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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, September 2019, Vol.32, pp.90-106
    Description: This paper examines the establishing a low-carbon electricity system through the introduction of Renewable Energies in Bulgaria – an EU member and a former Socialist state undergoing a vast socio-economic transformation over the last 29 years. Thus, the current introduction of RE is ambivalent. On the one hand, in just five years, a total of more than 1700 MW of new wind and photovoltaic plants were installed - almost as much as the country's nuclear capacity (2000 MW). On the other hand, after 2012, the RE development was stopped by means of several legislative amendments. Thus, governed by tensions, and recently experiencing a financial crisis in the energy sector, unintended new opportunities for RE occurred abroad. This could be a chance for “leapfrogging” pathway to low-carbon transition. Though a challenge still remain in the “state capture” processes in the Bulgarian politics.
    Keywords: Renewable Energy ; Low-Carbon Energy Transition ; Path-Dependencies ; State ; Capture ; Leapfrogging Development ; Bulgaria ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 2210-4224
    E-ISSN: 2210-4232
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Advanced Materials, 12 July 2013, Vol.25(26), pp.3543-3548
    Description: displays humidity‐induced phase transitions from a hexagonal columnar structure to a bicontinuous cubic phase. The mesophases can be frozen by photopolymerization of acrylic end‐groups resulting in free‐standing membranes with different topology of ionic nanochannels. The obtained membranes with a well‐ordered ionic channel structure hold promise for applications in separation and catalysis.
    Keywords: Ionic Channels ; Bicontinuous Cubic Phase ; Columnar Mesophase ; Self‐Assembly ; Ion‐Conducting Membranes
    ISSN: 0935-9648
    E-ISSN: 1521-4095
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, November 2018, Vol.566, pp.616-626
    Description: The associations between the seasonal moisture budget (precipitation minus evaporation) and atmospheric and oceanic teleconnections related with dry and wet conditions in the greater Mediterranean Basin are investigated. The driest and wettest Mediterranean winters are selected according to the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), and the differences in the moisture budget among them and average conditions (i.e. climatology) are investigated. The analysis focuses on the role of major teleconnection indices for the conditions of the driest/wettest winters. According to the results, the Arctic Oscillation (AO) index is the best indicator of variability in the driest/wettest conditions, which are conventionally associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Large-scale climate variability over the Mediterranean Basin is strongly linked with significant changes of the moisture fluxes in the Gulf of Mexico region and partially in the east coast region of the United States (US), especially for wet years in the Western Mediterranean. The displacement of the prevailing atmospheric centres of action located over the subtropical mid-east Atlantic (Azores high) to the Northwest Atlantic determines the wet conditions over the Western and Eastern Mediterranean Basins, respectively. It is speculated that the relative strengths and positions of these large-scale systems control the Eastern and Western patterns of the Mediterranean climate variability.
    Keywords: Atmospheric Moisture Budget ; Convergence ; Regional and Year to Year Variability ; Teleconnections ; Mediterranean Basin ; Standardized Precipitation Index ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The journal of physical chemistry. B, 20 March 2014, Vol.118(11), pp.3207-17
    Description: Supramolecular assembly allows for enhanced control of bulk material properties through the fine modulation of intermolecular interactions. We present a comprehensive study of a cross-linkable amphiphilic wedge molecule based on a sulfonated trialkoxybenzene with a sodium counterion that forms liquid crystalline (LC) phases with ionic nanochannel structures. This compound exhibits drastic structural changes as a function of relative humidity (RH). Our combined structural, dynamical, and transport studies reveal deep and novel information on the coupling of water and wedge molecule transport to structural motifs, including the significant influence of domain boundaries within the material. Over a range of RH values, we employ (23)Na solid-state NMR on the counterions to complement detailed structural studies by grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering. RH-dependent pulsed-field-gradient (PFG) NMR diffusion studies on both water and the wedge amphiphiles show multiple components, corresponding to species diffusing within LC domains as well as in the domain boundaries that compose 10% of the material. The rich transport and dynamical behaviors described here represent an important window into the world of supramolecular soft materials, carrying implications for optimization of these materials in many venues. Cubic phases present at high RH show fast transport of water (2 × 10(-10) m(2)/s), competitive with that observed in benchmark polymeric ion conductors. Understanding the self-assembly of these supramolecular building blocks shows promise for generating cross-linked membranes with fast ion conduction for applications such as next-generation batteries.
    Keywords: Strukturumwandlung ; Röntgenstrahl ; Diffusion ; Natrium ; Ionenkanal ; Relative Feuchtigkeit ; Dynamisches Verhalten ; Ionenleitung ; Baugruppe ; Selbstassemblierung ; Membran ; Chemistry;
    ISSN: 15206106
    E-ISSN: 1520-5207
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 2018, Vol.132(1), pp.219-237
    Description: A new approach for rigorous spatial analysis of the downscaling performance of regional climate model (RCM) simulations is introduced. It is based on a multiple comparison of the local tests at the grid cells and is also known as “field” or “global” significance. New performance measures for estimating the added value of downscaled data relative to the large-scale forcing fields are developed. The methodology is exemplarily applied to a standard EURO-CORDEX hindcast simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the land surface model NOAH at 0.11 ∘ grid resolution. Monthly temperature climatology for the 1990–2009 period is analysed for Germany for winter and summer in comparison with high-resolution gridded observations from the German Weather Service. The field significance test controls the proportion of falsely rejected local tests in a meaningful way and is robust to spatial dependence. Hence, the spatial patterns of the statistically significant local tests are also meaningful. We interpret them from a process-oriented perspective. In winter and in most regions in summer, the downscaled distributions are statistically indistinguishable from the observed ones. A systematic cold summer bias occurs in deep river valleys due to overestimated elevations, in coastal areas due probably to enhanced sea breeze circulation, and over large lakes due to the interpolation of water temperatures. Urban areas in concave topography forms have a warm summer bias due to the strong heat islands, not reflected in the observations. WRF-NOAH generates appropriate fine-scale features in the monthly temperature field over regions of complex topography, but over spatially homogeneous areas even small biases can lead to significant deteriorations relative to the driving reanalysis. As the added value of global climate model (GCM)-driven simulations cannot be smaller than this perfect-boundary estimate, this work demonstrates in a rigorous manner the clear additional value of dynamical downscaling over global climate simulations. The evaluation methodology has a broad spectrum of applicability as it is distribution-free, robust to spatial dependence, and accounts for time series structure.
    Keywords: Weather – Analysis ; Climate – Analysis ; Meteorological Research – Analysis ; Numerical Weather Prediction – Analysis ; Climate Models – Analysis;
    ISSN: 0177-798X
    E-ISSN: 1434-4483
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 2018, Vol.132(1), pp.239-261
    Description: A new approach for rigorous spatial analysis of the downscaling performance of regional climate model (RCM) simulations is introduced. It is based on a multiple comparison of the local tests at the grid cells and is also known as ‘field’ or ‘global’ significance. The block length for the local resampling tests is precisely determined to adequately account for the time series structure. New performance measures for estimating the added value of downscaled data relative to the large-scale forcing fields are developed. The methodology is exemplarily applied to a standard EURO-CORDEX hindcast simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the land surface model NOAH at 0.11 ∘ grid resolution. Daily precipitation climatology for the 1990–2009 period is analysed for Germany for winter and summer in comparison with high-resolution gridded observations from the German Weather Service. The field significance test controls the proportion of falsely rejected local tests in a meaningful way and is robust to spatial dependence. Hence, the spatial patterns of the statistically significant local tests are also meaningful. We interpret them from a process-oriented perspective. While the downscaled precipitation distributions are statistically indistinguishable from the observed ones in most regions in summer, the biases of some distribution characteristics are significant over large areas in winter. WRF-NOAH generates appropriate stationary fine-scale climate features in the daily precipitation field over regions of complex topography in both seasons and appropriate transient fine-scale features almost everywhere in summer. As the added value of global climate model (GCM)-driven simulations cannot be smaller than this perfect-boundary estimate, this work demonstrates in a rigorous manner the clear additional value of dynamical downscaling over global climate simulations. The evaluation methodology has a broad spectrum of applicability as it is distribution-free, robust to spatial dependence, and accounts for time series structure.
    Keywords: Weather – Analysis ; Climate – Analysis ; Meteorological Research – Analysis ; Numerical Weather Prediction – Analysis ; Precipitation (Meteorology) – Analysis ; Climate Models – Analysis;
    ISSN: 0177-798X
    E-ISSN: 1434-4483
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The Economic History Review, Feb, 2011, Vol.64(1), p.30(22)
    Description: To authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0289.2010.00544.x Byline: ADAM TOOZE (*), MARTIN IVANOV (*) Abstract: Using the example of Bulgaria, we argue that familiar models of international political economy fail to capture the tension between national sovereignty and access to capital markets experienced by peripheral debtors in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Existing accounts exaggerate the significance of the gold standard as a good housekeeping seal of approval and underestimate the role of direct financial controls. Furthermore, they underestimate the linkage in zones of inter-imperial rivalry, such as the Balkans, between foreign borrowing and strategic alignment. We show how Bulgaria found its politics destabilized prior to 1914 by the demands of its creditors. After defeat in the First World War, Bulgaria was forced to submit to an even tighter system of creditor control. Though it obtained substantial debt relief during the 1930s, these concessions were gained not through an assertion of national sovereignty and default, but at the price of even closer supervision. This in turn casts new light on the conventional view of Bulgaria as a victim of Nazi 'informal imperialism'. In light of Bulgaria's previous experience, the more striking feature of its trade relations with Hitler's Germany is that they were conducted on a basis of sovereign equality. Author Affiliation: (*)Yale University and Bulgarian Academy of Science Article History: Date submitted 8 November 2007Revised version submitted 26 June 2009Accepted 26 October 2009
    Keywords: Financial Markets -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0013-0117
    E-ISSN: 14680289
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 2011, Vol.42(1), pp.111-134
    Description: Analysis of new regional socioeconomic and transport data in a gis format reveals that Bulgaria's most dramatic transformations occurred before World War I, corresponding to the construction of the national railway grid. Contrary to expectations, the massive socioeconomic developments that followed World War II and the fall of the Berlin Wall did not affect the regional economic order of the state.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0022-1953
    E-ISSN: 15309169
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Energy Procedia, January 2016, Vol.85, pp.295-302
    Description: The results, obtained from paper based subjective assessment, of the indoor environment parameters, are presented in this paper. The assessment was made by untrained and unprepared occupants of small lecture room, during specially organized one hour lecture. Briefly described are the main objectives, as well as the methods used. The collected data was mostly analyzed in terms of the human response to the questionnaire based study. It was analyzed how successive the votes are and how reliable the answers of the questions are. The results show very low response to the unorganized and spontaneous experimental study. The explanation of these results seems to be complex task, which requires further interdisciplinary analyzes. The work is still in progress, and particular results, concerning the collected vote and the entire physical measurements of the indoor environment parameters, will be presented later on.
    Keywords: Indoor Air Quality ; Thermal Comfort ; Occupant Behavior ; Subjective Assessment ; Experimental Studies ; Engineering ; Economics
    ISSN: 1876-6102
    E-ISSN: 1876-6102
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  • 10
    In: International Journal of Climatology, April 2017, Vol.37(5), pp.2633-2653
    Description: Climate impact assessment and decision making in the light of projected future climate change require accurate and robust climate scenarios at the local scale. The latter are targeted by statistical bias correction (BC) and downscaling of climate model output. A nowadays well‐established technique is quantile mapping (). Here, we apply several different implementations of empirical , a parametric (and computationally more expensive) method for daily precipitation, and a mean‐BC to an ensemble of regional climate scenarios over the topographically structured terrain of Switzerland. The performance of these methods in the current climate and their long‐term stability are analysed with respect to distributional and temporal statistics as well as climate impact indices for daily temperature and precipitation. We select an optimal implementation, study its effect on the inter‐variable consistency, and compare its climate change signal () to that of a delta‐change (DC) method. The results demonstrate that effectively reduces raw model biases. The most important improvements are corrected magnitudes and, for precipitation, also wet‐day frequencies. The quantile‐dependent bias removal is superior to the mean‐BC with respect to distribution‐tail statistics. Temporal statistics and climate impact indices are also improved. There is no performance benefit from the parametric method. The selected empirical implementation substantially improves the joint temperature–precipitation distribution and maintains the temperature–precipitation cross‐correlation function as represented by raw climate model data. The analysis reveals the superiority of over the DC method with respect to distribution‐tail characteristics and temporal statistics. This work reveals empirical as a reliable and stable method for BC and downscaling from state‐of‐the‐art regional climate models to local weather stations over alpine terrain, confirming and expanding previous studies.
    Keywords: Statistical Bias Correction And Downscaling ; Quantile Mapping ; Point Locations ; Temporal Structure ; Inter‐Variable Consistence ; Climate Change Signal ; Ensembles ; Switzerland
    ISSN: 0899-8418
    E-ISSN: 1097-0088
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