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  • 1
    In: PLoS ONE, 2017, Vol.12(2)
    Description: [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0168417.].
    Keywords: Correction
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    Language: Spanish
    In: Conservation Biology, February 2012, Vol.26(1), pp.150-159
    Description: :  Habitat loss reduces species diversity, but the effect of habitat fragmentation on number of species is less clear because fragmentation generally accompanies loss of habitat. We compared four methods that aim to decouple the effects of fragmentation from the effects of habitat loss. Two methods are based on species‐area relations, one on Fisher's alpha index of diversity, and one on plots of cumulative number of species detected against cumulative area sampled. We used these methods to analyze the species diversity of spiders in 2, 3.2 × 4 km agricultural landscapes in Southern Judea Lowlands, Israel. Spider diversity increased as fragmentation increased with all four methods, probably not because of the additive within‐patch processes, such as edge effect and heterogeneity. The positive relation between fragmentation and species diversity might reflect that most species can disperse through the fields during the wheat‐growing season. We suggest that if a given area was designated for the conservation of spiders in Southern Judea Lowlands, Israel, a set of several small patches may maximize species diversity over time.
    Keywords: Arthropods ; Landscape ; Sloss ; Species Diversity ; Species‐Area Relation ; Artrópodos ; Diversidad De Especies ; Paisaje ; Relación Especies‐Área ; Sloss
    ISSN: 0888-8892
    E-ISSN: 1523-1739
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Biogeography, April 2017, Vol.44(4), pp.937-949
    Description: Byline: Yoni Gavish, Yaron Ziv Keywords: biodiversity patterns; islands; Jaccard; landscape; macroecology; multiple-sites similarity; occupancy-frequency distribution; patches; Sorensen; spatial ecology Abstract Aim Although species-occupancy distributions (SODs) and species-area relationships (SARs) arise from the two marginal sums of the same presence/absence matrices, the two biodiversity patterns are usually explored independently. Here, we aim to unify the two patterns for isolate-based data by constraining the SAR to conserve information from the SOD. Location Widespread. Methods Focusing on the power-model SAR, we first developed a constrained form that conserved the total number of occupancies from the SOD. Next, we developed an additive-constrained SAR that conserves the entire shape of the SOD within the power-model SAR function, using a single parameter (the slope of the endemics-area relationship). We then relate this additive-constrained SAR to multiple-sites similarity measures, based on a probabilistic view of Sorensen similarity. We extend the constrained and additive-constrained SAR framework to 23 published SAR functions. We compare the fit of the original and constrained forms of 12 SAR functions using 154 published data sets, covering various spatial scales, taxa and systems. Main conclusions In all 23 SAR functions, the constrained form had one parameter less than the original form. In all 154 data sets the model with the highest weight based on the corrected Akaike's information criteria (wAICc) had a constrained form. The constrained form received higher wAICc than the original form in 98.79% of valid pairwise cases, approaching the wAICc expected under identical log-likelihood. Our work suggests, both theoretically and empirically, that all SAR functions may have one unnecessary parameter, which can be excluded from the function without reduction in goodness-of-fit. The more parsimonious constrained forms are also easier to interpret as they reflect the probability of a randomly chosen occupancy to be found in an isolate. The additive-constrained SARs accounts for two complimentary turn-over components of occupancies: turnover between species and turnover between sites. Article Note: Editor: Francois Guilhaumon CAPTION(S): Appendix S1 AICc, wAICc and expected AICc. Appendix S2 References and information on data sets. Appendix S3 Linear regressions of wAICc.
    Keywords: Biodiversity Patterns ; Islands ; Jaccard ; Landscape ; Macroecology ; Multiple‐Sites Similarity ; Occupancy‐Frequency Distribution ; Patches ; Sørensen ; Spatial Ecology
    ISSN: 0305-0270
    E-ISSN: 1365-2699
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  • 4
    In: PLoS ONE, 2016, Vol.11(12)
    Description: Understanding the main processes that affect community similarity have been the focus of much ecological research. However, the relative effects of environmental and spatial aspects in structuring ecological communities is still unresolved and is probably scale-dependent. Here, we examine the effect of habitat identity and spatial distance on fine-grained community similarity within a biogeographic transition zone. We compared four hypotheses: i) habitat identity alone, ii) spatial proximity alone, iii) non-interactive effects of both habitat identity and spatial proximity, and iv) interactive effect of habitat identity and spatial proximity. We explored these hypotheses for spiders in three fragmented landscapes located along the sharp climatic gradient of Southern Judea Lowlands (SJL), Israel. We sampled 14,854 spiders (from 199 species or morphospecies) in 644 samples, taken in 35 patches and stratified to nine different habitats. We calculated the Bray-Curtis similarity between all samples-pairs. We divided the pairwise values to four functional distance categories (same patch, different patches from the same landscape, adjacent landscapes and distant landscapes) and two habitat categories (same or different habitats) and compared them using non-parametric MANOVA. A significant interaction between habitat identity and spatial distance was found, such that the difference in mean similarity between same-habitat pairs and different-habitat pairs decreases with spatial distance. Additionally, community similarity decayed with spatial distance. Furthermore, at all distances, same-habitat pairs had higher similarity than different-habitats pairs. Our results support the fourth hypothesis of interactive effect of habitat identity and spatial proximity. We suggest that the environmental complexity of habitats or increased habitat specificity of species near the edge of their distribution range may explain this pattern. Thus, in transitions zones care should be taken when using habitats as surrogate of community composition in conservation planning since similar habitats in different locations are more likely to support different communities.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Earth Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Oecologia, 2016, Vol.180(1), pp.243-244
    Keywords: Livestock ; Reptiles ; Agroecosystems;
    ISSN: 0029-8549
    E-ISSN: 1432-1939
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Oecologia, 2016, Vol.180(1), pp.231-242
    Description: Grazing plays an important role in shaping ecological communities in human-related ecosystems. Although myriad studies have explored the joint effect of grazing and climate on plant communities, this interactive effect has rarely been studied in animals. We hypothesized that the effect of grazing on the reptile community varies along a climatic gradient in relation to the effect of grazing on habitat characteristics, and that grazing differentially affects reptiles of different biogeographic regions. We tested our hypotheses by collecting data on environmental characteristics and by trapping reptiles in four heterogeneous landscapes experiencing differing grazing intensities and distributed along a sharp climatic gradient. We found that while reptile diversity increased with grazing intensity at the mesic end of the gradient, it decreased with grazing intensity at the arid end. Moreover, the proportion of reptile species of differing biogeographic origins varied with the interactive effect of climate and grazing. The representation of species originating in arid biogeographic zones was highest at the arid end of the climatic gradient, and representation increased with grazing intensity within this area. Regardless of the climatic context, increased grazing pressure results in a reduction in vegetation cover and thus in changes in habitat characteristics. By reducing vegetation cover, grazing increased habitat heterogeneity in the dense mesic sites and decreased habitat heterogeneity in the arid sites. Thus, our results suggest that the same direction of habitat alteration caused by grazing may have opposite effects on biodiversity and community composition in different climatic contexts.
    Keywords: Arid ; Biogeography ; Ecotone ; Fisher’s alpha ; Habitat heterogeneity ; Herpetofauna ; Mediterranean
    ISSN: 0029-8549
    E-ISSN: 1432-1939
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  • 7
    In: Canadian Journal of Zoology, 2017, Vol.96(5), pp.466-472
    Description: The extinction of a single species from a local community may carry little cost in terms of species diversity, yet its loss eliminates its biotic and abiotic interactions. We describe such a scenario in the Arava desert, where different cultural and law enforcement practices exclude Dorcas gazelles ( Gazella dorcas (Linnaeus, 1758)) from the Jordanian side of the border while protecting their populations on the Israeli side. We found that gazelles break the soil crust, formed in desert systems after annual flooding, thereby creating patches of loose and cooler sand that are used by pit-building antlions (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae). When we artificially broke the soil crust on both sides of the border, we found a significant increase in antlion density in these patches, but only on the Israeli side. On the Jordanian side, where no gazelles have been observed since the early 1980s, no antlions colonized either control or manipulated plots. Additional choice/no-choice feeding experiments, in which we offered antlions to lizards and birds, revealed that the effect of humans on gazelles cascades farther, as antlions serve as a palatable food source for both groups. Thus, the human-mediated loss of nontrophic interactions between gazelles and antlions cascades to the loss of trophic interactions between antlions and their predators.
    Description: Si la disparition d’une seule espèce dans une communauté locale n’est pas nécessairement très coûteuse sur le plan la diversité spécifique, la perte de cette espèce élimine toutefois ses interactions biotiques et abiotiques. Nous décrivons un tel scénario dans le désert d’Arava, où des pratiques culturelles et d’application de la loi divergentes excluent les gazelles dorcas ( Gazella dorcas (Linnaeus, 1758)) du côté jordanien de la frontière, mais en protègent les populations du côté israélien. Nous avons constaté que les gazelles brisent la croûte du sol, formée dans des systèmes désertiques après les crues annuelles, créant ainsi des parcelles de sable plus meuble et frais utilisées par des fourmilions (neuroptères : myrméléontidés) fouisseurs. Après avoir brisé artificiellement la croûte du sol des deux côtés de la frontière, nous avons noté une augmentation significative de la densité de fourmilions dans ces parcelles, mais seulement du côté israélien. Du côté jordanien, où aucune gazelle n’a été observée depuis le début des années 1980, aucun fourmilion n’a colonisé les parcelles témoins ni les parcelles manipulées. D’autres expériences d’alimentation dans lesquelles des fourmilions étaient offerts à des lézards et des oiseaux ont révélé que l’effet des humains sur les gazelles se propage en cascade, puisque les fourmilions servent de source de nourriture attrayante pour les deux groupes. Ainsi, la disparition médiée par les humains d’interactions non trophiques entre les gazelles et les fourmilions se propage en cascade pour mener à la disparition d’interactions trophiques des fourmilions avec leurs prédateurs. [Traduit par la Rédaction]
    Keywords: Ecological Engineer ; Food Web ; Dorcas Gazelle ; Gazella Dorcas ; Antlion ; Neuroptera ; Myrmeleontidae ; Desert ; Ingénieur Écologique ; Réseau Trophique ; Gazelle Dorcas ; Gazella Dorcas ; Fourmilion ; Neuroptères ; Myrméléontidés ; Désert
    ISSN: 0008-4301
    E-ISSN: 1480-3283
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Oecologia, August 2017, Vol.184(4), pp.859-871
    Description: Elucidating the factors determining reproductive success has challenged scientists since Darwin, but the exact pathways that shape the evolution of life history traits by connecting extrinsic (e.g., landscape structure) and intrinsic (e.g., female's age and endosymbionts) factors and reproductive success have rarely been studied. Here we collected female fleas from wild rodents in plots differing in their densities and proportions of the most dominant rodent species. We then combined path analysis and model selection approaches to explore the network of effects, ranging from micro to macroscales, determining the reproductive success of these fleas. Our results suggest that female reproductive success is directly and positively associated with their infection by Mycoplasma bacteria and their own body mass, and with the rodent species size and total density. In addition, we found evidence for indirect effects of rodent sex and rodent community diversity on female reproductive success. These results highlight the importance of exploring interrelated factors across organization scales while studying the reproductive success of wild organisms, and they have implications for the control of vector-borne diseases.
    Keywords: Fitness ; Life History ; Model Selection ; Parasites ; Path Analysis ; Scales ; Arthropod Vectors ; Flea Infestations ; Reproduction
    ISSN: 00298549
    E-ISSN: 1432-1939
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(10), p.e109677
    Description: Relationships between host and microbial diversity have important ecological and applied implications. Theory predicts that these relationships will depend on the spatio-temporal scale of the analysis and the niche breadth of the organisms in question, but representative data on host-microbial...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    In: Methods in Ecology and Evolution, February 2018, Vol.9(2), pp.235-244
    Description: The ability to provide reliable projections for the current and future distribution of land‐cover is fundamental if we wish to protect and manage our diminishing natural resources. Two inter‐related revolutions make map productions feasible at unprecedented resolutions—the availability of high‐resolution remotely sensed data and the development of machine‐learning algorithms. However, ground‐truthed data needed for training models is in most cases spatially and temporally clustered. Therefore, map production requires extrapolation of models from one place to another and the uncertainty cost of such extrapolation is rarely explored. In other words, the focus has mainly been on projections, and less on quantifying their reliability. Using the concept of “forecast horizon”, we suggest that the predictability of land‐cover classification models should be quantitatively explored as a continuum against distances measured along multiple dimensions—space, time, environmental and spectral. Focusing on ten agricultural sites from England and using models specifically designed to predict multivariate decay‐curves, we ask: how does a model's predictive performance decay with distance? More specifically, we explored if we could predict the proficiency (kappa statistics) of a model trained in one site when making predictions in another site based on the spatial, temporal, spectral and environmental distances between sites. We found that model proficiency decays with distance between sites in each dimension. More importantly, we found for the first time, that it is possible to predict the performance a model transferred to or from a novel site will have, based on its distances from known sites. The spectral distance variables were the most important when predicting model transferability. Exploring model transferability as a continuum may have multiple usages including predicting uncertainty values in space and time, prioritisation of strategies for ground‐truth data collection, and optimising model characteristics for defined tasks.
    Keywords: Community Similarity ; Earth‐Observation ; Forecast Horizon ; Habitat Mapping ; Predictive Ecology ; Random Forest ; Remote Sensing ; Signature Extension ; Species‐Distribution Models ; Uncertainty
    ISSN: 2041-210X
    E-ISSN: 2041-210X
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