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  • 1
    Language: English
    Description: Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation is a fast and well-known method to get a measure of pore size distributions. To obtain reliable results, one needs to get information about influences like internal gradients evoked by paramagnetic impurities on the NMR relaxation signal. Therefore, we did a series of longitudinal and transverse relaxation experiments of samples with variable paramagnetic content. Missing echo time and magnetic field strength dependence leads us to the conclusion that we have no significant influence of internal gradients in our measurements.
    Keywords: Diffusion ; Transport ; Diffusion ; Transport ; Ddc:530
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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  • 2
    Language: English
    Description: ]The scale difference between point in situ soil moisture measurements and low resolution satellite products limits the quality of any validation efforts in heterogeneous regions. Cosmic Ray Neutron Probes (CRNP) could be an option to fill the scale gap between both systems, as they provide area-average soil moisture within a 150-250 m radius footprint. In this study, we evaluate differences and similarities between CRNP observations, and surface soil moisture products from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), the METOP-A/B Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), the Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP), the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), as well as simulations from the Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (GLDAS2). Six CRNPs located on five continents have been selected as test sites: the Rur catchment in Germany, the COSMOS sites in Arizona and California (USA), and Kenya, one CosmOz site in New SouthWales (Australia), and a site in Karnataka (India). Standard validation scores as well as the Triple Collocation (TC) method identified SMAP to provide a high accuracy soil moisture product with low noise or uncertainties as compared to CRNPs. The potential of CRNPs for satellite soil moisture validation has been proven; however, biomass correction methods should be implemented to improve its application in regions with large vegetation dynamics.
    Keywords: Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probe ; Smos ; Smap ; Ascat ; Amsr2 ; Gldas2 ; Cosmos ; Cosmoz ; Soil Moisture ; Soil Water Content ; Validation ; Triple Collocation
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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  • 3
    Language: English
    Description: Experiments using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) have shown promising results in reducing the uncertainty of solute plume characteristics related to estimates based on the analysis of local point measurements only. To explore the similarities and differences between two cross-borehole ERT inversion approaches for characterizing salt tracer plumes, namely the classical smoothness-constrained inversion and a geostatistically based approach, we performed two-dimensional synthetic experiments. Simplifying assumptions about the solute transport model and the electrical forward and inverse model allowed us to study the sensitivity of the ERT inversion approaches towards a variety of basic conditions, including the number of boreholes, measurement schemes, contrast between the plume and background electrical conductivity, use of a priori knowledge, and point conditioning. The results show that geostatistically based and smoothness-constrained inversions of electrical resistance data yield plume characteristics of similar quality, which can be further improved when point measurements are incorporated and advantageous measurement schemes are chosen. As expected, an increased number of boreholes included in the ERT measurement layout can highly improve the quality of inferred plume characteristics, while in this case the benefits of point conditioning and advantageous measurement schemes diminish. Both ERT inversion approaches are similarly sensitive to the noise level of the data and the contrast between the solute plume and background electrical conductivity, and robust with regard to biased input parameters, such as mean concentration, variance, and correlation length of the plume. Although sophisticated inversion schemes have recently become available, in which flow and transport as well as electrical forward models are coupled, these schemes effectively rely on a relatively simple geometrical parameterization of the hydrogeological model. Therefore, we believe that standard uncoupled ERT inverse approaches, like the ones discussed and assessed in this paper, will continue to be important to the imaging and characterization of solute plumes in many real-world applications. (C) 2016 Hohai University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.
    Keywords: Electrical Resistivity Tomography ; Inversion Technique ; Solute Tracer Plume ; Synthetic Experiment ; Plume Characteristics
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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  • 4
    Language: English
    Description: The Community Land Model (CLM) contains many parameters whose values are uncertain and thus require careful estimation for model application at individual sites. Here we used Bayesian inference with the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM((zs))) algorithm to estimate eight CLM v. 4.5 ecosystem parameters using 1 year records of half- hourly net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) observations of four central European sites with different plant functional types (PFTs). The posterior CLM parameter distributions of each site were estimated per individual season and on a yearly basis. These estimates were then evaluated using NEE data from an independent evaluation period and data from " nearby" FLUXNET sites at similar to 600 km distance to the original sites. Latent variables (multipliers) were used to treat explicitly uncertainty in the initial carbon- nitrogen pools. The posterior parameter estimates were superior to their default values in their ability to track and explain the measured NEE data of each site. The seasonal parameter values reduced with more than 50% (averaged over all sites) the bias in the simulated NEE values. The most consistent performance of CLM during the evaluation period was found for the posterior parameter values of the forest PFTs, and contrary to the C3-grass and C3-crop sites, the latent variables of the initial pools further enhanced the quality-of-fit. The carbon sink function of the forest PFTs significantly increased with the posterior parameter estimates. We thus conclude that land surface model predictions of carbon stocks and fluxes require careful consideration of uncertain ecological parameters and initial states.
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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