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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Kidney International, 02 December 2010, Vol.78(12), pp.1312-1321
    Description: Neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) and impaired dilatation are important contributors to arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure. It is unclear whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) itself causes adverse remodeling in arterialized veins. Here we determined if CKD specifically triggers adverse effects on vascular remodeling and assessed whether these changes affect the function of AVFs. For this purpose, we used rats on a normal diet or on an adenine-rich diet to induce CKD and created a fistula between the right femoral artery and vein. Fistula maturation was followed noninvasively by high-resolution ultrasound (US), and groups of rats were killed on 42 and 84 days after surgery for histological and immunohistochemical analyses of the AVFs and contralateral femoral vessels. US and morphometric analyses confirmed a significant increase in NIH in the AVFs of both groups with CKD compared to those receiving a normal diet. Furthermore, we found using histological evaluation of the fistula veins in the rats with CKD that the media shrank and their calcification increased significantly. Afferent artery dilatation was significantly impaired in CKD and the downstream fistula vein had delayed dilation after surgery. These changes were accompanied by significantly increased peak systolic velocity at the site of the anastomosis, implying stenosis. Thus, CKD triggers adverse effects on vascular remodeling in AVFs, all of which contribute to anatomical and/or functional stenosis.
    Keywords: Arteriovenous Fistula ; Arteriovenous Shunt ; Chronic Kidney Disease ; Dialysis Access ; Vascular Access ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0085-2538
    E-ISSN: 1523-1755
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Translational Psychiatry, 01 August 2018, Vol.8(1), pp.1-13
    Description: Abstract Interoception, or the sensing and integration of bodily state signals, has been implicated in anorexia nervosa (AN), given that the hallmark symptoms involve food restriction and body image disturbance. Here we focus on brain response to the anticipation and experience of affective interoceptive stimuli. Women remitted from AN (RAN; N = 18) and healthy comparison women (CW; N = 26) underwent a pleasant affective touch paradigm consisting of gentle strokes with a soft brush administered to the forearm or palm during functional neuroimaging. RAN had a lower brain response relative to CW during anticipation of touch, but a greater response when experiencing touch in the right ventral mid-insula. In RAN, this reduced anticipatory response was associated with higher levels of harm avoidance. Exploratory analyses in RAN also suggested that lower response during touch anticipation was associated with greater body dissatisfaction and higher perceived touch intensity ratings. This reduced responsivity to the anticipation of pleasant affective interoceptive stimuli in association with higher harm avoidance, along with an elevated response to the experience of touch, suggests an impaired ability in AN to predict and interpret incoming physiological stimuli. Impaired interoception may thus impact one’s sense of self, thereby supporting observations of disturbed body image and avoidance of affective and social stimuli. Therapeutic approaches that help AN to better anticipate and interpret salient affective stimuli or improve tolerance of interoceptive experiences may be an important addition to current interventions.
    Keywords: Medicine
    E-ISSN: 2158-3188
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  • 3
    In: Scientific Reports, 2016, Vol.6
    Description: The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of androgen, mainly testosterone, in the expression of renal senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) in male rats. We found that the renal SMP30 expression was up-regulated by endogenous testosterone stimulation during puberty. Interestingly, androgen-deficient orchidectomized (ORX) rats exhibited lower SMP30 mRNA and protein expression in the kidney, and that was restored by testosterone propionate (TP) replacement. Abrogation of androgen receptor (AR) activity by co-treatment with flutamide abolished testosterone-induced SMP30 expression in the kidney as well as in the NRK52E cells. However, SMP30 expression was unaltered in the liver of ORX rats. We also showed a positive correlation between renal SMP30 expression and plasma testosterone level during the aging process. TP-induced SMP30 expression in ovariectomized (OVX) rats was observed and was an evidence to explain the gender difference of SMP30 levels. Immunofluorescence assay showed that renal SMP30 was specifically expressed in the proximal tubular segments of the kidney. The urinary Ca(2+) level was increased in both ORX and male aging rats. Taken together, our results indicate a novel role of testosterone in regulating SMP30 expression specifically in the kidney to contribute to urinary calcium absorption.
    Keywords: Calcium -- Urine ; Calcium-Binding Proteins -- Metabolism ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins -- Metabolism ; Kidney -- Metabolism ; Testosterone -- Metabolism;
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, June 2019, Vol.44(7), pp.1265-1273
    Description: Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by dysregulated intake of food, which may indicate homeostatic imbalance. Critically important for homeostatic regulation is interoception, or the sensing and processing of body-relevant information. A well-documented link between avoidance of unpleasant body sensations and BN symptoms suggests that aversive interoceptive experiences may be particularly relevant to BN pathophysiology. This study examined whether individuals with a history of BN show aberrant neural processing of aversive interoceptive stimuli. Using a cued inspiratory breathing load paradigm, we compared women remitted from BN (RBN; n = 24; to reduce the confounding effects of active bulimic symptoms) and control women (CW; n = 25). During breathing load anticipation, the RBN group, relative to CW, showed increased activation in mid-insula, superior frontal gyrus, putamen, dorsal anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, and amygdala. However, over the course of the aversive experience, neural activation in RBN relative to CW showed an aberrant decline in most of these regions. Exploratory analyses indicated that greater activation during breathing load anticipation was associated with past bulimic symptom severity and the duration of symptom remission. An exaggerated anticipatory response and an abnormally decreasing response during aversive homeostatic perturbations may promote hallmark bulimic behaviors-binge eating, dietary restriction, and purging. Our findings support a role for homeostatic instability in BN, and these altered patterns of brain activation may serve as novel targets for pharmacological, neuromodulatory, and behavioral interventions.
    Keywords: Putamen ; Respiration ; Amygdala ; Purging ; Diet ; Eating Disorders ; Signs and Symptoms ; Bulimia ; Pharmacology ; Brain ; Frontal Gyrus ; Information Processing ; Stability ; Eating Disorders ; Bulimia Nervosa ; Remission ; Active Control ; Breathing ; Food Intake;
    ISSN: 0893133X
    E-ISSN: 1740-634X
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