Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg

and
and

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • OneFile (GALE)  (79)
Type of Medium
Language
Year
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 07 January 2014, Vol.111(1), pp.409-14
    Description: A hypoxic microenvironment induces resistance to alkylating agents by activating targets in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The molecular mechanisms involved in this mTOR-mediated hypoxia-induced chemoresistance, however, are unclear. Here we identify the mTOR target N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) as a key determinant of resistance toward alkylating chemotherapy, driven by hypoxia but also by therapeutic measures such as irradiation, corticosteroids, and chronic exposure to alkylating agents via distinct molecular routes involving hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, p53, and the mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2)/serum glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 1 (SGK1) pathway. Resistance toward alkylating chemotherapy but not radiotherapy was dependent on NDRG1 expression and activity. In posttreatment tumor tissue of patients with malignant gliomas, NDRG1 was induced and predictive of poor response to alkylating chemotherapy. On a molecular level, NDRG1 bound and stabilized methyltransferases, chiefly O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a key enzyme for resistance to alkylating agents in glioblastoma patients. In patients with glioblastoma, MGMT promoter methylation in tumor tissue was not more predictive for response to alkylating chemotherapy in patients who received concomitant corticosteroids.
    Keywords: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating -- Pharmacology ; Brain Neoplasms -- Drug Therapy ; Cell Cycle Proteins -- Metabolism ; Glioblastoma -- Drug Therapy ; Glioma -- Drug Therapy ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins -- Metabolism ; O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase -- Pharmacology ; Tor Serine-Threonine Kinases -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, 2005, Vol.310(1), pp.294-315
    Description: Simulating infiltration in soils containing macropores still provides unsatisfactory results, as existing models seem not to capture all relevant processes. Recent studies of macropore flow initiation in natural soils containing earthworm channels revealed a distinct flow rate variability in the macropores depending on the initiation process. When macropore flow was initiated at the soil surface, most of the macropores received very little water while a few macropores received a large proportion of the total inflow. In contrast, when macropore flow was initiated from a saturated or nearly saturated soil layer, macropore flow rate variation was much lower. The objective of this study was to develop, evaluate, and test a model, which combines macropore flow variability with several established approaches to model dual permeability soils. We then evaluate the INfiltration–INitiation–INteraction Model (IN M) to explore the influence of macropore flow variability on infiltration behavior by performing a sensitivity analysis and applying IN M to sprinkling and dye tracer experiments at three field sites with different macropore and soil matrix properties. The sensitivity analysis showed that the flow variability in macropores reduces interaction between the macropores and the surrounding soil matrix and thus increases bypass flow, especially for surface initiation of macropore flow and at higher rainfall intensities. The model application shows reasonable agreement between IN M simulations and field data in terms of water balance, water content change, and dye patterns. The influence of macropore flow variability on the hydrological response of the soil was considerable and especially pronounced for soils where initiation occurs at the soil surface. In future, the model could be applied to explore other types of preferential flow and hence to get a generally better understanding of macropore flow.
    Keywords: Macropore Flow ; Infiltration ; Soil Moisture ; Unsaturated Zone ; Dual-Permeability Model ; Earthworm Burrow ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    In: Hydrological Processes, 01 January 2017, Vol.31(1), pp.15-19
    Description: Preferential flow is of high relevance for runoff generation, transport of chemicals and nutrients, and the transit time distribution of water in the soil or watershed. However, preferential flow effects are generally ignored in lumped hydrological models. And even most physically‐based models ignore macropores and preferential flow features at the soil and hillslope scale. Keith Beven was never satisfied with this situation and he tried again and again to convince the scientific community to focus their research on the complex topic of macropore and preferential flow. Although he recognized how difficult it is to correctly include preferential flow in hydrological models, he made substantial progress defining and describing macropore flow and showing its relevance, developing models to simulate preferential flow, and in particular, the interaction between macropores and the soil matrix. In this short commentary, I reflect on these achievements and outline a vision for research in preferential flow experiments and modeling.
    Keywords: Infiltration ; Macropore Flow ; Preferential Flow ; Runoff Generation
    ISSN: 0885-6087
    E-ISSN: 1099-1085
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(4), p.e0122539
    Description: Soil microbial communities play an important role in forest ecosystem functioning, but how climate change will affect the community composition and consequently bacterial functions is poorly understood. We assessed the effects of reduced precipitation with the aim of simulating realistic future...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, 2006, Vol.319(1), pp.339-356
    Description: The delivery mechanisms of labile nutrients (e.g. NO , DON and DOC) to streams are poorly understood. Recent work has quantified the relationship between storm DOC dynamics and the connectedness of catchment units and between pre-storm wetness and transient groundwater NO flushing potential. While several studies have shown N and C flushing during storm events as the important mechanism in the export of DOC and DON in small catchments, the actual mechanisms at the hillslope scale have remained equivocal. The difficulty in isolating cause and effect in field studies is made difficult due to the spatial variability of soil properties, the limited ability to detect flow pathways within the soil, and other unknowns. Some hillslopes show preferential flow behavior that may allow transmission of hillslope runoff and labile nutrients with little matrix interaction; others do not. Thus, field studies are only partially useful in equating C and N sources with water flow and transport. This paper presents a new approach to the study of hydrological controls on labile nutrient flushing at the hillslope scale. We present virtual experiments that focus on quantifying the first-order controls on flow pathways and nutrient transport in hillslopes. We define virtual experiments as numerical experiments with a model driven by collective field intelligence. We present a new distributed model that describes the lateral saturated and vertical unsaturated water flow from hypothetical finite nutrient sources in the upper soil horizons. We describe how depth distributions of transmissivity and drainable porosity, soil depth variability, as well as mass exchange between the saturated and unsaturated zone influence the mobilization, flushing and release of labile nutrients at the hillslope scale. We argue that this virtual experiment approach may provide a well-founded basis for defining the first-order controls and linkages between hydrology and biogeochemistry at the hillslope scale and perhaps form a basis for predicting flushing and transport of labile nutrients from upland to riparian zones.
    Keywords: Virtual Experiments ; Hillslope Hydrology ; Nutrients ; Mobilization ; Flushing ; Runoff Generation ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    In: New Phytologist, May 2016, Vol.210(3), pp.839-849
    Description: Plants rely primarily on rainfall infiltrating their root zones – a supply that is inherently variable, and fluctuations are predicted to increase on most of the Earth's surface. Yet, interrelationships between water availability and plant use on short timescales are difficult to quantify and remain poorly understood. To overcome previous methodological limitations, we coupled high‐resolution in situ observations of stable isotopes in soil and transpiration water. We applied the approach along with Bayesian mixing modeling to track the fate of 2H‐labeled rain pulses following drought through soil and plants of deciduous tree ecosystems. We resolve how rainwater infiltrates the root zones in a nonequilibrium process and show that tree species differ in their ability to quickly acquire the newly available source. Sessile oak (Quercus petraea) adjusted root uptake to vertical water availability patterns under drought, but readjustment toward the rewetted topsoil was delayed. By contrast, European beech (Fagus sylvatica) readily utilized water from all soil depths independent of water depletion, enabling faster uptake of rainwater. Our results demonstrate that species‐specific plasticity and responses to water supply fluctuations on short timescales can now be identified and must be considered to predict vegetation functional dynamics and water cycling under current and future climatic conditions. See also the Commentary on this article by
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Deciduous Trees ; Ecohydrology ; Laser Spectroscopy ; Plant–Water Relations ; Root Uptake ; Soil Water ; Stable Isotopes
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 15 April 2016, Vol.222, pp.185-192
    Description: The European Water Framework Directive (EWFD) aims to achieve a good chemical status for the groundwater bodies in Europe by the year 2015. Despite the effort to reduce the nitrate pollution from agriculture within the last two decades, there are still many groundwater aquifers that exceed nitrate concentrations above the EWFD threshold of 50 mg L . Viticulture is seen as a major contributor of nitrate leaching and sowing of a green cover was shown to have a positive effect on lowering the nitrate loads in the upper 90 cm of the soil. However, the consequences for nitrate leaching into the subsoil were not yet tested. We analyzed the nitrate concentrations and pore water stable isotope composition ( H) to a depth of 380 cm in soil profiles under an old vineyard and a young vineyard with either soil tillage or permanent green cover in between the grapevines. The pore water H data was used to calibrate a soil physical model, which was then used to infer the age of the soil water at different depths. This way, we could relate elevated nitrate concentrations below an old vineyard to tillage processes that took place during the winter two years before the sampling. We further showed that the elevated nitrate concentration in the subsoil of a young vineyard can be related to the soil tillage prior to the planting of the new vineyard. If the soil was kept bare due to tillage, a nitrate concentration of 200 kg NO -N ha was found in 290⿿380 cm depth 2.5 years after the set-up of the vineyard. The amount of nitrate leaching was considerably reduced due to a seeded green cover between the grapevines that took up a high share of the mineralized nitrate reducing a potential contamination of the groundwater.
    Keywords: Soil Hydrology ; Isotope Hydrology ; Nitrate Leaching ; Groundwater Protection ; Viniculture ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, 2010, Vol.392(3), pp.219-233
    Description: The past century has seen significant research comparing snow accumulation and ablation in forested and open sites. In this review we compile and standardize the results of previous empirical studies to generate statistical relations between changes in forest cover and the associated changes in snow accumulation and ablation rate. The analysis drew upon 33 articles documenting these relationships at 65 individual sites in North America and Europe from the 1930s to present. Changes in forest cover explained 57% and 72% of the variance of relative changes in snow accumulation and ablation, respectively. The incorporation of geographic and average historic climatic information did not significantly improve the ability to predict changes in snow processes, mainly because most of the studies did not provide enough information on site characteristics such as slope and aspect or meteorological conditions taking place during the experiments. Two simple linear models using forest cover as the sole predictor of changes in snow accumulation and ablation are provided, as well as a review of the main sources of variation that prevent the elaboration of more accurate multiple regression models. Further studies should provide detailed information regarding the main sources of variation influencing snow processes including the effect of year-to-year changes in weather variables during the monitoring period.
    Keywords: Snow Processes ; Forest Structure ; Forest Cover ; Snow Models ; Empirical Studies ; Snow Hydrology ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(11), p.e49742
    Description: Patients with ulnar neuropathy of unclear etiology occasionally present with lesion extension from elbow to upper arm level on MRI. This study investigated whether MRI thereby distinguishes multifocal neuropathy from focal-compressive neuropathy at the elbow. ; This prospective study was approved by the institutional ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. 122 patients with ulnar mononeuropathy of undetermined localization and etiology by clinical and electrophysiological examination were assessed by MRI at upper arm and elbow level using T2-weighted fat-saturated sequences at 3T. Twenty-one patients were identified with proximal ulnar nerve lesions and evaluated for findings suggestive of disseminated neuropathy (i) subclinical lesions in other nerves, (ii) unfavorable outcome after previous decompressive elbow surgery, and (iii) subsequent diagnosis of inflammatory or other disseminated neuropathy. Two groups served as controls for quantitative analysis of nerve-to-muscle signal intensity ratios: 20 subjects with typical focal ulnar neuropathy at the elbow and 20 healthy subjects. ; In the group of 21 patients with proximal ulnar nerve lesion extension, T2-w ulnar nerve signal was significantly (p〈0.001) higher at upper arm level than in both control groups. A cut-off value of 1.92 for maximum nerve-to-muscle signal intensity ratio was found to be sensitive (86%) and specific (100%) to discriminate this group. Ten patients (48%) exhibited additional T2-w lesions in the median and/or radial nerve. Another ten (48%) had previously undergone elbow surgery without satisfying outcome. Clinical follow-up was available in 15 (71%) and revealed definitive diagnoses of multifocal neuropathy of various etiologies in four patients. In another eight, diagnoses could not yet be considered definitive but were consistent with multifocal neuropathy. ; Proximal ulnar nerve T2 lesions at upper arm level are detected by MRI and indicate the presence of a non-focal disseminated neuropathy instead of a focal compressive neuropathy.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Immunology ; Physiology ; Neurological Disorders ; Radiology And Medical Imaging
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    In: Hydrological Processes, 15 February 2014, Vol.28(4), pp.1916-1930
    Description: Monitoring runoff generation processes in the field is a prerequisite for developing conceptual hydrological models and theories. At the same time, our perception of hydrological processes strongly depends on the spatial and temporal scale of observation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate interactions between runoff generation processes of different spatial scales (plot scale, hillslope scale, and headwater scale). Different runoff generation processes of three hillslopes with similar topography, geology and soil properties, but differences in vegetation cover (grassland, coniferous forest, and mixed forest) within a small v‐shaped headwater were measured: water table dynamics in wells with high spatial and temporal resolution, subsurface flow (SSF) of three 10 m wide trenches at the bottom of the hillslopes subdivided into two trench sections each, overland flow at the plot scale, and catchment runoff. Bachmair . ([Bachmair S, 2012]) found a high spatial variability of water table dynamics at the plot scale. In this study, we investigate the representativity of SSF observations at the plot scale the hillslope scale and vice versa, and the linkage between hillslope dynamics (SSF and overland flow) and streamflow. Distinct differences in total SSF within each 10 m wide trench confirm the high spatial variability of the water table dynamics. The representativity of plot scale observations for hillslope scale SSF strongly depends on whether or not wells capture spatially variable flowpaths. At the grassland hillslope, subsurface flowpaths are not captured by our relatively densely spaced wells (3 m), despite a similar trench flow response to the coniferous forest hillslope. Regarding the linkage between hillslope dynamics and catchment runoff, we found an intermediate to high correlation between streamflow and hillslope hydrological dynamics (trench flow and overland flow), which highlights the importance of hillslope processes in this small watershed. Although the total contribution of SSF to total event catchment runoff is rather small, the contribution during peak flow is moderate to substantial. Additionally, there is process synchronicity between spatially discontiguous measurement points across scales, potentially indicating subsurface flowpath connectivity. Our findings stress the need for (i) a combination of observations at different spatial scales, and (ii) a consideration of the high spatial variability of SSF at the plot and hillslope scale when designing monitoring networks and assessing hydrological connectivity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Subsurface Flow ; Preferential Flow ; Hillslope Hydrology ; Scale Effects ; Hydrological Connectivity ; Monitoring Networks
    ISSN: 0885-6087
    E-ISSN: 1099-1085
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. Further information can be found on the KOBV privacy pages