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  • PMC (PubMed Central)  (8)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Mycorrhiza, April 2017, Vol.27(3), pp.201-210
    Description: The formation of storage organs, such as spores and vesicles, is a central part of the life cycle of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), but the conditions under which this occurs in AMF are not well understood. Here, quantity and distribution of storage organs formed by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae within dead (excised) roots were characterised. 'Trap roots' (TR), separated from the growth substrate by a 30-μm mesh, supported hyphal growth and formation of storage organs of the AMF. Hyphae developed both inside and on the outside of the TR and also within air gaps of surrounding nylon mesh compartments, but formation of vesicles and spores was confined to the interior and to the surface of the TR. Up to 20 % of the TR length harboured newly formed storage organs, resulting in a number of about 60 per mg TR dry weight. The portion of TR length containing storage organs was greater in coarse (diameter 〉300 μm) than in thin (〈150 μm) TR, irrespective of whether the TR were sourced from an AMF host or non-host plant. We conclude that the AMF's extraradical mycelium produces its storage organs within dead roots in preference to air space in the substrate. Dead roots may indirectly supply nutrients to AMF (once they have been mineralised) or represent a protected space for the fungal structures to develop. The experimental technique described here allows for the preparation of AMF spores and vesicles of F. mosseae free of any mineral substrate.
    Keywords: Extraradical Mycelium ; Root Colonisation ; Root Turnover ; Spore Production ; Vesicles ; Mycorrhizae -- Metabolism ; Spores, Fungal -- Metabolism ; Zea Mays -- Microbiology
    ISSN: 09406360
    E-ISSN: 1432-1890
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(12)
    Description: Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids ( Oncorhynchus spp.) often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T) at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon ( O. tshawytscha ) experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead ( O. mykiss ) experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT 〉 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2016, Vol.11(3), p.e0152580
    Description: Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been proposed as an independent predictor of long-term prognosis in pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the clinical relevance of HbA1c in patients with operable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) remains unknown. The aim of the...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Pulmonary Circulation, April 2018, Vol.8(3)
    Description: Occlusive vasculopathy due to the development and accumulation of granulomas at the level of intima of large vessels, as well as mediastinal lymph nodes and fibrosing mediastinitis secondary to sarcoidosis, causing extrinsic compression of mediastinal vascular structure are uncommon mechanisms of sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension. We present a case of a 62-year-old woman with a rare manifestation of sarcoidosis, which was misclassified and treated as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension for a long period. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography played a major role in accessing final diagnosis. Mechanisms that lead to development of pulmonary hypertension, the contribution of novel imaging modalities, and treatment options are discussed.
    Keywords: Sarcoidosis ; Pulmonary Hypertension ; Fibrosing Mediastinitis ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 20458932
    E-ISSN: 2045-8940
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  • 5
    In: Case Reports in Orthopedics, 2017, Vol.2017, 5 pages
    Description: . Patient with a C2 fracture and entrapment of the right vertebral artery in the fracture gap.. Presentation of a case with follow-up until end of treatment.. Case report.. A 25-year-old woman was brought into our emergency room after falling while riding a horse. She complained of pain in the cervical spine. Clinical examinations showed at the upper cervical spine and painful impairment of the mobility of the neck, with no signs of neurological impairment. Radiological diagnostics revealed a traumatic C2/3 spondylolisthesis. A computer tomography (CT) angiographic scan showed a dislocation of the right vertebral artery into the fracture gap without injury to the artery. Open reduction and osteosynthesis were considered of too high risk. Therefore, we conducted fracture treatment with closed reduction and halo fixation. After removal of the halo fixator, the patient was given a soft cervical collar and was advised to rest for additional 6 weeks before beginning gradual activity.. Conventional follow-up revealed osseous consolidation and a CT angiographic scan showed consistent blood flow to the artery.. Halo fixation was a safe and effective therapy strategy in the case of vertebral artery entrapment after traumatic C2 spondylolisthesis.
    Keywords: Cat Scans -- Usage ; Spondylolisthesis -- Diagnosis ; Spondylolisthesis -- Care And Treatment ; Internal Fixation -- Usage ; Emergency Medical Services -- Management;
    ISSN: 2090-6749
    E-ISSN: 2090-6757
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Nat Commun, 2018, Vol.9(1), pp.87-87
    Description: Neutral stibinyl and bismuthinyl radicals are typically short-lived, reactive species. Here we show the synthesis and solid-state structures of two stable stibinyl [L(Cl)Ga]Sb· 1 and bismuthinyl radicals [L(I)Ga]Bi· 4, which are stabilized by electropositive metal centers. Their description as predominantly metal-centered radicals is consistent with the results of NMR, EPR, SQUID, and DFT studies. The Lewis-acidic character of the Ga ligands allow for significant electron delocalization of the Sb- and Bi- unpaired radical onto the ligand. Single-electron reduction of [L(Cl)Ga]Sb· gave LGaSbGa(Cl)L 5, the first compound containing a Ga=Sb double bond. The π-bonding contribution is estimated to 9.56 kcal mol by NMR spectroscopy. The bonding situation and electronic structure is analyzed by quantum mechanical computations, revealing significant π backdonation from the Sb to the Ga atom. The formation of 5 illustrates the high-synthetic potential of 1 for the formation of new compounds with unusual electronic structures.
    Keywords: Article;
    ISSN: 2041-1723
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Sci Rep, 2017, Vol.7(1), pp.2397-2397
    Description: The human growth hormone (hGH) minigene used for transgene stabilization in mice has been recently identified to be locally expressed in the tissues where transgenes are active and associated with phenotypic alterations. Here we extend these findings by analyzing the effect of the hGH minigene in TgC6hp55 transgenic mice which express the human TNFR1 under the control of the mesenchymal cell-specific CollagenVI promoter. These mice displayed a fully penetrant phenotype characterized by growth enhancement accompanied by perturbations in metabolic, skeletal, histological and other physiological parameters. Notably, this phenotype was independent of TNF-TNFR1 signaling since the genetic ablation of either Tnf or Tradd did not rescue the phenotype. Further analyses showed that the hGH minigene was expressed in several tissues, also leading to increased hGH protein levels in the serum. Pharmacological blockade of GH signaling prevented the development of the phenotype. Our results indicate that the unplanned expression of the hGH minigene in CollagenVI expressing mesenchymal cells can lead through local and/or systemic mechanisms to enhanced somatic growth followed by a plethora of primary and/or secondary effects such as hyperphagia, hypermetabolism, disturbed glucose homeostasis, altered hematological parameters, increased bone formation and lipid accumulation in metabolically critical tissues.
    Keywords: Article;
    ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 8
    In: Nature Genetics, 2015
    Description: The function of the majority of genes in the mouse and human genomes remains unknown. The mouse embryonic stem cell knockout resource provides a basis for the characterization of relationships between genes and phenotypes. The EUMODIC consortium developed and validated robust methodologies for the broad-based phenotyping of knockouts through a pipeline comprising 20 disease-oriented platforms. We developed new statistical methods for pipeline design and data analysis aimed at detecting reproducible phenotypes with high power. We acquired phenotype data from 449 mutant alleles, representing 320 unique genes, of which half had no previous functional annotation. We captured data from over 27,000 mice, finding that 83% of the mutant lines are phenodeviant, with 65% demonstrating pleiotropy. Surprisingly, we found significant differences in phenotype annotation according to zygosity. New phenotypes were uncovered for many genes with previously unknown function, providing a powerful basis for hypothesis generation and further investigation in diverse systems.
    Keywords: Gene Mutation -- Identification And Classification ; Gene Mutation -- Health Aspects ; Human Genome -- Research;
    ISSN: 1061-4036
    E-ISSN: 1546-1718
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