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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 03 July 2012, Vol.109(27), pp.10990-5
    Description: Chemorepellants may play multiple roles in physiological and pathological processes. However, few endogenous chemorepellants have been identified, and how they function is unclear. We found that the autocrine signal AprA, which is produced by growing Dictyostelium discoideum cells and inhibits their proliferation, also functions as a chemorepellant. Wild-type cells at the edge of a colony show directed movement outward from the colony, whereas cells lacking AprA do not. Cells show directed movement away from a source of recombinant AprA and dialyzed conditioned media from wild-type cells, but not dialyzed conditioned media from aprA(-) cells. The secreted protein CfaD, the G protein Gα8, and the kinase QkgA are necessary for the chemorepellant activity of AprA as well as its proliferation-inhibiting activity, whereas the putative transcription factor BzpN is dispensable for the chemorepellant activity of AprA but necessary for inhibition of proliferation. Phospholipase C and PI3 kinases 1 and 2, which are necessary for the activity of at least one other chemorepellant in Dictyostelium, are not necessary for recombinant AprA chemorepellant activity. Starved cells are not repelled by recombinant AprA, suggesting that aggregation-phase cells are not sensitive to the chemorepellant effect. Cell tracking indicates that AprA affects the directional bias of cell movement, but not cell velocity or the persistence of cell movement. Together, our data indicate that the endogenous signal AprA acts as an autocrine chemorepellant for Dictyostelium cells.
    Keywords: Chemotaxis -- Physiology ; Dictyostelium -- Metabolism ; Protozoan Proteins -- Metabolism ; Signal Transduction -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Cognition, December 2015, Vol.145, pp.30-42
    Description: Past work has demonstrated that people’s moral judgments can influence their judgments in a number of domains that might seem to involve straightforward matters of fact, including judgments about freedom, causation, the doing/allowing distinction, and intentional action. The present studies explore whether the effect of morality in these four domains can be explained by changes in the relevance of alternative possibilities. More precisely, we propose that moral judgment influences the degree to which people regard certain alternative possibilities as relevant, which in turn impacts intuitions about freedom, causation, doing/allowing, and intentional action. Employing the stimuli used in previous research, Studies 1a, 2a, 3a, and 4a show that the relevance of alternatives is influenced by moral judgments and mediates the impact of morality on non-moral judgments. Studies 1b, 2b, 3b, and 4b then provide direct empirical evidence for the link between the relevance of alternatives and judgments in these four domains by manipulating (rather than measuring) the relevance of alternative possibilities. Lastly, Study 5 demonstrates that the critical mechanism is not whether alternative possibilities are considered, but whether they are regarded as . These studies support a unified framework for understanding the impact of morality across these very different kinds of judgments.
    Keywords: Morality ; Alternative Possibilities ; Modality ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0010-0277
    E-ISSN: 18737838
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 02 May 2017, Vol.114(18), pp.4649-4654
    Description: The capacity for representing and reasoning over sets of possibilities, or modal cognition, supports diverse kinds of high-level judgments: causal reasoning, moral judgment, language comprehension, and more. Prior research on modal cognition asks how humans explicitly and deliberatively reason about what is possible but has not investigated whether or how people have a default, implicit representation of which events are possible. We present three studies that characterize the role of implicit representations of possibility in cognition. Collectively, these studies differentiate explicit reasoning about possibilities from default implicit representations, demonstrate that human adults often default to treating immoral and irrational events as impossible, and provide a case study of high-level cognitive judgments relying on default implicit representations of possibility rather than explicit deliberation.
    Keywords: High-Level Cognition ; Modality ; Morality ; Norms ; Possibility ; Cognition ; Judgment ; Morals
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 2011, Vol.222(3), pp.475-484
    Description: State-and-transition models (STMs) can represent many different types of landscape change, from simple gradient-driven transitions to complex, (pseudo-) random patterns. While previous applications of STMs have focused on individual states and transitions, this study addresses broader-scale modes of spatial change based on the entire network of states and transitions. STMs are treated as mathematical graphs, and several metrics from algebraic graph theory are applied—spectral radius, algebraic connectivity, and the -metric. These indicate, respectively, the amplification of environmental change by state transitions, the relative rate of propagation of state changes through the landscape, and the degree of system structural constraints on the spatial propagation of state transitions. The analysis is illustrated by application to the Gualalupe/San Antonio River delta, Texas, with soil types as representations of system states. Concepts of change in deltaic environments are typically based on successional patterns in response to forcings such as sea level change or river inflows. However, results indicate more complex modes of change associated with amplification of changes in system states, relatively rapid spatial propagation of state transitions, and some structural constraints within the system. The implications are that complex, spatially variable state transitions are likely, constrained by local (within-delta) environmental gradients and initial conditions. As in most applications, the STM used in this study is a representation of observed state transitions. While the usual predictive application of STMs is identification of local state changes associated with, e.g., management strategies, the methods presented here show how STMs can be used at a broader scale to identify landscape scale modes of spatial change.
    Keywords: State-and-Transition Models ; Spectral Radius ; Algebraic Connectivity ; S-Metric ; Spatial Change ; Landscape Change ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Cognition, 2011, Vol.119(2), pp.166-178
    Description: When we evaluate moral agents, we consider many factors, including whether the agent acted freely, or under duress or coercion. In turn, moral evaluations have been shown to influence our (non-moral) evaluations of these same factors. For example, when we judge an agent to have acted immorally, we are subsequently more likely to judge the agent to have acted freely, not under force. Here, we investigate the cognitive signatures of this effect in interpersonal situations, in which one agent (“forcer”) forces another agent (“forcee”) to act either immorally or morally. The structure of this relationship allowed us to ask questions about both the “forcer” and the “forcee.” Paradoxically, participants judged that the “forcer” forced the “forcee” to act immorally (i.e. X forced Y), but that the “forcee” was not forced to act immorally (i.e. Y was not forced by X). This pattern obtained only for human agents who acted intentionally. Directly changing participants’ focus from one agent to another (forcer versus forcee) also changed the target of moral evaluation and therefore force attributions. The full pattern of judgments may provide a window into motivated moral reasoning and focusing bias more generally; participants may have been motivated to attribute greater force to the immoral forcer and greater freedom to the immoral forcee.
    Keywords: Morality ; Motivated Cognition ; Force ; Focusing ; Counterfactual Thinking ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0010-0277
    E-ISSN: 18737838
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Earth-Science Reviews, November 2012, Vol.115(3), pp.153-162
    Description: Reporting results and promoting ideas in science in general, and Earth science in particular, is treated here as storytelling. Just as in literature and drama, storytelling in Earth science is characterized by a small number of basic plots. Though the list is not exhaustive, and acknowledging that multiple or hybrid plots and subplots are possible in a single piece, eight standard plots are identified, and examples provided: cause-and-effect, genesis, emergence, destruction, metamorphosis, convergence, divergence, and oscillation. The plots of Earth science stories are not those of literary traditions, nor those of persuasion or moral philosophy, and deserve separate consideration. Earth science plots do not conform those of storytelling more generally, implying that Earth scientists may have fundamentally different motivations than other storytellers, and that the basic plots of Earth Science derive from the characteristics and behaviors of Earth systems. In some cases preference or affinity to different plots results in fundamentally different interpretations and conclusions of the same evidence. In other situations exploration of additional plots could help resolve scientific controversies. Thus explicit acknowledgement of plots can yield direct scientific benefits. Consideration of plots and storytelling devices may also assist in the interpretation of published work, and can help scientists improve their own storytelling.
    Keywords: Storytelling ; Earth Science ; Plot ; Narrative ; Scientific Communication ; Geology
    ISSN: 0012-8252
    E-ISSN: 1872-6828
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, Feb 24, Vol.298, p.16(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2013.12.018 Byline: Jonathan D. Phillips Abstract: * Robustness (path stability) of chronosequences was analyzed. * Potential divergence of evolutionary paths following environmental change. * Interaction matrix reflects facilitation or inhibition of state changes. * Applied to soil chronosequence, revealing very low divergence. Author Affiliation: Tobacco Road Research Team, Department of Geography, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0027, USA
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Physics Essays, Dec, 2010, Vol.23(4), p.574(5)
    Description: Classical quantum mechanics (CQM) postulates that all matter is composed of particles of absolute size and shape in three dimensions that obey Newton's laws and Maxwell's equations at all scales. It has been shown that this provides excellent quantitative agreement with observation for a host of measured atomic phenomenon including ionization energies of virtually all atoms, magnetic behavior, excitation energies, and even scattering behavior. Moreover, there are no data that are clearly inconsistent with the predictions of this new quantum model; thus, it remains a valid theory. In the scientific spirit of discovery, we explore the consequences of the CQM model (in fact, the consequence of assuming any "extended three dimensional" model of elementary particles) for the fields of extended particles. It is shown that energy conservation, a requirement of any theory that purports to be consistent with Newtonian physics, requires that the static fields of all charged particles never disappear but only "appear to disappear" because of the masking by fields of oppositely charged (or spinning) particles. Moreover, the field of each charged particle must extend to the edge of the universe. Finally, it is logical to conclude that each charged particle material core and its associated static field are the "equivalent reference frames" of special relativity. [DOI: 10.4006/1.3486356] La Mecanique Quantique Classique (MQC) postule que toute matiere est composee de particules tridimensionnelles, possedant une taille absolue et une forme qui obeissent, A toutes les echelles, aux lois de Newton ainsi qu'aux equations de Maxwell. Il a ete prouve que ceci est en excellent accord quantitatif avec de nombreux phenomenes atomiques, incluant les energies d'ionisation et d'excitation de tout atome, leur comportement magnetique, et meme les mecanismes de diffusion qui leur sont associes. De plus, il n'existe pas de donnees qui contredisent clairement les predictions de ce nouveau modele quantique, ce qui prouve la validite de la theorie. A la recherche de nouvelles decouvertes scientifiques, nous avons explore les consequences du modele MQC (et en particulier les consequences de l'extrapolation tridimensionnelle du modele pour chaque particule elementaire) dans le domaine des particules etendues. Il est montre que la conservation d'energie, requise pour toute theorie consistante avec la physique newtonienne, implique que les champs statiques de toutes les particules chargees ne disparaissent jamais, mais "semble disparaitre" suite A un masquage du aux champs des particules de charges (ou de spin) opposees. En outre, le champ de chaque particule doit s'etendre jusqu'aux confins de l'univers. Finalement, il est naturel de conclure que chaque element materiel et son champ statique associe sont les "cadres de reference equivalent" de la Relativite Generale.
    Keywords: Quantum Mechanics -- Research ; Classical Mechanics -- Research ; Particle Physics -- Research
    ISSN: 0836-1398
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Climatic Change, 2010, Vol.103(3), pp.571-595
    Description: Efforts to predict responses to climate change and to interpret modern or paleoclimate indicators are influenced by several levels of potential amplifiers, which increase or exaggerate climate impacts, and/or filters, which reduce or mute impacts. With respect to geomorphic responses and indicators, climate forcings are partly mediated by ecological, hydrological, and other processes which may amplify or filter impacts on surface processes and landforms. Then, geomorphic responses themselves may be threshold-dominated or dynamically unstable, producing disproportionately large and long-lived responses to climate changes or disturbances. Or, responses may be dynamically stable, whereby resistance or resilience of geomorphic systems minimizes the effects of changes. Thus a given geomorphic response to climate could represent (at least) two levels of amplification and/or filtering. An example is given for three fluvial systems in Kentucky, U.S.A, the Kentucky, Green, and Big South Fork Rivers. Climate impacts in the early Quaternary were amplified by glacially-driven reorganization of the ancestral Ohio River system to the North, and by dynamical instability in the down-cutting response of rivers incising plateau surfaces. Effects of more recent climate changes, however, have been filtered to varying extents. Using alluvial terraces as an example, the study rivers show distinctly different responses to climate forcings. The lower Green River has extensive, well-developed terraces recording several episodes of aggradation and downcutting, while the Big South Fork River has no alluvial terraces. The Kentucky River is intermediate, with limited preservation of relatively recent terraces. The differences can be explained in terms of differences among the rivers in (1) filtering effects of constraints on fluvial responses imposed by strongly incised, steep-walled bedrock controlled valleys; and (2) amplifier effects of periodic damming of lower river reaches by glaciofluvial outwash.
    Keywords: Climate Change -- Research ; Geomorphology -- Research ; Rivers -- Environmental Aspects;
    ISSN: 0165-0009
    E-ISSN: 1573-1480
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2015, Vol.29(7), p.2041(4)
    Description: The physical demands of firefighting are extensive, and firefighters face increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease, musculoskeletal injury, and cancer. To reduce these risks, a tailored wellness initiative program (FIT Firefighter) was developed and executed. Implementation of FIT Firefighter, consisting of assessment, educational, instructional, and personal coaching and training elements regarding nutrition, health, fitness, wellness, and strength and conditioning, revealed enhanced healthy behavior change including increased motivation and marked improvements in blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic fitness, body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat, back flexibility, and biceps strength among participating firefighters. Key Words program design, health coaching, first responders
    Keywords: Firefighters – Health Aspects
    ISSN: 1064-8011
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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