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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: mBio, 01 November 2018, Vol.9(6), p.e02084-18
    Description: Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a common pathogen during pregnancy where infection can result in chorioamnionitis, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), preterm labor, stillbirth, and neonatal sepsis. Mechanisms by which GBS infection results in adverse pregnancy outcomes are still incompletely understood. This study evaluated interactions between GBS and placental macrophages. The data demonstrate that in response to infection, placental macrophages release extracellular traps capable of killing GBS. Additionally, this work establishes that proteins associated with extracellular trap fibers include several matrix metalloproteinases that have been associated with chorioamnionitis. In the context of pregnancy, placental macrophage responses to bacterial infection might have beneficial and adverse consequences, including protective effects against bacterial invasion, but they may also release important mediators of membrane breakdown that could contribute to membrane rupture or preterm labor.Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a common perinatal pathogen. GBS colonization of the vaginal mucosa during pregnancy is a risk factor for invasive infection of the fetal membranes (chorioamnionitis) and its consequences such as membrane rupture, preterm labor, stillbirth, and neonatal sepsis. Placental macrophages, or Hofbauer cells, are fetally derived macrophages present within placental and fetal membrane tissues that perform vital functions for fetal and placental development, including supporting angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and regulation of maternal-fetal tolerance. Although placental macrophages as tissue-resident innate phagocytes are likely to engage invasive bacteria such as GBS, there is limited information regarding how these cells respond to bacterial infection. Here, we demonstrate in vitro that placental macrophages release macrophage extracellular traps (METs) in response to bacterial infection. Placental macrophage METs contain proteins, including histones, myeloperoxidase, and neutrophil elastase similar to neutrophil extracellular traps, and are capable of killing GBS cells. MET release from these cells occurs by a process that depends on the production of reactive oxygen species. Placental macrophage METs also contain matrix metalloproteases that are released in response to GBS and could contribute to fetal membrane weakening during infection. MET structures were identified within human fetal membrane tissues infected ex vivo, suggesting that placental macrophages release METs in response to bacterial infection during chorioamnionitis.
    Keywords: Streptococcus Agalactiae ; Extracellular Traps ; Group B Streptococcus ; Macrophages ; Matrix Metalloproteinase ; Biology
    ISSN: 21612129
    E-ISSN: 2150-7511
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Microbiology, 01 August 2018, Vol.9
    Description: One elusive area in the Helicobacter pylori field is an understanding of why some infections result in gastric cancer, yet others persist asymptomatically for the life-span of the individual. Even before the genomic era, the high level of intraspecies diversity of H. pylori was well recognized and became an intriguing area of investigation with respect to disease progression. Of interest in this regard is the unique repertoire of over 60 outer membrane proteins (OMPs), several of which have been associated with disease outcome. Of these OMPs, the association between HomB and disease outcome varies based on the population being studied. While the molecular roles for some of the disease-associated OMPs have been evaluated, little is known about the role that HomB plays in the H. pylori lifecycle. Thus, herein we investigated homB expression, regulation, and contribution to biofilm formation. We found that in H. pylori strain G27, homB was expressed at a relatively low level until stationary phase. Furthermore, homB expression was suppressed at low pH in an ArsRS-dependent manner; mutation of arsRS resulted in increased homB transcript at all tested time-points. ArsRS regulation of homB appeared to be direct as purified ArsR was able to specifically bind to the homB promoter. This regulation, combined with our previous finding that ArsRS mutations lead to enhanced biofilm formation, led us to test the hypothesis that homB contributes to biofilm formation by H. pylori. Indeed, subsequent biofilm analysis using a crystal-violet quantification assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that loss of homB from hyper-biofilm forming strains resulted in reversion to a biofilm phenotype that mimicked wild-type. Furthermore, expression of homB in trans from a promoter that negated ArsRS regulation led to enhanced biofilm formation even in strains in which the chromosomal copy of homB had been deleted. Thus, homB is necessary for hyper-biofilm formation of ArsRS mutant strains and aberrant regulation of this gene is sufficient to induce a hyper-biofilm phenotype. In summary, these data suggest that the ArsRS-dependent regulation of OMPs such as HomB may be one mechanism by which ArsRS dictates biofilm development in a pH responsive manner.
    Keywords: Homb ; Arsrs ; H. Pylori ; Biofilms ; Omps ; Biology
    E-ISSN: 1664-302X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Nature communications, 15 June 2016, Vol.7, pp.11951
    Description: Microorganisms form biofilms containing differentiated cell populations. To determine factors driving differentiation, we herein visualize protein and metal distributions within Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using imaging mass spectrometry. These in vitro experiments reveal correlations between differential protein distribution and metal abundance. Notably, zinc- and manganese-depleted portions of the biofilm repress the production of anti-staphylococcal molecules. Exposure to calprotectin (a host protein known to sequester metal ions at infectious foci) recapitulates responses occurring within metal-deplete portions of the biofilm and promotes interaction between P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Consistent with these results, the presence of calprotectin promotes co-colonization of the murine lung, and polymicrobial communities are found to co-exist in calprotectin-enriched airspaces of a cystic fibrosis lung explant. These findings, which demonstrate that metal fluctuations are a driving force of microbial community structure, have clinical implications because of the frequent occurrence of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus co-infections.
    Keywords: Immunity, Innate ; Microbial Interactions ; Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex -- Pharmacology ; Pseudomonas Aeruginosa -- Metabolism ; Staphylococcus Aureus -- Metabolism
    E-ISSN: 2041-1723
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