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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: 2014, Vol.8(12), p.e3347
    Description: Despite major attempts to prevent cholera transmission, millions of people worldwide still must address this devastating disease. Cholera research has so far mainly focused on the causative agent, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae , or on disease treatment, but rarely were results from both fields interconnected. Indeed, the treatment of this severe diarrheal disease is mostly accomplished by oral rehydration therapy (ORT), whereby water and electrolytes are replenished. Commonly distributed oral rehydration salts also contain glucose. Here, we analyzed the effects of glucose and alternative carbon sources on the production of virulence determinants in the causative agent of cholera, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae during in vitro experimentation. We demonstrate that virulence gene expression and the production of cholera toxin are enhanced in the presence of glucose or similarly transported sugars in a ToxR-, TcpP- and ToxT-dependent manner. The virulence genes were significantly less expressed if alternative non-PTS carbon sources, including rice-based starch, were utilized. Notably, even though glucose-based ORT is commonly used, field studies indicated that rice-based ORT performs better. We therefore used a spatially explicit epidemiological model to demonstrate that the better performing rice-based ORT could have a significant impact on epidemic progression based on the recent outbreak of cholera in Haiti. Our results strongly support a change of carbon source for the treatment of cholera, especially in epidemic settings. ; Cholera research has so far mainly focused on the causative agent, the bacterium , or on disease treatment, but rarely were results from both fields interconnected. Indeed, the treatment of this severe diarrheal disease is mostly accomplished by oral rehydration therapy (ORT). ORT aims at rehydrating patients through the provision of water and oral rehydration salts; the latter being composed of electrolytes as well as glucose as a carbon source. Although glucose-based ORS is commonly used to treat diarrheal diseases and is recommended by the WHO, field studies on cholera indicated that rice-based ORT performs better than glucose-based ORT. Here, we investigated the impact that glucose, starch, or other carbon sources exert on . We demonstrated that glucose leads to an increased expression of the major virulence genes in the pathogen and, accordingly, to an enhanced production of cholera toxin during experimentation. Because the cholera toxin is primarily responsible for the severe symptoms that are associated with the disease, our study highlights the negative effects of glucose-based ORT. Next, we used a spatially explicit epidemiological model to demonstrate that the better performing rice-based ORS could have a significant impact on epidemic progression based on the recent outbreak of cholera in Haiti.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences
    ISSN: 19352727
    E-ISSN: 1935-2735
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(4), p.e0174216
    Description: Taxonomic over-splitting of extinct or endangered taxa, due to an incomplete knowledge of both skeletal morphological variability and the geographical ranges of past populations, continues to confuse the link between isolated extant populations and their ancestors. This is particularly problematic with the genus Equus. To more reliably determine the evolution and phylogeographic history of the endangered Asiatic wild ass, we studied the genetic diversity and inter-relationships of both extinct and extant populations over the last 100,000 years, including samples throughout its previous range from Western Europe to Southwest and East Asia. Using 229 bp of the mitochondrial hypervariable region, an approach which allowed the inclusion of information from extremely poorly preserved ancient samples, we classify all non-African wild asses into eleven clades that show a clear phylogeographic structure revealing their phylogenetic history. This study places the extinct European wild ass, E. hydruntinus, the phylogeny of which has been debated since the end of the 19th century, into its phylogenetic context within the Asiatic wild asses and reveals recent mitochondrial introgression between populations currently regarded as separate species. The phylogeographic organization of clades resulting from these efforts can be used not only to improve future taxonomic determination of a poorly characterized group of equids, but also to identify historic ranges, interbreeding events between various populations, and the impact of ancient climatic changes. In addition, appropriately placing extant relict populations into a broader phylogeographic and genetic context can better inform ongoing conservation strategies for this highly-endangered species.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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