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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, December 2018, Vol.181(6), pp.894-904
    Description: Sonication is widely used for disruption of suspended soil aggregates. Calorimetric calibration allows for determining sonication power and applied energy as a measure for aggregate disrupting forces. Yet other properties of sonication devices (., oscillation frequency and amplitude, sonotrode diameter) as well as procedure details (soil‐to‐water ratio, size, shape, and volume of used containers) may influence the extent of aggregate disruption in addition to the applied energy. In this study, we tested potential bias in aggregate disruption when different devices or procedures are used in laboratory routines. In nine laboratories, three reference soil samples were sonicated at 30 J mL and 400 J mL. Aggregate disruption was estimated based on particle size distribution before and after sonication. Size distribution was obtained by standardized submerged sieving for particle size classes 2000–200 and 200–63 µm, and by dynamic imaging for particles 45 W). Thus, these sonication device properties need to be listed when reporting on sonication‐based soil aggregate disruption. The overall small differences in the degree of disruption of soil aggregates between different laboratories demonstrate that sonication with the energies tested (30 and 400 J mL) provides replicable results despite the variations regarding procedures and equipment.
    Keywords: Disaggregation ; Particle Size Fractions ; Reproducibility ; Round‐Robin Test ; Ultrasound
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Ornithology, 2016, Vol.157(1), pp.333-342
    Description: Maintaining or restoring old-growth stand structures in mountain forests, including deadwood and snags provided by natural disturbances, is considered critical for the conservation of secondary cavity-nesting birds. Under current climate warming, old-growth mountain forests might become increasingly important for boreo-alpine species living in the southern part of their ranges. Here, we focused on hierarchical habitat selection by Eurasian Pygmy Owls Glaucidium passerinum in mixed mountain forests at their low latitude range limit in the southern French Prealps. We quantified Pygmy Owl habitat use at complementary hierarchical levels, from the local population to individual home ranges, by combining systematic playback counts and radio-telemetry. Mean home range sizes for breeding adult males covered 0.67 km 2 , ranging between 0.46 and 0.98 km 2 . We found evidence for Pygmy Owl habitat selection being a consistently hierarchical process, with (1) fir-dominated forests selected as the main habitat at the population level; (2) old-growth fir-dominated forest stands including edges with grassland gaps and karstic eroded areas selected at the home range level; and (3) amount of surrounding dead or decaying spruces increasing the occurrence probability of owl nesting cavities. Conserving Pygmy Owls at their low latitude range limit therefore requires the maintenance of old-growth mixed forests dominated by firs that provide these critical habitat features within a complex and heterogeneous landscape mosaic. Hierarchische Habitat-Auswahl beim Sperlingskauz ( Glaucidium passerinum ) in alten Waldbeständen des französischen Voralpenlandes Das Erhalten oder die Wiederherstellung alter Bestandsstrukturen in Gebirgswäldern inklusive des durch natürliche Störeinflüsse entstandenen Totholzes und der Baumstümpfe wird als ausschlaggebend für den Erhalt derjenigen Vögel betrachtet, die in sekundären Bruthöhlen nisten. Bei der derzeitigen Klimaerwärmung könnten die alten Gebirgswald-Bestände für diejenigen boreoalpinen Arten immer wichtiger werden, die am südlichen Rand ihrer Verbreitungsgebiete leben. In unserer Studie konzentrierten wir uns auf die hierarchische Habitat-Auswahl von Sperlingskäuzen ( Glaucidium passerinum ) in Mischwäldern auf mittlerer Höhe der südlichen französischen Voralpen. Mit einer Kombination von Radio-Telemetriedaten und systematisch erfassten Ruf-Zählungen quantifizierten wir die Nutzung der Habitate auf allen Ebenen: von der örtlichen Population bis hin zu den alltäglichen Lebensräumen der Einzeltiere. Die Größe der individuellen Lebensräume brütender, adulter Männchen reichte von 0,46 bis 0,98 km2 und betrug im Schnitt 0,67 km2. Wir fanden Hinweise darauf, dass die Habitat-Auswahl bei Sperlingskäuzen ein durchgängig hierarchischer Vorgang ist: (i) Tannen-dominierte Wälder wurden auf Populations-Ebene als wichtigste Habitate ausgewählt, (ii) auf der Ebene der individuellen Habitate lagen Altbestände von Tannenwäldern, die mit Wiesenflecken und karstig erodierten Bereichen durchsetzt war, an erster Stelle, und (iii) die Menge an toten oder vermodernden Fichten erhöhten die Wahrscheinlichkeit, Nisthöhlen der Sperlingskäuze zu finden. Sperlingskäuze auf den niedrigeren Höhen ihrer Verbreitungsgebieten zu halten, erfordert daher den Erhalt von alten, vorherrschend mit Tannen besetzten Mischwäldern, die innerhalb eines komplexen und heterogenen Landschaftsbildes diese wichtigen Auswahlkriterien für Habitate bieten.
    Keywords: Boreal owl ; Home range ; Mountain forests ; Radio-telemetry ; Secondary cavity-nester ; Southern distribution limit
    ISSN: 2193-7192
    E-ISSN: 2193-7206
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: JBIC Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, 2015, Vol.20(5), p.841(13)
    Description: Byline: Gilles Berger (1), Luca Fusaro (2), Michel Luhmer (2), Joanna Czapla-Masztafiak (3), Ewelina Lipiec (3), Jakub Szlachetko (4,5), Yves Kayser (4), Daniel L. A. Fernandes (6), Jacinto Sa (6,7), Francois Dufrasne (1), Sophie Bombard (8) Keywords: Cancer; Platinum; G-quadruplex; Conceptual DFT; RXES Abstract: The structure--activity relationships of chiral 1,2-diaminophenylalkane platinum(II) anticancer derivatives are studied, including interactions with telomeric- and genomic-like DNA sequences, the pKa of their diaqua species, structural properties obtained from DFT calculations and resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy. The binding modes of the compounds to telomeric sequences were elucidated, showing no major differences with conventional cis-platinum(II) complexes like cisplatin, supporting that the cis-square planar geometry governs the binding of small Pt(II) complexes to G4 structures. Double-stranded DNA platination kinetics and acid--base constants of the diaqua species of the compounds were measured and compared, highlighting a strong steric dependence of the DNA-binding kinetics, but independent to stereoisomerism. Structural features of the compounds are discussed on the basis of dispersion-corrected DFT, showing that the most active series presents conformers for which the platinum atom is well devoid of steric hindrance. If reactivity indices derived from conceptual DFT do not show evidences for different reactivity between the compounds, RXES experiments provide new insight into the availability of platinum orbitals for binding to nucleophiles. Author Affiliation: (1) Laboratoire de Chimie Pharmaceutique Organique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine CP205/5, Bd du Triomphe, 1050, Brussels, Belgium (2) Laboratoire de Resonance Magnetique Nucleaire Haute Resolution, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, CP160/08, 1050, Brussels, Belgium (3) The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland (4) Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland (5) Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, Kielce, Poland (6) Angstrom Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden (7) Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland (8) Homeostasie Cellulaire et Cancer, UMR-S INSERM 1007, Universite Paris Descartes, 45 rue des Saint-Peres, 75006, Paris, France Article History: Registration Date: 07/05/2015 Received Date: 02/04/2015 Accepted Date: 03/05/2015 Online Date: 16/05/2015 Article note: Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00775-015-1270-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Nuclear Physics ; Cancer Treatment ; Stereoisomers
    ISSN: 0949-8257
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Drug Discovery Today: Technologies, September 2015, Vol.16, pp.1-6
    Description: This review presents a new application of Resonant X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (RXES) to study the mechanism of action of metal containing anticancer derivatives and in particular platinum and . The technique is an example of a photon-in photon-out X-ray spectroscopic approach, which enables chemical speciation of drugs to be determined and therefore to derive action mechanisms, and to determine drug binding rates under physiological conditions and therapeutic concentrations. This is made feasible due to the atomic specificity and high penetration depth of RXES. The review presents examples of the three main types of information that can be obtained by RXES and establishes an experimental protocol to perfect the measurements within cells.
    Keywords: Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 1740-6749
    E-ISSN: 1740-6749
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 2007, Vol.84(10), pp.659-686
    Description: Two French nuclear codes include flaw assessment procedures: the RSE-M Code “Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components” and the RCC-MR code “Design and Construction rules for mechanical components of FBR nuclear islands and high temperature applications”. Development of analytical methods has been made for the last 10 years through a collaboration between CEA, EDF and AREVA-NP, and through R&D actions involving CEA and IRSN. These activities have led to unification of the common methods of the two codes. The calculation of fracture mechanics parameters, and in particular the stress intensity factor and the integral, has been widely developed for industrial configurations. All the developments have been integrated in the 2005 edition of RSE-M and in 2007 edition of RCC-MR. This series of papers is composed of five parts: the first presents an overview of the methods proposed in the RCC-MR and RSE-M codes. Parts II–IV provide compendia for specific components. The geometries are plates (part II), pipes (part III) and elbows (part IV). Part V presents validation of the methods, with details on their accuracy. This paper presents the stress intensity factor and calculation for cracked elbows. General data applicable for all defect geometries are first presented, and then, compendia for and calculations are provided for the available defect geometries.
    Keywords: Engineering
    ISSN: 0308-0161
    E-ISSN: 1879-3541
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 2007, Vol.84(10), pp.614-658
    Description: French nuclear codes include flaw assessment procedures: the RSE-M Code “Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components” and the RCC-MR code “Design and Construction rules for mechanical components of FBR nuclear islands and high-temperature applications”. An important effort of development of these analytical methods has been made for the last 10 years in the frame of collaboration between CEA, EDF and AREVA-NP, and in the frame of R&D actions involving CEA and IRSN. These activities have led to a unification of the common methods of the two codes. The calculation of fracture mechanics parameters, and in particular the stress-intensity factor and the integral, has been widely developed for industrial configurations. All the developments have been integrated in the 2005 edition of the RSE-M and in the 2007 edition of the RCC-MR. This series of articles is composed of 5 parts: the first part presents an overview of the methods proposed in the RCC-MR and RSE-M codes. Parts II–IV provide compendia for specific components. The geometries are plates (part II), pipes (part III) and elbows (part IV). Part V presents validation, with details on the accuracy of the proposed analytical method. This third part in the series presents details of the stress intensity factor and calculations for cracked pipes. General data applicable for all defect geometries are first presented, and then, compendia for and calculations are provided for specific cases.
    Keywords: Engineering
    ISSN: 0308-0161
    E-ISSN: 1879-3541
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 2007, Vol.84(10), pp.687-696
    Description: French nuclear codes include flaw assessment procedures: the RSE-M Code “Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components” and the RCC-MR code “Design and Construction Rules for Mechanical Components of FBR Nuclear Islands and High Temperature Applications”. Development of analytical methods has been made for the last 10 years in the framework of a collaboration between CEA, EDF and AREVA-NP, and by R&D actions involving CEA and IRSN. These activities have led to a unification of the common methods of the two codes. The calculation of fracture mechanics parameters, in particular the stress intensity factor and the integral, has been widely developed for industrial configurations. All the developments have been integrated in the 2005 edition of RSE-M and in 2007 edition of RCC-MR. This series of articles consists of 5 parts: the first part presents an overview of the methods proposed in the RCC-MR and RSE-M codes. Parts II–IV provide the compendia for specific components. The geometries are plates (part II), pipes (part III) and elbows (part IV). This part presents validation of the methods, with details on the process followed for their development and of the evaluation accuracy of the proposed analytical methods.
    Keywords: Engineering
    ISSN: 0308-0161
    E-ISSN: 1879-3541
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 2007, Vol.84(10), pp.601-613
    Description: French nuclear codes include flaw assessment procedures: the RSE-M Code “Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components” and the RCC-MR code “Design and Construction rules for mechanical components of FBR nuclear islands and high temperature applications”. An important effort of development of these analytical methods has been made for the last 10 years in the frame of a collaboration between CEA, EDF and AREVA-NP, and in the frame of R&D actions involving CEA and IRSN. These activities have led to a unification of the common methods of the two codes. The calculation of fracture mechanics parameters, and in particular the stress intensity factor and the integral, has been widely developed for industrial configurations. All the developments have been integrated in the 2005 edition of RSE-M and in the 2007 edition of RCC-MR. This series of articles is composed of 5 parts: the first part presents an overview of the methods proposed in the RCC-MR and RSE-M codes. Parts II–IV provide compendia for specific components. The geometries are plates (part II), pipes (part III) and elbows (part IV). Finally, part V presents the validation elements of the methods, with details on the process followed for the development and evaluation of the accuracy of the proposed analytical methods. This second article in the series presents all details for the stress intensity factor and calculations for cracked plates. General data applicable for all defect geometries are first presented, and then, available defect geometries where compendia for and calculation are provided are given.
    Keywords: Engineering
    ISSN: 0308-0161
    E-ISSN: 1879-3541
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 2007, Vol.84(10), pp.590-600
    Description: Two French nuclear codes include flaw assessment procedures: the RSE-M code “Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components” and the RCC-MR code “Design and Construction rules for mechanical components of FBR nuclear islands and high temperature applications”. An important effort of development of these analytical methods has been made for the last 10 years in the frame of a collaboration between CEA, EDF and AREVA-NP, and in the frame of R&D actions involving CEA and IRSN. These activities have led to a unification of the common methods of the two codes. The calculation of fracture mechanics parameters, and in particular the stress intensity factor and the integral, has been widely developed for industrial configurations. All developments have been integrated in the 2005 edition of RSE-M and in the 2007 edition of RCC-MR. This series of articles is composed of five parts: this first one presents an overview of the methods proposed in the RCC-MR and RSE-M codes. Parts II–IV provide compendia for specific components: plates (part II), pipes (part III) and elbows (part IV). Finally, part V presents the validation elements of the methods, with details on the process followed for their development and on evaluation of the accuracy of the proposed analytical methods. This first article of the series presents an overview of the calculation of and in these two codes and describes briefly the defect assessment analyses. Specific details in the Appendix A16 of RCC-MR (LBB procedure and creep analyses) are also introduced in this article.
    Keywords: Engineering
    ISSN: 0308-0161
    E-ISSN: 1879-3541
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