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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • NARCIS (Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences)  (10)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of cellular and molecular medicine, 2011, Vol.15(3), pp.555-571
    Description: A defective expression or activity of neurotrophic factors, such as brain- and glial-derived neurotrophic factors, contributes to neuronal damage in Huntington's disease (HD). Here, we focused on transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β(1) ), a pleiotropic cytokine with an established role in mechanisms of neuroprotection. Asymptomatic HD patients showed a reduction in TGF-β(1) levels in the peripheral blood, which was related to trinucleotide mutation length and glucose hypometabolism in the caudate nucleus. Immunohistochemical analysis in post-mortem brain tissues showed that TGF-β(1) was reduced in cortical neurons of asymptomatic and symptomatic HD patients. Both YAC128 and R6/2 HD mutant mice showed a reduced expression of TGF-β(1) in the cerebral cortex, localized in neurons, but not in astrocytes. We examined the pharmacological regulation of TGF-β(1) formation in asymptomatic R6/2 mice, where blood TGF-β(1) levels were also reduced. In these R6/2 mice, both the mGlu2/3 metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, LY379268, and riluzole failed to increase TGF-β(1) formation in the cerebral cortex and corpus striatum, suggesting that a defect in the regulation of TGF-β(1) production is associated with HD. Accordingly, reduced TGF-β(1) mRNA and protein levels were found in cultured astrocytes transfected with mutated exon 1 of the human huntingtin gene, and in striatal knock-in cell lines expressing full-length huntingtin with an expanded glutamine repeat. Taken together, our data suggest that serum TGF-β(1) levels are potential biomarkers of HD development during the asymptomatic phase of the disease, and raise the possibility that strategies aimed at rescuing TGF-β(1) levels in the brain may influence the progression of HD
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 1582-1838
    ISSN: 1582-4934
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Autoimmunity Reviews, August 2018, Vol.17(8), pp.739-745
    Description: Primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) and antiphospholipid syndrome associated to lupus (SAPS) have several overlapping characteristics. As systemic manifestations are also reported in patients with PAPS, and as a subgroup of PAPS patients could evaluate to a SAPS, the differentiation between the two types of APS could be performed based on the clinical experience of the medical teams and is related to a variety of clinical, biological, histological and genetic features. Several data are available in the literature with respect to the identification of distinctive features between these two entities. However, there are some limitation in the interpretation of results issued from studies performed prior to updated Sydney criteria. Based on recent data, a certain number of features more frequent in one type of APS as compared to the other could be distinguished. The major differentiation between these two entities is genetical. New genetic data allowing the identification of specific subgroups of APS are ongoing.
    Keywords: Antiphospholipid Syndrome ; Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome ; Secondary Antiphospholipid Syndrome ; Biology
    ISSN: 1568-9972
    E-ISSN: 1568-9972
    E-ISSN: 18730183
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Reviews on Cancer, 2007, Vol.1772(4), pp.409-12
    Description: The mechanism whereby a reactivation of cell cycle in neurons causes cell death is beginning to be identified. In cellular models of Alzheimer's disease, activation of a non-canonical pathway of DNA replication contributes to neuronal death. This pathway involves the repair enzyme DNA polymerase-beta, which is highly expressed in neurons of the Alzheimer's brain at early stages of the disease. Loading of DNA polymerase-beta into the replication forks generates a death signal, which involves the tumor suppressor p53. The increasing knowledge of the main actors of the unscheduled DNA replication in neurons will pave the way for novel therapeutic interventions in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.
    Keywords: Alzheimer Disease ; Animals ; Brain ; Cell Cycle ; Cell Death ; Dna Replication ; Humans ; Nerve Degeneration ; Neurons ; Journal Article ; Review
    ISSN: 0006-3002
    E-ISSN: 18782434
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 25 October 2006, Vol.26(43), pp.10949-57
    Description: Cultured neurons exposed to synthetic beta-amyloid (Abeta) fragments reenter the cell cycle and initiate a pathway of DNA replication that involves the repair enzyme DNA polymerase-beta (DNA pol-beta) before undergoing apoptotic death. In this study, by performing coimmunoprecipitation experiments on cross-linked nucleoprotein fragments from Abeta-treated neurons, we demonstrate that DNA pol-beta coimmunoprecipitates with cell division cycle 45 (Cdc45) and with DNA primase in short nucleoprotein fragments. This indicates that DNA pol-beta is loaded into neuronal DNA replication forks after Abeta treatment. In response to Abeta the canonical DNA-synthesizing enzyme DNA pol-delta also was loaded into neuronal replication forks, but at later times than DNA pol-beta. Methoxyamine, an inhibitor of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease that allows for the recruitment of DNA pol-beta during the process of base excision repair (BER), failed to affect coimmunoprecipitation between DNA pol-beta and Cdc45, indicating that DNA pol-beta loading to the replication forks is independent of DNA breaks. However, methoxyamine reduced DNA replication and ensuing apoptosis in neurons exposed to Abeta, suggesting that an efficient BER process allows DNA replication to proceed up to the threshold for death. These data demonstrate that DNA pol-beta is an essential component of the DNA replication machinery in Abeta-treated neurons and additionally support the hypothesis of a close association of cell cycle events with neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accordingly, by investigating the neuronal expression of DNA pol-beta, along with phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein and neurofibrillary changes in AD brain, we show an early involvement of DNA pol-beta in the pathogenesis of AD.
    Keywords: Amyloid Beta-Peptides ; Alzheimer Disease -- Enzymology ; Brain -- Enzymology ; DNA Polymerase Beta -- Biosynthesis ; DNA Replication -- Physiology ; Neurons -- Enzymology
    ISSN: 02706474
    E-ISSN: 1529-2401
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 09 August 2006, Vol.26(32), pp.8388-97
    Description: Moving from the evidence that activation of type 4 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu4) receptors inhibits proliferation and promotes differentiation of cerebellar granule cell neuroprogenitors, we examined the expression and function of mGlu4 receptors in medulloblastoma cells. mGlu4 receptors were expressed in 46 of 60 human medulloblastoma samples. Expression varied in relation to the histotype (nodular desmoplastic〉classic〉〉large-cell anaplastic) and was inversely related to tumor severity, spreading, and recurrence. mGlu4 receptors were also found in D283med, D341med, and DAOY medulloblastoma cell lines, where receptor activation with the selective enhancer PHCCC inhibited adenylyl cyclase and the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway without affecting the mitogen-activated protein kinase, Sonic Hedgehog, and Wnt pathways. Interestingly, mGlu4 receptor activation reduced DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in all three cell lines. This effect was abrogated by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 [2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one]. In in vivo experiments, repeated subcutaneous injections of N-phenyl-7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxamide (PHCCC) reduced the growth of D283med and DAOY cell xenografts in nude mice. More remarkably, subcutaneous or intracranial injections of PHCCC during the first week of life prevented the development of medulloblastomas in mice lacking one Patched-1 allele and x-irradiated 1 d after birth. These data suggest that mGlu4 receptor enhancers are promising drugs for the treatment of medulloblastomas.
    Keywords: Benzopyrans -- Administration & Dosage ; Medulloblastoma -- Metabolism ; Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate -- Antagonists & Inhibitors
    ISSN: 02706474
    E-ISSN: 1529-2401
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 30 June 2004, Vol.24(26), pp.6021-7
    Description: We used primary cultures of cortical neurons to examine the relationship between beta-amyloid toxicity and hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein, the biochemical substrate for neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's brain. Exposure of the cultures to beta-amyloid peptide (betaAP) induced the expression of the secreted glycoprotein Dickkopf-1 (DKK1). DKK1 negatively modulates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, thus activating the tau-phosphorylating enzyme glycogen synthase kinase-3beta. DKK1 was induced at late times after betaAP exposure, and its expression was dependent on the tumor suppressing protein p53. The antisense induced knock-down of DKK1 attenuated neuronal apoptosis but nearly abolished the increase in tau phosphorylation in betaAP-treated neurons. DKK1 was also expressed by degenerating neurons in the brain from Alzheimer's patients, where it colocalized with neurofibrillary tangles and distrophic neurites. We conclude that induction of DKK1 contributes to the pathological cascade triggered by beta-amyloid and is critically involved in the process of tau phosphorylation.
    Keywords: Alzheimer Disease -- Metabolism ; Amyloid Beta-Peptides -- Pharmacology ; Nerve Degeneration -- Metabolism ; Nerve Tissue Proteins -- Physiology ; Peptide Fragments -- Pharmacology ; Proteins -- Physiology ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins -- Metabolism
    E-ISSN: 1529-2401
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  • 7
    In: Epilepsia, April 2007, Vol.48(4), pp.694-705
    Description: Inhibition of the Wnt pathway by the secreted glycoprotein, Dickkopf‐1 (Dkk‐1) has been related to processes of excitotoxic and ischemic neuronal death. We now report that Dkk‐1 is induced in neurons of the rat olfactory cortex and hippocampus degenerating in response to seizures produced by systemic injection of kainate (12 mg/kg, i.p.). There was a tight correlation between Dkk‐1 expression and neuronal death in both regions, as shown by the different expression profiles in animals classified as “high” and “low” responders to kainate. For example, no induction of Dkk‐1 was detected in the hippocampus of low responder rats, in which seizures did not cause neuronal loss. Induction of Dkk‐1 always anticipated neuronal death and was associated with a reduction in nuclear levels of β‐catenin, which reflects an ongoing inhibition of the canonical Wnt pathway. Intracerebroventricular injections of Dkk‐1 antisense oligonucleotides (12 nmol/2 μL) substantially reduced kainate‐induced neuronal damage, as did a pretreatment with lithium ions (1 mEq/kg, i.p.), which rescue the Wnt pathway by acting downstream of the Dkk‐1 blockade. Taken collectively, these data suggest that an early inhibition of the Wnt pathway by Dkk‐1 contributes to neuronal damage associated with temporal lobe epilepsy. We also examined Dkk‐1 expression in the hippocampus of epileptic patients and their controls. A strong Dkk‐1 immunolabeling was found in six bioptic samples and in one autoptic sample from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis. Dkk‐1 expression was undetectable or very low in autoptic samples from nonepileptic patients or in bioptic samples from patients with complex partial seizures without neuronal loss and/or reactive gliosis in the hippocampus. Our data raise the attractive possibility that drugs able to rescue the canonical Wnt pathway, such as Dkk‐1 antagonists or inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase‐3β, reduce the development of hippocampal sclerosis in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.
    Keywords: Tle ; Neuroprotective Strategies ; Wnt Pathway ; Lithium ; Dickkopf‐1
    ISSN: 0013-9580
    E-ISSN: 1528-1167
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Neurochemical Research, 2008, Vol.33(12), pp.2436-2443
    Description: Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and exerts its actions via a number of ionotropic glutamate receptors/channels and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors. In addition to being expressed in neurons, glutamate receptors are expressed in different types of glial cells including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. Astrocytes are now recognized as dynamic signaling elements actively integrating neuronal inputs. Synaptic activity can evoke calcium signals in astrocytes, resulting in the release of gliotransmitters, such as glutamate, ATP, and d -serine, which in turn modulate neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. In addition, astrocytes, and microglia may play an important role in pathology such as brain trauma and neurodegeneration, limiting or amplifying the pathologic process leading to neuronal death. The present review will focus on recent advances on the role of mGlu receptors expressed in glial cells under physiologic and pathologic conditions.
    Keywords: Astrocytes ; Gliosis ; Metabotropic glutamate receptors ; Gliotransmitter ; Neurodegeneration ; Glioma
    ISSN: 0364-3190
    E-ISSN: 1573-6903
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Neurobiology, 2007, Vol.35(3), pp.298-307
    Description: Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1 and mGlu5) are coupled to polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis and are involved in activity-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity, both during development and in the adult life. Group I mGlu receptors can also regulate proliferation, differentiation, and survival of neural stem/progenitor cells, which further support their role in brain development. An exaggerated response to activation of mGlu5 receptors may underlie synaptic dysfunction in Fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited form of mental retardation. In addition, group I mGlu receptors are overexpressed in dysplastic neurons of focal cortical dysplasia and hemimegaloencephaly, which are disorders of cortical development associated with chronic epilepsy. Drugs that block the activity of group I mGlu receptors (in particular, mGlu5 receptors) are potentially helpful for the treatment of Fragile X syndrome and perhaps other neurodevelopmental disorders.
    Keywords: Neural development ; Plasticity ; Metabotropic glutamate receptors ; mGluRs ; Fragile X syndrome ; FRAX ; Epilepsy ; Malformation of cortical development
    ISSN: 0893-7648
    E-ISSN: 1559-1182
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Neurochemical Research, 2008, Vol.33(12), pp.2401-2406
    Description: The canonical Wnt pathway contributes to the regulation of neuronal survival and homeostasis in the CNS. Recent evidence suggests that an increased expression of Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), a secreted protein that negatively modulates the canonical Wnt pathway, is causally related to processes of neurodegeneration in a number of CNS disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), brain ischemia and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Dkk-1 induction precedes neuronal death in cellular and animal models of excitotoxicity, β-amyloid toxicity, transient global ischemia, and kainate-induced epilepsy. In addition, Dkk-1, which is barely visible in the healthy brain, is strongly induced in brain tissue from AD patients or from patients with TLE associated with hippocampal sclerosis. These data raise the attractive possibility that Dkk-1 antagonists or neutralizing antibodies behave as neuroprotective agents by rescuing the activity of the canonical Wnt pathway.
    Keywords: Canonical Wnt pathway ; Dkk-1 ; Neuronal death ; β-Catenin ; Neurodegeneration ; Lithium
    ISSN: 0364-3190
    E-ISSN: 1573-6903
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