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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • English  (3)
  • MEDLINE/PubMed (NLM)  (3)
  • AGRIS (United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization)  (3)
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of environmental quality, 2009, Vol.38(3), pp.933-9
    Description: Liming is a common technique suggested for the stabilization of shooting range sites. We investigated the effect of an increase in pH on the mobilization of soluble and dispersible (colloidal) Pb, As, and Sb. Our hypothesis was that the addition of divalent cations counteracts the pH-induced mobilization of soluble and colloidal metal(loid)s. We determined soluble (operationally defined as the fraction 〈 10 nm obtained after centrifugation) and dispersible (filter cut-off 1200 nm) As, Pb, Sb, Fe, and C(org) concentrations in the filtered suspensions of batch extracts of topsoil samples (C(org): 8%) from a former shooting range site following a pH increase to values between 3.5 and 7 by adding a monovalent (KOH) or a divalent (Ca(OH)(2)) base. In the Ca(OH)(2)-treated samples, dissolved metal(loid) concentrations were 62 to 98% lower than those titrated with KOH to similar pH. Similarly, Ca reduced the concentration of dispersible Pb by 95%, but had little or no impact on dispersible As and Sb. We conclude that the counterion valency controls the mobility of metal(loid)s by affecting the mobility and sorption capacity of the sorbents (e.g., colloids, organic matter).
    Keywords: Antimony -- Chemistry ; Arsenic -- Chemistry ; Cations, Divalent -- Chemistry ; Lead -- Chemistry ; Soil -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0047-2425
    E-ISSN: 15372537
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of environmental quality, 2007, Vol.36(4), pp.1187-93
    Description: Drying of soil may increase the hydrophobicity of soil and affect the mobilization of colloids after re-wetting. Results of previous research suggest that colloid hydrophobicity is an important parameter in controlling the retention of colloids and colloid-associated substances in soils. We tested the hypothesis that air-drying of soil samples increases the hydrophobicity of water-dispersible colloids and whether air-drying affects the mobilization of colloid-associated heavy metals. We performed batch experiments with field-moist and air-dried (25 degrees C) soils from a former sewage farm (sandy loam), a municipal park (loamy sand), and a shooting range site (loamy sand with 25% C(org)). The filtered suspensions (〈1.2 microm) were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved and colloidal organic C and heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn), average colloid size, zeta potential, and turbidity. The hydrophobicity of colloids was determined by their partitioning between a hydrophobic solid and a hydrophilic aqueous phase. Drying increased hydrophobicity of the solid phase but did not affect the hydrophobicity of the dispersed colloids. Drying decreased the amount of mobilized mineral and (organo-)mineral colloids in the sewage farm soils but increased the mobilization of organic colloids in the C-rich shooting range soil. Dried samples released less colloid-bound Cd and Zn than field-moist samples. Drying-induced mobilization of dissolved organic C caused a redistribution of Cu from the colloidal to the dissolved phase. We conclude that drying-induced colloid mobilization is not caused by a change in the physicochemical properties of the colloids. Therefore, it is likely that the mobilization of colloids in the field is caused by increasing shear forces or the disintegration of aggregates.
    Keywords: Desiccation ; Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions ; Colloids -- Chemistry ; Metals, Heavy -- Analysis ; Soil -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0047-2425
    E-ISSN: 15372537
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 10 September 2013, Vol.110(37), pp.15019-24
    Description: Robust cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cell response is important for immunity to intracellular pathogens. Here, we show that the transcription factor IFN Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) is crucial for the protective CD8(+) T-cell response to the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. IRF4-deficient (Irf4(-/-)) mice could not clear L. monocytogenes infection and generated decreased numbers of L. monocytogenes-specific CD8(+) T cells with impaired effector phenotype and function. Transfer of wild-type CD8(+) T cells into Irf4(-/-) mice improved bacterial clearance, suggesting an intrinsic defect of CD8(+) T cells in Irf4(-/-) mice. Following transfer into wild-type recipients, Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells became activated and showed initial proliferation upon L. monocytogenes infection. However, these cells could not sustain proliferation, produced reduced amounts of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and failed to acquire cytotoxic function. Forced IRF4 expression in Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells rescued the defect. During acute infection, Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells demonstrated diminished expression of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1), inhibitor of DNA binding (Id)2, and T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet), transcription factors programming effector-cell generation. IRF4 was essential for expression of Blimp-1, suggesting that altered regulation of Blimp-1 contributes to the defects of Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells. Despite increased levels of B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL-6), Eomesodermin, and Id3, Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells showed impaired memory-cell formation, indicating additional functions for IRF4 in this process. As IRF4 governs B-cell and CD4(+) T-cell differentiation, the identification of its decisive role in peripheral CD8(+) T-cell differentiation, suggests a common regulatory function for IRF4 in adaptive lymphocytes fate decision.
    Keywords: Interferon Regulatory Factors -- Immunology ; T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic -- Immunology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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