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  • MEDLINE/PubMed (NLM)  (14)
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  • 1
    In: Global Change Biology, January 2018, Vol.24(1), pp.e183-e189
    Description: Current climate and land‐use changes affect regional and global cycles of silicon (Si), with yet uncertain consequences for ecosystems. The key role of Si in marine ecology by controlling algae growth is well recognized but research on terrestrial ecosystems neglected Si since not considered an essential plant nutrient. However, grasses and various other plants accumulate large amounts of Si, and recently it has been hypothesized that incorporation of Si as a structural plant component may substitute for the energetically more expensive biosynthesis of lignin. Herein, we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis. We demonstrate that in straw of rice () deriving from a large geographic gradient across South‐East Asia, the Si concentrations (ranging from 1.6% to 10.7%) are negatively related to the concentrations of carbon (31.3% to 42.5%) and lignin‐derived phenols (32 to 102 mg/g carbon). Less lignin may explain results of previous studies that Si‐rich straw decomposes faster. Hence, Si seems a significant but hardly recognized factor in organic carbon cycling through grasslands and other ecosystems dominated by Si‐accumulating plants. The key role of silicon in marine ecology by controlling algae growth is well recognized but research on terrestrial ecosystems neglected Si since not considered an essential plant nutrient. However, many plants accumulate large amounts of Si, and recently it has been hypothesized that incorporation of Si as a structural component may substitute for the energetically more expensive biosynthesis of lignin. Herein, we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis. We demonstrate that in rice straw deriving from a large geographic gradient across South‐East Asia, the Si concentrations are negatively related to the concentrations of carbon and lignin‐derived phenols. Our data offer an explanation for previous findings of faster decomposition of Si‐rich rice straw as lignin regulates plant litter decomposition rates. Hence, Si seems a significant but hardly recognized factor in carbon cycling through ecosystems dominated by grass species and/or other Si‐accumulating plants.
    Keywords: Carbon Cycle ; Lignin ; Litter Decomposition ; Rice ; Silicon ; Structural Plant Components
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 2
    In: Global Change Biology, April 2013, Vol.19(4), pp.1107-1113
    Description: More than 50% of the world's population feeds on rice. Soils used for rice production are mostly managed under submerged conditions (paddy soils). This management, which favors carbon sequestration, potentially decouples surface from subsurface carbon cycling. The objective of this study was to elucidate the long‐term rates of carbon accrual in surface and subsurface soil horizons relative to those of soils under nonpaddy management. We assessed changes in total soil organic as well as of inorganic carbon stocks along a 2000‐year chronosequence of soils under paddy and adjacent nonpaddy management in the angtze delta, hina. The initial organic carbon accumulation phase lasts much longer and is more intensive than previously assumed, e.g., by the ntergovernmental anel on limate hange (). Paddy topsoils accumulated 170–178 kg organic carbon ha a in the first 300 years; subsoils lost 29–84 kg organic carbon ha a during this period of time. Subsoil carbon losses were largest during the first 50 years after land embankment and again large beyond 700 years of cultivation, due to inorganic carbonate weathering and the lack of organic carbon replenishment. Carbon losses in subsoils may therefore offset soil carbon gains or losses in the surface soils. We strongly recommend including subsoils into global carbon accounting schemes, particularly for paddy fields.
    Keywords: Carbon Sequestration ; Inorganic Carbon ; Land Use ; Organic Carbon ; Paddy ; Rice Cultivation ; Soils ; Subsoils
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, 2009, Vol.157(11), pp.3016-3024
    Description: is known to hyperaccumulate As but the mechanism is poorly understood. We found an increase of As concentration with increasing soil solution As concentrations, but P application had no impact, although plant P concentrations responded to different rates of P supply. As in fronds was dominantly (82–89%) present in the form of AsIII. In roots we detected 45% as AsIII which is higher than reported in previous studies and supports substantial As-reduction to take place in roots. We detected PC2/3GS–AsIII, PC2–GS–AsIII and (PC2)2–AsIII in increasing amounts with application of As. The total amount of PC was in the range reported previously and far too small to assign a significant role in As detoxification to PCs. The close correlation between S and As in fronds and the lack of data on sulphur uptake and metabolism indicates the need for a detailed investigation on sulphur nutritional status and As metabolism in . As–PC complexes were detected in increasing amounts with increasing As availability, but total amounts were small and do not explain the close correlation between S and As in fronds.
    Keywords: Arsenic Detoxification ; Arsenic Speciation ; Hyperaccumulator ; PC–As Complexes ; P Uptake ; Sulphur Metabolism ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of environmental quality, 2007, Vol.36(6), pp.1811-20
    Description: Arsenate (As V) is the predominant form of arsenic in soils under aerobic conditions and competes with the major plant nutrient phosphorus (P) in the form of phosphate (PV) not only for sorption sites on mineral surfaces in soil but also for root membrane transporters. Plants have evolved several mechanisms for the mobilization of PV in soils in response to P deficiency, such as the release of organic anions and protons. The aim of the present study was to test whether these mechanisms result in a simultaneous mobilization of arsenate and what would be the consequences for As transfer from soil to plant. The compartment system approach with Zea mays as model crop was chosen as an experimental setup. The system is equipped with micro suction cups and allowed us to investigate processes occurring in the vicinity of roots. As a case study, an artificial quartz substrate with well defined soil physical properties was fertilized, spiked with As V, and amended with increasing amounts of goethite (0, 1, and 4 g kg(-1) in treatments G-0, G-1, and G-4, respectively). The addition of goethite alleviated the As V-induced growth reduction and reduced As V transfer from the substrate to the plant but induced P deficiency at the same time. When low amounts of goethite (1 g kg(-1)) were added, plants mobilized PV but not As V, which might be related to differences in surface complexation reported for PV and As V. No mobilization of PV or As V was observed with the addition of higher amounts of goethite, probably because of decreasing competition between organic anions, PV, and As V for binding sites.
    Keywords: Arsenates -- Metabolism ; Iron Compounds -- Metabolism ; Phosphates -- Metabolism ; Plant Roots -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0047-2425
    E-ISSN: 15372537
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Neurology, 2001, Vol.248(12), pp.1101-1103
    Description: Byline: Klaus Jahn (1), Kathrin Winkler (1), Reinhold Tiling (2), Thomas Brandt (1) Author Affiliation: (1) Ludwig-Maximilians University, Department of Neurology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munchen, Germany, Tel.: +49-89/7095-2585, Fax: +49-89/7095-5584, E-Mail: Klaus.Jahn@lrz.uni-muenchen.de, DE (2) Department of Nuclear Medicine, DE Article note: Received: 11 April 2001, Received in revised form: 18 June 2001, Accepted: 4 July 2001
    Keywords: Intracranial Hypertension -- Causes Of ; Fistulas -- Complications And Side Effects ; Fistulas -- Research ; Diskectomy -- Complications And Side Effects;
    ISSN: 0340-5354
    E-ISSN: 1432-1459
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  • 6
    Language: German
    In: Psychiatrische Praxis, pp.-
    Description: Zusammenfassung Anliegen Untersuchung der Wirksamkeit wohnfeldbasierter psychiatrischer Akutbehandlung („Home Treatment”; HT) im Vergleich zur traditionell-stationären Versorgung. Methode Im Rahmen eines prospektiven Forschungsprojekts wurden die Daten von 60 im HT und 18 stationär behandelten Patienten hinsichtlich psychopathologischer Symptomatik, globalem Funktionsniveau und Krankheitsschwere zum Aufnahme- und Entlasszeitpunkt verglichen. Ergebnisse HT erwies sich als über eine ganze Reihe psychiatrischer Diagnosen hinweg machbare und ähnlich wirksame Behandlungsalternative, wie die traditionell-stationäre Versorgung. Schlussfolgerung Bei potenziell geeigneten Patienten kann statt einer üblichen stationären Behandlung ein HT erwogen werden.
    Description: Objective To investigate the clinical effectiveness of „Home Treatment” (HT) in comparison to the usual inpatient treatment in patients with acute psychiatric illness. Methods In a prospective observational study we compared 60 of our HT patients to 18 patients receiving inpatient treatment as usual (TAU) with regard to psychopathological symptoms (PANSS, HAM-D 21), global functioning (GAF), symptom severity (HoNOS-D) and sociodemographic parameters at admission and discharge. Results HT was a feasible alternative in patients with several different psychiatric diagnoses and appeared to be similar to TAU in view of clinical effectiveness. Conclusions In potentially suitable patients fulfilling criteria of hospital admission, the alternative of HT can be actively considered.
    Keywords: Home Treatment ; Stationäre Behandlung ; Psychopathologie ; Psychosoziales Funktionsniveau ; Home Treatment ; Inpatient Treatment ; Psychopathology ; Psychosocial Functioning
    ISSN: 0303-4259
    E-ISSN: 1439-0876
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  • 7
    In: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 2017, Vol.23(9), pp.1624-1636
    Description: BACKGROUND:: Anti-Glycoprotein 2 (GP2) antibodies are associated with a more complicated course of Crohnʼs disease (CD) in adults. Four different GP2 isoforms with different length and antibody-binding sites have been identified so far but not been explored in serological studies. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic utility of autoantibodies against all 4 isoforms of GP2 in an exclusively pediatric population for the first time. METHODS:: We included 278 children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease: 164 with CD, 114 with ulcerative colitis, 83 disease controls (acute gastrointestinal infection, nonspecific gastrointestinal functional disorders), and 219 healthy controls. Sera were tested for anti-GP2 antibodies using 4 different isoforms of GP2 for anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, and pancreatic antibodies. RESULTS:: Anti-GP2 antibodies were significantly more prevalent in patients with CD than in ulcerative colitis and controls. We found a sensitivity of 38% (with a specificity of 95%) for anti-GP2 IgG against isoform 4 in CD. Anti-GP2 IgA against isoform 1 and anti-GP2 IgG against isoform 4 possessed the best diagnostic values for identification of CD. For the differentiation of CD from ulcerative colitis anti-GP2 IgG against isoforms 3 and 4 proved to be most accurate markers. Anti-GP2 antibodies were associated with a more complicated disease behavior and bowel surgery in CD. In a subgroup of patients with CD, anti-GP2 IgG against isoform 4 proved to be a relatively stable marker over time independent of disease activity. CONCLUSIONS:: Anti-GP2 antibodies against different isoforms are specific markers for CD and for different phenotypes in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 1078-0998
    E-ISSN: 15364844
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Methods of information in medicine, 07 August 2017, Vol.56(7), pp.e92-e104
    Description: For more than 30 years, there has been close cooperation between Japanese and German scientists with regard to information systems in health care. Collaboration has been formalized by an agreement between the respective scientific associations. Following this agreement, two joint workshops took place to explore the similarities and differences of electronic health record systems (EHRS) against the background of the two national healthcare systems that share many commonalities. To establish a framework and requirements for the quality of EHRS that may also serve as a basis for comparing different EHRS. Donabedian's three dimensions of quality of medical care were adapted to the outcome, process, and structural quality of EHRS and their management. These quality dimensions were proposed before the first workshop of EHRS experts and enriched during the discussions. The Quality Requirements Framework of EHRS (QRF-EHRS) was defined and complemented by requirements for high quality EHRS. The framework integrates three quality dimensions (outcome, process, and structural quality), three layers of information systems (processes and data, applications, and physical tools) and three dimensions of information management (strategic, tactical, and operational information management). Describing and comparing the quality of EHRS is in fact a multidimensional problem as given by the QRF-EHRS framework. This framework will be utilized to compare Japanese and German EHRS, notably those that were presented at the second workshop.
    Keywords: Electronic Health Records ; Information Management ; Information Systems in Healthcare ; Quality ; Electronic Health Records -- Standards ; Information Management -- Standards
    ISSN: 00261270
    E-ISSN: 2511-705X
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Sci Rep, 2016, Vol.6(1), pp.24865-24865
    Description: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been described as stealth virus subverting immune responses initially upon infection. Impaired toll-like receptor signaling by the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) attenuates immune responses to facilitate chronic infection. This implies that HBV replication may trigger host innate immune responses in the absence of HBsAg. Here we tested this hypothesis, using highly replicative transgenic mouse models. An HBV replication-dependent expression of antiviral genes was exclusively induced in HBsAg-deficient mice. These interferon responses attributed to toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-activated Kupffer and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and further controlled the HBV genome replication. However, activation of TLR3 with exogenous ligands indicated additional HBs-independent immune evasion events. Our data demonstrate that in the absence of HBsAg, hepatic HBV replication leads to Tlr3-dependent interferon responses in non-parenchymal liver cells. We hypothesize that HBsAg is a major HBV-mediated evasion mechanism controlling endogenous antiviral responses in the liver. Eradication of HBsAg as a therapeutic goal might facilitate the induction of endogenous antiviral immune responses in patients chronically infected with HBV.
    Keywords: Article;
    ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Substance Use & Misuse, 01 January 2004, Vol.39(1), pp.135-178
    Description: For nine years, the so-called "therapist rotation" has been a central part of OLITA, the O utpatient L ongterm I ntensive T herapy for...
    Keywords: Alcohol Dependence ; Multiple Psychotherapy ; Outpatient Treatment ; Therapist Rotation ; Therapeutic Alliance ; Therapeutic Relationship ; Common Factors ; Unique Factors
    ISSN: 1082-6084
    E-ISSN: 1532-2491
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