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  • Nature Publishing Group (CrossRef)  (10)
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  • 1
    In: Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2005, Vol.6(10), p.787
    Description: In recent years there have been tremendous advances in our understanding of the circuitry of the basal ganglia and our ability to predict the behavioural effects of specific cellular changes in this circuit on voluntary movement. These advances, combined with a new understanding of the rich distribution and diverse physiological roles of metabotropic glutamate receptors in the basal ganglia, indicate that these receptors might have a key role in motor control and raise the exciting possibility that they might provide therapeutic targets for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and related disorders.
    Keywords: Basal Ganglia -- Physiology ; Movement -- Physiology ; Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate -- Physiology;
    ISSN: 1471-003X
    E-ISSN: 14710048
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  • 2
    In: Neuropsychopharmacology, 2011, Vol.37(4), p.929
    Description: Prenatal exposure to restraint stress causes long-lasting changes in neuroplasticity that likely reflect pathological modifications triggered by early-life stress. We found that the offspring of dams exposed to repeated episodes of restraint stress during pregnancy (here named 'prenatal restraint stress mice' or 'PRS mice') developed a schizophrenia-like phenotype, characterized by a decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67, an increased expression of type-1 DNA methyl transferase (DNMT1) in the frontal cortex, and a deficit in social interaction, locomotor activity, and prepulse inhibition. PRS mice also showed a marked decrease in metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) and mGlu3 receptor mRNA and protein levels in the frontal cortex, which was manifested at birth and persisted in adult life. This decrease was associated with an increased binding of DNMT1 to CpG-rich regions of mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptor promoters and an increased binding of MeCP2 to the mGlu2 receptor promoter. Systemic treatment with the selective mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY379268 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., twice daily for 5 days), corrected all the biochemical and behavioral abnormalities shown in PRS mice. Our data show for the first time that PRS induces a schizophrenia-like phenotype in mice, and suggest that epigenetic changes in mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors lie at the core of the pathological programming induced by early-life stress.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology ; Anatomy & Physiology;
    ISSN: 0893-133X
    E-ISSN: 1740634X
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  • 3
    In: Nature Medicine, 2010, Vol.16(8), p.897
    Description: High amounts of glutamate are found in the brains of people with multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory disease marked by progressive demyelination. Glutamate might affect neuroinflammation via effects on immune cells. Knockout mice lacking metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 (mGluR4) were markedly vulnerable to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis) and developed responses dominated by interleukin-17-producing T helper ([T.sub.H]17) cells. In dendritic cells (DCs) from those mice, defective mGluR4 signaling--which would normally decrease intracellular cAMP formation--biased [T.sub.H] cell commitment to the [T.sub.H]17 phenotype. In wild-type mice, mGluR4 was constitutively expressed in all peripheral DCs, and this expression increased after cell activation. Treatment of wild-type mice with a selective mGluR4 enhancer increased EAE resistance via regulatory T ([T.sub.reg]) cells. The high amounts of glutamate in neuroinflammation might reflect a counterregulatory mechanism that is protective in nature and might be harnessed therapeutically for restricting immunopathology in multiple sclerosis.
    Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis -- Risk Factors ; Multiple Sclerosis -- Care And Treatment ; Multiple Sclerosis -- Research ; Neurotransmitter Receptors -- Physiological Aspects ; Neurotransmitter Receptors -- Research ; T Cells -- Physiological Aspects ; T Cells -- Research;
    ISSN: 1078-8956
    E-ISSN: 1546170X
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  • 4
    In: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, 2010, Vol.31(4), p.1107
    Description: We examined the influence of type 4 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu4) receptors on ischemic brain damage using the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in mice and the endothelin-1 (Et-1) model of transient focal ischemia in rats. Mice lacking mGlu4 receptors showed a 25% to 30% increase in infarct volume after MCAO as compared with wild-type littermates. In normal mice, systemic injection of the selective mGlu4 receptor enhancer, N-phenyl-7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-caboxamide (PHCCC; 10  mg/kg, subcutaneous, administered once 30  minutes before MCAO), reduced the extent of ischemic brain damage by 35% to 45%. The drug was inactive in mGlu4 receptor knockout mice. In the Et-1 model, PHCCC administered only once 20  minutes after ischemia reduced the infarct volume to a larger extent in the caudate/putamen than in the cerebral cortex. Ischemic rats treated with PHCCC showed a faster recovery of neuronal function, as shown by electrocorticographic recording and by a battery of specific tests, which assess sensorimotor deficits. These data indicate that activation of mGlu4 receptors limit the development of brain damage after permanent or transient focal ischemia. These findings are promising because selective mGlu4 receptor enhancers are under clinical development for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other central nervous system disorders.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology;
    ISSN: 0271-678X
    E-ISSN: 15597016
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Scientific reports, 06 September 2018, Vol.8(1), pp.13361
    Description: In cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) type-1 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu1) receptors play a key role in motor learning and drive the refinement of synaptic innervation during postnatal development. The cognate mGlu5 receptor is absent in mature PCs and shows low expression levels in the adult cerebellar...
    Keywords: Down-Regulation ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Purkinje Cells -- Metabolism ; Receptors, Ampa -- Metabolism ; Receptors, Kainic Acid -- Biosynthesis ; Synapses -- Metabolism
    ISSN: Scientific Reports
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Psychiatry, 6/1/2018
    Description: The serotonin 5-HT2A and glutamate mGlu2 receptors continue to attract particular attention, given their implication in psychosis associated with schizophrenia and the mechanism of action of atypical antipsychotics and a new class of antipsychotics, respectively. A large body of evidence...
    Keywords: Life Sciences;
    ISSN: 1359-4184
    E-ISSN: 1476-5578
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  • 7
    In: Scientific Reports, 2017, Vol.7
    Description: Melanoma of the uveal tract accounts for approximately 5% of all melanomas and represents the most common primary intraocular malignancy. Despite improvements in diagnosis and more effective local therapies for primary cancer, the rate of metastatic death has not changed in the past forty years. In the present study, we made use of bioinformatics to analyze the data obtained from three public available microarray datasets on uveal melanoma in an attempt to identify novel putative chemotherapeutic options for the liver metastatic disease. We have first carried out a meta-analysis of publicly available whole-genome datasets, that included data from 132 patients, comparing metastatic vs. non metastatic uveal melanomas, in order to identify the most relevant genes characterizing the spreading of tumor to the liver. Subsequently, the L1000CDS2 web-based utility was used to predict small molecules and drugs targeting the metastatic uveal melanoma gene signature. The most promising drugs were found to be Cinnarizine, an anti-histaminic drug used for motion sickness, Digitoxigenin, a precursor of cardiac glycosides, and Clofazimine, a fat-soluble iminophenazine used in leprosy. In vitro and in vivo validation studies will be needed to confirm the efficacy of these molecules for the prevention and treatment of metastatic uveal melanoma.
    Keywords: Biology;
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Fazio, F., L. Lionetto, M. Curto, L. Iacovelli, M. Cavallari, C. Zappulla, M. Ulivieri, et al. 2015. “Xanthurenic Acid Activates mGlu2/3 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors and is a Potential Trait Marker for Schizophrenia.” Scientific Reports 5 (1): 17799. doi:10.1038/srep17799. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep17799.
    Description: The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. We report here that the kynurenine metabolite, xanturenic acid (XA), interacts with, and activates mGlu2 and mGlu3 metabotropic glutamate receptors in heterologous expression systems. However, the molecular nature of this interaction is unknown, and our data cannot exclude that XA acts primarily on other targets, such as the vesicular glutamate transporter, in the CNS. Systemic administration of XA in mice produced antipsychotic-like effects in the MK-801-induced model of hyperactivity. This effect required the presence of mGlu2 receptors and was abrogated by the preferential mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist, LY341495. Because the mGlu2 receptor is a potential drug target in the treatment of schizophrenia, we decided to measure serum levels of XA and other kynurenine metabolites in patients affected by schizophrenia. Serum XA levels were largely reduced in a large cohort of patients affected by schizophrenia, and, in patients with first-episode schizophrenia, levels remained low after 12 months of antipsychotic medication. As opposed to other kynurenine metabolites, XA levels were also significantly reduced in first-degree relatives of patients affected by schizophrenia. We suggest that lowered serum XA levels might represent a novel trait marker for schizophrenia.
    Keywords: Quantitative Trait, Heritable ; Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate -- Agonists ; Schizophrenia -- Diagnosis ; Xanthurenates -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, July 1992, Vol.12(4), pp.638-645
    Description: Ubiquinone is an endogenous quinone with pharmacological actions mainly related to its antioxidant properties. Here we report that ubiquinone protects cultured cerebellar granule cells against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. In control cultures at 9 days of maturation in vitro (DIV), a 30-min exposure to 100 μM glutamate induced neuronal degeneration, as reflected by the great percentage (〉90%) of cells labeled with propidium iodide 24 h after the exposure. Glutamate-induced neuronal death was dramatically reduced in cultures treated daily with ubiquinone since the second DIV. In these cultures, glutamate failed to induce a “delayed” increase in the influx of 45Ca2+, an established parameter of excitotoxicity. Similarly, repeated addition of ubiquinone attenuated in a concentration-dependent manner the age-dependent degeneration of granule cells that is due to the toxic action of the endogenous glutamate progressively released into the medium. These results suggest that ubiquinone may be a useful drug in the therapy of acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases related to hyperactivity of excitatory amino acid neurotransmission.
    Keywords: Ubiquinone ; Glutamate ; Cerebellar Neurons ; Neurotoxicity ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0271-678X
    E-ISSN: 1559-7016
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, February 2009, Vol.29(2), pp.264-276
    Description: Inhibition of the canonical Wnt pathway has been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuronal death. Here, we report that the secreted Wnt antagonist, Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) is rapidly induced in neurons after induction of focal brain ischemia. In rats undergoing transient focal ischemia in response to brain infusion of endothelin-1, Dkk-1 was induced in neurons of the ischemic core and the penumbra region. Induction of Dkk-1 was associated with a reduced expression of β-catenin (a downstream signaling molecule of the canonical Wnt pathway), and was not observed in neurons expressing the protective protein, heat shock protein-70. Treatment with lithium ions, which, inter alia, rescue the canonical Wnt pathway, was highly protective against ischemic damage. Dkk-1 was also induced in cortical neurons of mice undergoing permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. This model allowed us to compare wild-type mice with doubleridge mice, which are characterized by a reduced expression of Dkk-1. Doubleridge mice showed an attenuated reduction of β-catenin and a reduced infarct volume in response to MCA occlusion, providing a direct demonstration that Dkk-1 contributes to the pathophysiology of ischemic neuronal damage. These data rise the interesting possibility that Dkk-1 antagonists or drugs that rescue the Wnt pathway might be neuroprotective in stroke.
    Keywords: Dickkopf-1 ; Focal Ischemia ; Hypoxia ; Lithium ; Neuroprotection ; Penumbra ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0271-678X
    E-ISSN: 1559-7016
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