Journal of experimental botany, 2010, Vol.61(2), pp.609-22
Sulphate assimilation provides reduced sulphur for the synthesis of cysteine, methionine, and numerous other essential metabolites and secondary compounds. The key step in the pathway is the reduction of activated sulphate, adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate (APS), to sulphite catalysed by APS reductase (APR). In the present study, [(35)S]sulphur flux from external sulphate into glutathione (GSH) and proteins was analysed to check whether APR controls the flux through the sulphate assimilation pathway in poplar roots under some stress conditions and in transgenic poplars. (i) O-Acetylserine (OAS) induced APR activity and the sulphur flux into GSH. (ii) The herbicide Acetochlor induced APR activity and results in a decline of GSH. Thereby the sulphur flux into GSH or protein remained unaffected. (iii) Cd treatment increased APR activity without any changes in sulphur flux but lowered sulphate uptake. Several transgenic poplar plants that were manipulated in sulphur metabolism were also analysed. (i) Transgenic poplar plants that overexpressed the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-ECS) gene, the enzyme catalysing the key step in GSH formation, showed an increase in sulphur flux into GSH and sulphate uptake when gamma-ECS was targeted to the cytosol, while no changes in sulphur flux were observed when gamma-ECS was targeted to plastids. (ii) No effect on sulphur flux was observed when the sulphite oxidase (SO) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana, which catalyses the back reaction of APR, that is the reaction from sulphite to sulphate, was overexpressed. (iii) When Lemna minor APR was overexpressed in poplar, APR activity increased as expected, but no changes in sulphur flux were observed. For all of these experiments the flux control coefficient for APR was calculated. APR as a controlling step in sulphate assimilation seems obvious under OAS treatment, in gamma-ECS and SO overexpressing poplars. A possible loss of control under certain conditions, that is Cd treatment, Acetochlor treatment, and in APR overexpressing poplar, is discussed.
Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase -- Metabolism ; Oxidoreductases Acting on Sulfur Group Donors -- Metabolism ; Plant Proteins -- Metabolism ; Plants, Genetically Modified -- Physiology ; Populus -- Physiology ; Sulfates -- Metabolism ; Sulfite Oxidase -- Metabolism ; Sulfur -- Metabolism
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