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  • MEDLINE/PubMed (NLM)  (16)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 November 2014, Vol.499, pp.546-559
    Description: Transport processes in soils are strongly affected by heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties. Tillage practices and compost amendments can modify soil structure and create heterogeneity at the local scale within agricultural fields. The long-term field experiment QualiAgro (INRA–Veolia partnership 1998–2013) explores the impact of heterogeneity in soil structure created by tillage practices and compost application on transport processes. A modeling study was performed to evaluate how the presence of heterogeneity due to soil tillage and compost application affects water flow and pesticide dynamics in soil during a long-term period. The study was done on a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (SGW) applied once every 2 years since 1998. The plot was cultivated with a biannual rotation of winter wheat–maize (except 1 year of barley) and a four-furrow moldboard plow was used for tillage. In each plot, wick lysimeter outflow and TDR probe data were collected at different depths from 2004, while tensiometer measurements were also conducted during 2007/2008. Isoproturon concentration was measured in lysimeter outflow since 2004. Detailed profile description was used to locate different soil structures in the profile, which was then implemented in the HYDRUS-2D model. Four zones were identified in the plowed layer: compacted clods with no visible macropores (Δ), non-compacted soil with visible macroporosity (Γ), interfurrows created by moldboard plowing containing crop residues and applied compost (IF), and the plow pan (PP) created by plowing repeatedly to the same depth. Isoproturon retention and degradation parameters were estimated from laboratory batch sorption and incubation experiments, respectively, for each structure independently. Water retention parameters were estimated from pressure plate laboratory measurements and hydraulic conductivity parameters were obtained from field tension infiltrometer experiments. Soil hydraulic properties were optimized on one calibration year (2007/08) using pressure head, water content and lysimeter outflow data, and then tested on the whole 2004/2010 period. Lysimeter outflow and water content dynamics in the soil profile were correctly described for the whole period (model efficiency coefficient: 0.99) after some correction of LAI estimates for wheat (2005/06) and barley (2006/07). Using laboratory-measured degradation rates and assuming degradation only in the liquid phase caused large overestimation of simulated isoproturon losses in lysimeter outflow. A proper order of magnitude of isoproturon losses was obtained after considering that degradation occurred in solid (sorbed) phase at a rate 75% of that in liquid phase. Isoproturon concentrations were found to be highly sensitive to degradation rates. Neither the laboratory-measured isoproturon fate parameters nor the independently-derived soil hydraulic parameters could describe the actual multiannual field dynamics of water and isoproturon without calibration. However, once calibrated on a limited period of time (9 months), HYDRUS-2D was able to simulate the whole 6-year time series with good accuracy.
    Keywords: Soil Heterogeneity ; Water Flow ; Isoproturon ; Numerical Modeling ; Hydrus-2d ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 November 2014, Vol.499, pp.560-573
    Description: Recycling composted organic residues in agriculture can reduce the need of mineral fertilizers and improve the physicochemical and biological properties of cultivated soils. However, some trace elements may accumulate in soils following repeated applications and impact other compartments of the agrosystems. This study aims at evaluating the long-term impact of such practices on the composition of soil leaching water, especially on trace metal concentrations. The field experiment QualiAgro started in 1998 on typical loess Luvisol of the Paris Basin, with a maize–wheat crop succession and five modalities: spreading of three different urban waste composts, farmyard manure (FYM), and no organic amendment (CTR). Inputs of trace metals have been close to regulatory limits, but supplies of organic matter and nitrogen overpassed common practices. Soil solutions were collected from wick lysimeters at 45 and 100 cm in one plot for each modality, during two drainage periods after the last spreading. Despite wide temporal variations, a significant effect of treatments on major solutes appears at 45 cm: DOC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, nitrate, sulphate and chloride concentrations were higher in most amended plots compared to CTR. Cu concentrations were also significantly higher in leachates of amended plots compared to CTR, whereas no clear effect emerged for Zn. The influence of amendments on solute concentrations appeared weaker at 1 m than at 45 cm, but still significant and positive for major anions and DOC. Average concentrations of Cu and Zn at 1 m depth lied in the ranges [2.5; 3.8] and [2.5; 10.5 μg/L], respectively, with values slightly higher for plots amended with sewage sludge compost or FYM than for CTR. However, leaching of both metals was less than 1% of their respective inputs through organic amendments. For Cd, most values were 〈 0.05 μg/L. So, metals added through spreading of compost or manure during 14 years may have increased metal concentrations in leachates of amended plots, in spite of increased soil organic matter, factor of metal retention. Indeed, DOC, also increased by amendments, favours the mobility of Cu; whereas pH variations, depending on treatments, influence negatively the solubility of Zn. Generic adsorption functions of these variables partly explain the variations of trace metal concentrations and helped to unravel the numerous processes induced by regular amendments with organic waste products.
    Keywords: Heavy Metal ; Trace Element ; Organic Waste ; Organic Amendment ; Cultivated Soil ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 July 2018, Vol.628-629, pp.1508-1517
    Description: Conservation tillage practices mainly based on cover crops and no-tillage with accumulation of crop residues at the soil surface (mulch) modify the environmental fate of pesticides. However, only few pesticide fate models are able to consider mulch of crop residues as well as the effect of intermediate cover crops. Thus, the objective was to develop an approach to model the effects of crop residues left at the soil surface and cover crops on the fate of pesticides. This approach consisted in (1) considering the crop residues as a soil layer with specific physical, hydrodynamic and pesticide-reactivity properties close to that of a high organic content soil layer, and (2) introducing a correction factor of the potential evapotranspiration, estimated through a calibration step, to take into account the reduction of soil evaporation by the presence of a mulch. This approach was developed using MACRO as support pesticide model. To assess the model performances, we used the data from a field experiment designed in an irrigated maize monoculture under conservation tillage. Soil water content, water percolates, soil temperature and S-metolachlor herbicide concentrations in the leachate at 1 m depth were measured during two years. The approach chosen to simulate the mulch effects allowed MACRO to make acceptable predictions of the observed water percolation, soil temperature and to a less extent herbicide leaching. However, it showed a poor performance to simulate the soil water content. Results are discussed in terms of further modelling options to better assess the environmental risks of pesticides under conservation tillage. This approach remains to be tested against various soils, crops, pesticides and types of mulch.
    Keywords: Pesticide Fate Model ; Macro ; Crop Residue ; Cover Crop ; Field Experiment ; Pesticide ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Microbiology, 2018, Vol.9, p.1583
    Description: There is still no satisfactory understanding of the factors that enable soil microbial populations to be as highly biodiverse as they are. The present article explores in silico the hypothesis that the heterogeneous distribution of soil organic...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Bacteria ; Resource Allocation ; Organic Matter ; Pore Scale ; Soil ; Biodiversity ; Agent-Based Modeling ; Biology
    ISSN: 1664-302X
    E-ISSN: 1664-302X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2016, Vol.23(7), pp.6907-6918
    Description: Compost amendment on agricultural soil is a current practice to compensate the loss of organic matter. As a consequence, dissolved organic carbon concentration in soil leachates can be increased and potentially modify the transport of other solutes. This study aims to characterize the processes controlling the mobility of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in deep soil layers and their potential impacts on the leaching of organic contaminants (pesticides and pharmaceutical compounds) potentially present in cultivated soils receiving organic waste composts. We sampled undisturbed soil cores in the illuviated horizon (60–90 cm depth) of an Albeluvisol. Percolation experiments were made in presence and absence of DOM with two different pesticides, isoproturon and epoxiconazole, and two pharmaceutical compounds, ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole. Two types of DOM were extracted from two different soil surface horizons: one sampled in a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge applied once every 2 years since 1998 and one sampled in an unamended plot. Results show that DOM behaved as a highly reactive solute, which was continuously generated within the soil columns during flow and increased after flow interruption. DOM significantly increased the mobility of bromide and all pollutants, but the effects differed according the hydrophobic and the ionic character of the molecules. However, no clear effects of the origin of DOM on the mobility of the different contaminants were observed.
    Keywords: Dissolved organic matter ; Pesticides ; Pharmaceutical compounds ; Undisturbed soil columns ; Non-equilibrium transport
    ISSN: 0944-1344
    E-ISSN: 1614-7499
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Pest Management Science, 2011, Vol.67(4), pp.397-407
    Description: Mobility of pesticides in soils is often evaluated and characterised in the surface soil layers rather than at different depths where soil characteristics such as soil organic matter, microbial biomass or clay contents can strongly change pesticide behaviour. The objective of this work was...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Agricultural Sciences ; Metribuzin ; Transport ; Deep Horizons ; Sorption ; Model  ; Science DES Sols ; Agriculture ; Engineering
    ISSN: 1526-498X
    E-ISSN: 1526-4998
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  • 7
    In: Global Change Biology, July 2019, Vol.25(7), pp.2205-2208
    Description: The goal of this comment is to show that the “aggregate reactor” framework recently proposed in an article published in this journal is severely limited by two kinds of indeterminacy. The first is related to the size of aggregates, which is not defined precisely. The second issue is with the impossibility to replicate boundary conditions that are identical to what chunks of soils would have experienced in their natural state. We suggest that the study of GHG release in undisturbed soil samples is a better way to proceed forward.
    Keywords: Reactors ; Soils ; Greenhouse Effect ; Greenhouse Gases ; Boundary Conditions ; Aggregates ; Boundary Conditions ; Boundary Conditions ; Soil Aggregates ; Greenhouse Gases ; Soils ; Aggregates ; Gases ; Aggregates ; Greenhouse Gases ; Greenhouse Effect ; Biogeochemistry ; Greenhouse Effect;
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 2014, Vol.499, pp.533-545
    Description: The ability of three models (PEARL, MACRO and PRZM) to describe the water transfer and leaching of the herbicides S-metolachlor and mesotrione as observed in an irrigated maize monoculture system in Toulouse area (France) was compared. The models were parameterized with field, laboratory and...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Pesticide Fate Models ; Model Comparison ; Field Experiment ; Herbicide ; S-Metolachlor ; Mesotrione ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Microbiology, 2018, Vol.9, p.1929
    Description: Over the last 60 years, soil microbiologists have accumulated a wealth of experimental data showing that the usual bulk, macroscopic parameters used to characterize soils (e.g., granulometry, pH, soil organic matter and biomass contents) provide insufficient information to describe quantitatively...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; X-Ray Computed ; Upscaling ; Biodiversity ; Soil Microbiology ; Tomography ; Single-Cell Genomics ; Nanosims Imaging ; Biology
    ISSN: 1664-302X
    E-ISSN: 1664-302X
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, August 2019, Vol.225, p.103498
    Description: Agroforestry practices have been acknowledged for reducing pesticide losses while maintaining land productivity. Pesticide removal from overland flow results from great infiltration capacities of the buffer soils. This can in turn threaten the quality of groundwater in case of poor pesticide sorption and degradation in the root-influenced zone. These mechanisms and their balance are likely to be influenced by plant species. However, little is known about the role of agroforestry species in the infiltration of herbicides. The aim of this study was thereby to evaluate how popular agroforestry species modulate the infiltration of water and of a widely used herbicide. We established large buffer microcosms by planting Brome grass, Black walnut, Pin oak and Poplar trees in repacked soil columns. After a growth season of 4 months, we performed ponded infiltration experiments with bromide and S-Metolachlor. We used then the HYDRUS 1D model to compare the hydrodynamic properties and S-Metolachlor transport patterns between the microcosms. In addition, we compared the sorption properties of the rhizosphere and bulk soils. We found that the tree species increased the sorption of S-Metolachlor in soil with K being 3 times greater than in the un-vegetated and Brome grass microcosms. Poplar trees increased the hydraulic conductivity (K ) compared to the control and was associated to a low retardation of S-metolachlor, which increases the risk of groundwater contamination. With slightly reduced K and retardation factor in the root zone, 1.6 to 1.8 times greater than in the control treatment, Black walnut appears as an optimal species for mitigating S-Metolachlor. The Brome grass and oak microcosms had the lowest K of all treatments and S-Metolachlor retardation factors were equal and slightly increased compared to the control, respectively. These results show that agroforestry buffer's efficiency can be optimized by selecting appropriate species.
    Keywords: Agroforestry ; Herbicide ; Leaching ; Non-Point Source Pollution ; Plant ; Soil ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Geography
    ISSN: 0169-7722
    E-ISSN: 1873-6009
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