in agriculture is assumed to stimulate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in soil bacterial populations. Plant roots influencing the soil environment and its microflora by exudation of growth substrates might considerably increase this effect. In this study, the effects of manure from pigs treated with sulfadiazine (SDZ), here called SDZ manure, on the abundance and transferability of sulfonamide resistance genes sul1 and sul2 in the rhizosphere of maize and grass were compared to the effects in bulk soil in a field experiment. In plots that repeatedly received SDZ manure, a significantly higher abundance of both sul genes was detected compared to that in plots where manure from untreated pigs was applied. Significantly lower abundances of sul genes relative to bacterial ribosomal genes were encountered in the rhizosphere than in bulk soil. However, in contrast to results for bulk soil, the sul gene abundance in the SDZ manure-treated rhizosphere constantly deviated from control treatments over a period of 6 weeks after manuring, suggesting ongoing antibiotic selection over this period. Transferability of sulfonamide resistance was analyzed by capturing resistance plasmids from soil communities into Escherichia coli. Increased rates of plasmid capture were observed in samples from SDZ manure-treated bulk soil and the rhizosphere of maize and grass. More than 97% of the captured plasmids belonged to the LowGC type (having low G+C content), giving further evidence for their important contribution to the environmental spread of antibiotic resistance. In conclusion, differences between bulk soil and rhizosphere need to be considered when assessing the risks associated with the spreading of antibiotic resistance.
    Keywords: Drug Resistance, Bacterial ; Gene Transfer, Horizontal ; Manure ; Soil Microbiology ; Anti-Bacterial Agents -- Therapeutic Use ; Sulfadiazine -- Therapeutic Use
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 1098-5336
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2011, Vol. 77(7), p.2527
    Description: Two soils were amended three times with pig manure and quantitative PCR 2 months after each application was used to determine the abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes. In both soils treated with sulfadiazine-containing manure, the numbers of copies of sul1 and sul2 significantly increased compared to numbers after treatments with antibiotic-free manure or a control and accumulated with repeated applications.
    Keywords: Manures – Composition ; Microbial Drug Resistance – Research ; Soil Microbiology – Research ; Sulfonamides – Usage;
    ISSN: 0099-2240
    ISSN: 00992240
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  • 5
    In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2010, Vol. 76(14), p.4765
    Description: A novel PCR primer system that targets a wide range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHD(alpha)) genes of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was developed and used to study their abundance and diversity in two different soils in response to phenanthrene spiking. The specificities and target ranges of the primers predicted in silico were confirmed experimentally by cloning and sequencing of PAH-RHD(alpha) gene amplicons from soil DNA. Cloning and sequencing showed the dominance of phnAc genes in the contaminated Luvisol. In contrast, high diversity of PAH-RHD(alpha) genes of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was observed in the phenanthrene-spiked Cambisol. Quantitative real-time PCR based on the same primers revealed that 63 days after phenanthrene spiking, PAH-RHD(alpha) genes were 1 order of magnitude more abundant in the Luvisol than in the Cambisol, while they were not detected in both control soils. In conclusion, sequence analysis of the amplicons obtained confirmed the specificity of the novel primer system and revealed a soil type-dependent response of PAH-RHD(alpha) gene-carrying soil bacteria to phenanthrene spiking.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Metagenome ; Soil Microbiology ; Bacteria -- Classification ; Bacterial Proteins -- Genetics ; Dioxygenases -- Genetics ; Phenanthrenes -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 0099-2240
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 10985336
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Applied and environmental microbiology, July 2014, Vol.80(13), pp.4012-20
    Description: Biopurification systems (BPS) are used on farms to control pollution by treating pesticide-contaminated water. It is assumed that mobile genetic elements (MGEs) carrying genes coding for enzymes involved in degradation might contribute to the degradation of pesticides. Therefore, the composition and shifts of MGEs, in particular, of IncP-1 plasmids carried by BPS bacterial communities exposed to various pesticides, were monitored over the course of an agricultural season. PCR amplification of total community DNA using primers targeting genes specific to different plasmid groups combined with Southern blot hybridization indicated a high abundance of plasmids belonging to IncP-1, IncP-7, IncP-9, IncQ, and IncW, while IncU and IncN plasmids were less abundant or not detected. Furthermore, the integrase genes of class 1 and 2 integrons (intI1, intI2) and genes encoding resistance to sulfonamides (sul1, sul2) and streptomycin (aadA) were detected and seasonality was revealed. Amplicon pyrosequencing of the IncP-1 trfA gene coding for the replication initiation protein revealed high IncP-1 plasmid diversity and an increase in the abundance of IncP-1β and a decrease in the abundance of IncP-1ε over time. The data of the chemical analysis showed increasing concentrations of various pesticides over the course of the agricultural season. As an increase in the relative abundances of bacteria carrying IncP-1β plasmids also occurred, this might point to a role of these plasmids in the degradation of many different pesticides.
    Keywords: Interspersed Repetitive Sequences ; Bacteria -- Genetics ; Metabolic Networks and Pathways -- Genetics ; Pesticides -- Metabolism ; Water Pollutants -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 1098-5336
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  • 7
    In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2002, Vol. 68(3), p.1325
    Description: Rhizosphere bacterial communities of two transgenic potato lines which produce T4 lysozyme for protection against bacterial infections were analyzed in comparison to communities of wild-type plants and transgenic controls not harboring the lysozyme gene. Rhizosphere samples were taken from young, flowering, and senescent plants at two field sites in three consecutive years. The communities were characterized in a polyphasic approach. Cultivation-dependent methods included heterotrophic plate counts, determination of species composition and diversity based on fatty acid analysis of isolates, and community level catabolic profiling. Cultivation-independent analyses were based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from rhizosphere DNA using primers specific for Bacteria, Actinomycetales, or alpha- or beta-Proteobacteria. Several bands of the DGGE patterns were further characterized by sequence analysis. All methods revealed that environmental factors related to season, field site, or year but not to the T4 lysozyme expression of the transgenic plants influenced the rhizosphere communities. For one of the T4 lysozyme-producing cultivars, no deviation in the rhizosphere communities compared to the control lines was observed. For the other, differences were detected at some of the samplings between the rhizosphere community structure and those of one or all other cultivars which were not attributable to T4 lysozyme production but most likely to differences observed in the growth characteristics of this cultivar.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Biology ; Economics;
    ISSN: 0099-2240
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 10985336
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  • 8
    In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1998, Vol. 64(4), p.1550
    Description: The ability of Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413(pFG4 delta nptII) to take up and integrate transgenic plant DNA based on homologous recombination was studied under optimized laboratory conditions. Restoration of nptII, resulting in kanamycin-resistant transformants, was observed with plasmid DNA, plant DNA, and homogenates carrying the gene nptII. Molecular analysis showed that some transformants not only restored the 317-bp deletion but also obtained additional DNA.
    Keywords: Transformation, Genetic ; Acinetobacter -- Genetics ; Chenopodiaceae -- Genetics ; DNA, Plant -- Genetics;
    ISSN: 0099-2240
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 10985336
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  • 9
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1999, Vol. 37(11), p.3594
    Description: While the gram-negative bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is used in biotechnology (e.g., for biological control of plant pathogens and for bioremediation), the number of S. maltophilia diseases in humans has dramatically increased in recent years. A total of 40 S. maltophilia isolates from clinical and environmental sources (plant associated and water) was investigated to determine the intraspecies diversity of the group and to determine whether or not the strains could be grouped based on the source of isolation. The isolates were investigated by phenotypic profiling (enzymatic and metabolic activity and antibiotic resistance patterns) and by molecular methods such as temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis of the 16S rRNA gene fragment, PCR fingerprinting with BOX primers, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion with DraI. Results of the various methods revealed high intraspecies diversity. PFGE was the most discriminatory method for typing S. maltophilia when compared to the other molecular methods. The environmental strains of S. maltophilia were highly resistant to antibiotics, and the resistance profile pattern of the strains was not dependent on their source of isolation. Computer-assisted cluster analysis of the phenotypic and genotypic features did not reveal any clustering patterns for either clinical or environmental isolates.
    Keywords: Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia ; Genotyping ; Genetic Diversity ; Identification, Taxonomy and Typing ; Isolates ; Isolates;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 10
    In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2005, Vol. 71(8), p.4203
    Description: Fungi with antagonistic activity toward plant pathogens play an essential role in plant growth and health. To analyze the effects of the plant species and the site on the abundance and composition of fungi with antagonistic activity toward Verticillium dahliae, fungi were isolated from oilseed rape and strawberry rhizosphere and bulk soil from three different locations in Germany over two growing seasons. A total of 4,320 microfungi screened for in vitro antagonism toward Verticillium resulted in 911 active isolates. This high proportion of fungi antagonistic toward the pathogen V. dahliae was found for bulk and rhizosphere soil at all sites. A plant- and site-dependent specificity of the composition of antagonistic morphotypes and their genotypic diversity was found. The strawberry rhizosphere was characterized by preferential occurrence of Penicillium and Paecilomyces isolates and low numbers of morphotypes (n = 31) and species (n = 13), while Monographella isolates were most frequently obtained from the rhizosphere of oilseed rape, for which higher numbers of morphotypes (n = 41) and species (n = 17) were found. Trichoderma strains displayed high diversity in all soils, but a high degree of plant specificity was shown by BOX-PCR fingerprints. The diversity of rhizosphere-associated antagonists was lower than that of antagonists in bulk soil, suggesting that some fungi were specifically enriched in each rhizosphere. A broad spectrum of new Verticillium antagonists was identified, and the implications of the data for biocontrol applications are discussed. ; Includes references ; p. 4203-4213.
    Keywords: Fungal Wilt ; Rhizosphere Fungi ; Fungal Antagonists ; Penicillium ; Genes ; Monographella ; Ribosomal Rna ; Verticillium Dahliae ; Fragaria Ananassa ; Biological Control Agents ; Disease Control ; Antifungal Properties ; Rapeseed ; Trichoderma ; Paecilomyces ; Nucleotide Sequences ; Strawberries ; Brassica Napus ; Species Diversity ; Molecular Sequence Data;
    ISSN: 0099-2240
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 10985336
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