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• 1
Article
In: Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2017, Vol. 65(10), pp.1764-1765
ISSN: 1058-4838
E-ISSN: 1537-6591
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• 2
Article
In: FEMS Microbiology Letters, 2006, Vol. 256(1), pp.137-144
Description: Lipophilic Malassezia species may induce catheter-associated sepsis in premature neonates and immunocompromised patients receiving parenteral lipid emulsions. To assess the participation of lipolytic enzymes in the pathogenesis of this yeast, we cloned a gene encoding the enzyme. A lipolytic enzyme in the culture supernatant of Malassezia pachydermatis was purified 210-fold to homogeneity. The enzyme showed high esterase activity toward p -nitrophenyl octanoate. The cDNA encoding the enzyme was cloned using a degenerate oligonucleotide primer constructed from the N-terminal amino acid sequence. The cDNA consisted of 1582 bp, including an open reading frame encoding 470 amino acids. The first 19 amino acids and the following 13 amino-acid sequence were predicted to be the signal peptides for secretion and prosequence, respectively. The predicted molecular mass of the 438-amino acid mature protein was 48 kDa. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed that it contains the consensus motif (Gly–X–Ser–X–Gly), which is conserved among lipolytic enzymes. Homology investigations showed that the enzyme has similarities principally with 11 lipases produced by Candida albicans (29–34% identity) and some other yeast lipases.
Keywords: 〈Kwd〉〈Italic〉Malassezia Pachydermatis〈/Italic〉〈/Kwd〉 ; Esterase ; Lipase ; Race
ISSN: 0378-1097
E-ISSN: 1574-6968
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• 3
Article
In: Cerebral Cortex, 2008, 2007, Vol. 18(7), pp.1664-1675
Description: Covert attention affects prestimulus activity in the visual cortex. Although most studies investigating neural mechanisms of attention have focused on the effects of spatial attention, attention can also be directed to particular features. To investigate the spatiotemporal nature of feature attention, we measured subjects’ brain activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while subjects attended to color or motion of a stimulus based on a visual cue, which was presented 1 s before the stimulus onset. We used the hierarchical Bayesian method that allows us to estimate cortical currents with MEG and fMRI data in the order of millimeters and milliseconds. When subjects attended to color, activity within the color-sensitive area (fusiform gyrus) was selectively enhanced within the prestimulus period. By contrast, when subjects attended to motion, activity within the motion-sensitive area (middle temporal gyrus) was selectively enhanced during this period. This effect was not seen in frontal, parietal, and lower visual areas. Additionally, this effect was transient rather than sustained, suggesting that it differs from temporal aspects of spatial attention. These results suggest that, although both spatial and feature attention modulate prestimulus activity within specific visual areas, neural mechanisms underlying these effects might be different.
Keywords: Color ; Feature Attention ; Hierarchical Bayesian Estimation ; Meg ; Motion ; Preparatory Activity
ISSN: 1047-3211
E-ISSN: 1460-2199
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• 4
Article
In: Human Molecular Genetics, 2018, Vol. 27(8), pp.1421-1433
Description: Calcineurin is a calcium (Ca 2+ )/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphatase that mediates Ca 2+ -dependent signal transduction. Here, we report six heterozygous mutations in a gene encoding the alpha isoform of the calcineurin catalytic subunit ( PPP3CA ). Notably, mutations were observed in different functional domains: in addition to three catalytic domain mutations, two missense mutations were found in the auto-inhibitory (AI) domain. One additional frameshift insertion that caused premature termination was also identified. Detailed clinical evaluation of the six individuals revealed clinically unexpected consequences of the PPP3CA mutations. First, the catalytic domain mutations and frameshift mutation were consistently found in patients with nonsyndromic early onset epileptic encephalopathy. In contrast, the AI domain mutations were associated with multiple congenital abnormalities including craniofacial dysmorphism, arthrogryposis and short stature. In addition, one individual showed severe skeletal developmental defects, namely, severe craniosynostosis and gracile bones (severe bone slenderness and perinatal fractures). Using a yeast model system, we showed that the catalytic and AI domain mutations visibly result in decreased and increased calcineurin signaling, respectively. These findings indicate that different functional effects of PPP3CA mutations are associated with two distinct disorders and suggest that functional approaches using a simple cellular system provide a tool for resolving complex genotype–phenotype correlations.
Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
ISSN: 0964-6906
E-ISSN: 1460-2083
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• 5
Article
In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, 2001, Vol. 53(3), pp.421-432
Description: We present two-dimensional temperature maps of three bright clusters of galaxies (Abell 1060, AWM 7, and the Centaurus cluster), based on multi-pointing observations with the ASCA GIS. The temperatures were derived from hardness ratios by taking into account the XRT response. For the Centaurus cluster, we subtracted the central cool component using the previous ASCA and ROSAT results, and the metallicity gradients observed in AWM 7 and the Centaurus cluster were included in deriving the temperatures. The intracluster medium in Abell 1060 and AWM 7 is almost isothermal from the center to the outer regions with temperatures of 3.3 and $3.9$ keV, respectively. The Centaurus cluster exhibits remarkable hot regions within about ${30{}^{\mathrm {\prime }}}$ from the cluster center, showing a temperature increase of $+0.8$ keV from the surrounding level of 3.5 keV, and the outer cool regions with lower temperatures by $-1.3$ keV. These results imply that a strong merger has occurred in the Centaurus in the recent 2–3 Gyr, and that the central cool component has survived it. In contrast, the gas in Abell 1060 was well-mixed in an early period, which probably has prevented the development of a central cool component. In AWM 7, mixing of the gas should have occurred in a period earlier than the epoch of metal enrichment.
Keywords: Galaxies: Clusters: Individual (Abell 1060, Awm 7, Centaurus Cluster) ; Intergalactic Medium ; X - Rays: Galaxies
ISSN: 0004-6264
E-ISSN: 2053-051X
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• 6
Article
In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, 2001, Vol. 53(4), pp.595-604
Description: Large-scale distributions of hot-gas temperature and Fe abundance in the Perseus cluster have been studied with multi-pointing observations by the GIS instrument onboard ASCA. Within a radius of ${20{}^{\mathrm {\prime }}}$ from the cluster center, the energy spectra requires two temperature components, in which the cool component indicates $kT \sim 2\;\mathrm{keV}$ and the hot-component temperature shows a significant decline from about 8 keV to 6 keV toward the center. In the outer region of the cluster, the temperature shows a fluctuation with an amplitude of about 2 keV, which suggest that a western region at $\sim {16{}^{\mathrm {\prime }}}$ from the cluster center is relatively hotter. As for the Fe abundance, a significant decline with radius is detected from 0.44 solar at the center to $\sim 0.1$ solar at a ${50{}^{\mathrm {\prime }}}$ offset region. If the observed Fe-K line intensity within ${4{}^{\mathrm {\prime }}}$ from the center is suppressed by a factor of 2 due to the resonance scattering effect, the corrected Fe mass density follows the galaxy distribution. Finally, our results do not support the large-scale velocity gradients previously reported from the same GIS data.
Keywords: Galaxies: Abundances ; Galaxies: Clusters: Individual (Perseus) ; Intergalactic Medium ; X - Rays: Galaxies
ISSN: 0004-6264
E-ISSN: 2053-051X
Source: Oxford University Press
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• 7
Article
In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, 2004, Vol. 56(5), pp.L29-L34
Description: To detect a warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) associated with the large-scale structure of the universe, we observed a quasar behind the Virgo cluster with XMM-Newton. With 54 ks exposure, we marginally detected an O VIII $\mathrm{K}\alpha$ absorption line at $650.9^{+0.8}_{-1.9} \,\mathrm{eV}$ in the RGS spectra, with a statistical confidence of 96.4%. The observed line center energy is consistent with the redshift of M 87, and hence the absorber is associated with the Virgo cluster. From the curve of growth, the O VIII column density was estimated to be $\gtrsim 7 \times 10^{16} \,\mathrm{cm}^{-2}$ . In the EPIC spectra, excess emission was found after evaluating the hot ICM in the Virgo cluster and various background components. We inspected the RASS map of the diffuse soft X-ray background, and confirmed that the level of the north and west regions just outside of the Virgo cluster is consistent with the background model that we used, while that of the east side is significantly higher and the enhancement is comparable with the excess emission found in the EPIC data. We consider a significant portion of the excess emission to be associated with the Virgo cluster, although a possible contribution from the North Polar Spur cannot be excluded. Using the column density and the emission measure and assuming an oxygen abundance of 0.1 and an ionization fraction of 0.4, we estimate that the mean electron density and the line-of-sight distance of the warm-hot gas are $\lesssim 6 \times 10^{-5} \,\mathrm{cm}^{-3}$ and $\gtrsim 9 \,\mathrm{Mpc}$ . These strongly suggest detection of a WHIM in a filament associated with the Virgo cluster.
Keywords: Large - Scale Structure Of Universe ; Cosmology: Observations ; Galaxies: Clusters: Individual (Virgo) ; Intergalactic Medium ; Quasars: Absorption Lines
ISSN: 0004-6264
E-ISSN: 2053-051X
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• 8
Article
In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, 2007, Vol. 59(sp1), pp.S113-S132
Description: We have developed a framework for the Monte Carlo simulations of X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) on board Suzaku, mainly for the scientific analysis of spatially and spectroscopically complex celestial sources. A photon-by-photon instrumental simulator is built on the ANL platform, which has been successfully used in ASCA data analysis. The simulator has a modular structure, in which the XRT simulation is based on a ray-tracing library, while the XIS simulation utilizes a spectral “Redistribution Matrix File” (RMF), generated separately by other tools. Instrumental characteristics and calibration results [e.g., XRT geometry, reflectivity, mutual alignments, thermal shield transmission, build-up of the contamination on the XIS optical blocking filters (OBF)] are incorporated as completely as possible. Most of this information is available in the form of FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) files in the standard calibration database (CALDB). This simulator can also be utilized to generate an “Ancillary Response File” (ARF), which describes the XRT response and the amount of OBF contamination. An ARF is dependent on the spatial distribution of the celestial target and the photon accumulation region on the detector, as well as the observing conditions, such as the observation date and satellite attitude. We describe the principles of the simulator and the ARF generator, and demonstrate their performance compared with in-flight data.
Keywords: Instrumentation: Detectors ; Methods: Data Analysis ; Telescopes ; X - Rays: General
ISSN: 0004-6264
E-ISSN: 2053-051X
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• 9
Article
In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, 2007, Vol. 59(sp1), pp.S1-S7
Description: High-sensitivity wide-band X-ray spectroscopy is the key feature of the Suzaku X-ray observatory, launched on 2005 July 10. This paper summarizes the spacecraft, in-orbit performance, operations, and data processing that are related to observations. The scientific instruments, the high-throughput X-ray telescopes, X-ray CCD cameras, non-imaging hard X-ray detector are also described.
Keywords: Instrumentation ; Space Vehicles ; Space Vehicles: Instruments ; X - Rays: General
ISSN: 0004-6264
E-ISSN: 2053-051X
Source: Oxford University Press
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