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  • 1
    In: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2017, Vol. 215(4), pp.653-657
    Description: Staphylococcus aureus, a metabolically flexible gram-positive pathogen, causes infections in a variety of tissues. Recent evidence implicates S. aureus as an emerging cause of chorioamnionitis and premature rupture of membranes, which are associated with preterm birth and neonatal disease. We demonstrate here that S. aureus infects and forms biofilms on the choriodecidual surface of explanted human gestational membranes. Concomitantly, S. aureus elicits the production of proinflammatory cytokines, which could ultimately perturb maternal-fetal tolerance during pregnancy. Therefore, targeting the immunological response to S. aureus infection during pregnancy could attenuate disease among infected individuals, especially in the context of antibiotic resistance.
    Keywords: 〈Kwd〉 〈Italic Toggle="Yes"〉Staphylococcus Aureus〈/Italic〉 〈/Kwd〉 ; Gestational Membranes ; Cytokine
    ISSN: 0022-1899
    E-ISSN: 1537-6613
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, 01 March 2009, Vol.199(5), pp.684-92
    Description: A gene expression study of Haemophilus ducreyi identified the hypothetical lipoprotein HD0192, renamed here "fibrinogen binder A" (FgbA), as being preferentially expressed in vivo. To test the role played by fgbA in virulence, an isogenic fgbA mutant (35000HPfgbA) was constructed using H. ducreyi 35000HP, and 6 volunteers were experimentally infected with 35000HP or 35000HPfgbA. The overall pustule-formation rate was 61.1% at parent sites and 22.2% at mutant sites (P = .019). Papules were significantly smaller at mutant sites than at parent sites (13.3 vs. 37.9 mm(2); P = .002) 24 h after inoculation. Thus, fgbA contributed significantly to the virulence of H. ducreyi in humans. In vitro experiments demonstrated that fgbA encodes a fibrinogen-binding protein; no other fibrinogen-binding proteins were identified in 35000HP. fgbA was conserved among clinical isolates of both class I and II H. ducreyi strains, supporting the finding that fgbA is important for H. ducreyi infection.
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Chancroid -- Microbiology ; Fibrinogen -- Metabolism ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Genetics ; Lipoproteins -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0022-1899
    E-ISSN: 15376613
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Microbiology, 01 August 2018, Vol.9
    Description: One elusive area in the Helicobacter pylori field is an understanding of why some infections result in gastric cancer, yet others persist asymptomatically for the life-span of the individual. Even before the genomic era, the high level of intraspecies diversity of H. pylori was well recognized and became an intriguing area of investigation with respect to disease progression. Of interest in this regard is the unique repertoire of over 60 outer membrane proteins (OMPs), several of which have been associated with disease outcome. Of these OMPs, the association between HomB and disease outcome varies based on the population being studied. While the molecular roles for some of the disease-associated OMPs have been evaluated, little is known about the role that HomB plays in the H. pylori lifecycle. Thus, herein we investigated homB expression, regulation, and contribution to biofilm formation. We found that in H. pylori strain G27, homB was expressed at a relatively low level until stationary phase. Furthermore, homB expression was suppressed at low pH in an ArsRS-dependent manner; mutation of arsRS resulted in increased homB transcript at all tested time-points. ArsRS regulation of homB appeared to be direct as purified ArsR was able to specifically bind to the homB promoter. This regulation, combined with our previous finding that ArsRS mutations lead to enhanced biofilm formation, led us to test the hypothesis that homB contributes to biofilm formation by H. pylori. Indeed, subsequent biofilm analysis using a crystal-violet quantification assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that loss of homB from hyper-biofilm forming strains resulted in reversion to a biofilm phenotype that mimicked wild-type. Furthermore, expression of homB in trans from a promoter that negated ArsRS regulation led to enhanced biofilm formation even in strains in which the chromosomal copy of homB had been deleted. Thus, homB is necessary for hyper-biofilm formation of ArsRS mutant strains and aberrant regulation of this gene is sufficient to induce a hyper-biofilm phenotype. In summary, these data suggest that the ArsRS-dependent regulation of OMPs such as HomB may be one mechanism by which ArsRS dictates biofilm development in a pH responsive manner.
    Keywords: Homb ; Arsrs ; H. Pylori ; Biofilms ; Omps ; Biology
    E-ISSN: 1664-302X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 2017, Vol.7, pp.19
    Description: , or Group B (GBS), is a gram-positive bacterial pathogen associated with infection during pregnancy and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Infection of the extraplacental membranes surrounding the developing fetus, a condition known as chorioamnionitis, is characterized histopathologically by profound infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs, neutrophils) and greatly increases the risk for preterm labor, stillbirth, or neonatal GBS infection. The advent of animal models of chorioamnionitis provides a powerful tool to study host-pathogen relationships and . The purpose of this study was to evaluate the innate immune response elicited by GBS and evaluate how antimicrobial strategies elaborated by these innate immune cells affect bacteria. Our work using a mouse model of GBS ascending vaginal infection during pregnancy reveals that clinically isolated GBS has the capacity to invade reproductive tissues and elicit host immune responses including infiltration of PMNs within the choriodecidua and placenta during infection, mirroring the human condition. Upon interacting with GBS, murine neutrophils elaborate DNA-containing extracellular traps, which immobilize GBS and are studded with antimicrobial molecules including lactoferrin. Exposure of GBS to holo- or apo-forms of lactoferrin reveals that the iron-sequestration activity of lactoferrin represses GBS growth and viability in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these data indicate that the mouse model of ascending infection is a useful tool to recapitulate human models of GBS infection during pregnancy. Furthermore, this work reveals that neutrophil extracellular traps ensnare GBS and repress bacterial growth via deposition of antimicrobial molecules, which drive nutritional immunity via metal sequestration strategies.
    Keywords: Streptococcus Agalactiae ; Group B Streptococcus ; Metal ; Neutrophils ; Pregnancy ; Extracellular Traps ; Immunity, Innate ; Neutrophil Infiltration ; Mucous Membrane -- Pathology ; Reproductive Tract Infections -- Pathology ; Streptococcus Agalactiae -- Pathogenicity
    E-ISSN: 2235-2988
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  • 5
    In: Journal of Biophotonics, September 2019, Vol.12(9), pp.n/a-n/a
    Description: , also known as Group B (GBS), is a major cause of chorioamnionitis and neonatal sepsis. This study evaluates Raman spectroscopy (RS) to identify spectral characteristics of infection and differentiate GBS from and during ex vivo infection of human fetal membrane tissues. Unique spectral features were identified from colonies grown on agar and infected fetal membrane tissues. Multinomial logistic regression analysis accurately identified GBS infected tissues with 100.0% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity. Together, these findings support further investigation into the use of RS as an emerging microbiologic diagnostic tool and intrapartum screening test for GBS carriage. Current methods to screen Group B (GBS), a major cause of chorioamnionitis and neonatal sepsis, do not provide accurate, sensitive readings. Raman microspectroscopy combined with logistic regression was utilized to investigate a GBS infection model of human fetal membranes ex vivo. Tissue infected with GBS was successfully distinguished from non‐infected, infected, and infected tissue. These findings motivate the development of Raman spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for intrapartum screening of GBS.
    Keywords: Biofilms ; Chorioamnionitis ; Gbs ; Group B Streptococcus ; Raman Spectroscopy ; Streptococcus Agalactiae
    ISSN: 1864-063X
    E-ISSN: 1864-0648
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