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  • Sage Journals (Sage Publications)  (12)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Tourism Economics, June 2016, Vol.22(3), pp.451-465
    Description: This article investigates the rank–size distribution and spatio-temporal dynamics of domestic and inbound tourist flows in Chinese cities using Zipf’s law and the rank clock method. The results show that Zipf’s law captures key characteristics of the rank–size distribution of tourist flows to China’s cities. There are large differences between the inbound and domestic tourist flows not only for the top 100 but also for all cities. Three types of Zipf’s law are found to apply to China’s subregions. At the individual city level, most rank changes of the top 100 inbound and domestic tourist arrival cities appear in the lower part of the rank. The average rank shift distances of the top 100 inbound and domestic tourist arrival cities are 6.122 and 6.006, respectively. The dynamics of the rank–size distribution of domestic tourist flows to the top 100 cities are more stable than those of inbound tourist flows.
    Keywords: China ; Rank Clock ; Rank–Size Distribution ; Tourism Size ; Tourist Flows ; Zipf’s Law ; Geography
    ISSN: 1354-8166
    E-ISSN: 2044-0375
    Source: Sage Journals (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE HSS (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Management and Organization Studies (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Journals (Sage Publications)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Travel Research, September 2018, Vol.57(7), pp.947-961
    Description: Bargaining behavior is popular when tourists shop, with bargaining power representing the surplus sellers or buyers obtain after price negotiations. This article applies a two-tier stochastic frontier analysis to estimate sellers’ and buyers’ (i.e., tourists’) surplus terms as a measure of their respective bargaining power. Using large-scale data on shopping behavior obtained from a domestic tourist survey conducted in Nanjing, China, between 2005 and 2010, our empirical results indicate that in general, tourists exhibit stronger bargaining power than sellers. Additionally, tourists’ net surplus, as a measure of relative bargaining power, is heavily informed by their tripographic and sociodemographic characteristics, with the former being more influential. In particular, tourists traveling with companions and obtaining travel information from friends and mass media tend to have stronger-than-average bargaining power.
    Keywords: Shopping Expenditure ; Two-Tier Stochastic Frontier Model ; Bargaining Power ; Tripographics ; Sociodemographics ; Geography
    ISSN: 0047-2875
    E-ISSN: 1552-6763
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, November 2016, Vol.27(18), pp.2456-2476
    Description: A new type of intelligent composite structure is proposed, consisting of reinforced concrete and prestressed hybrid fiber-reinforced polymer sheets. The hybrid fiber-reinforced polymer consists of basalt and carbon fibers. The carbon fibers function as both sensitive and structural materials to improve stiffness of the hybrid fiber-reinforced polymer sheets and provide a self-monitoring function, whereas basalt fibers function only as structural materials to improve their ductility and decrease the cost. A series of experiments were performed to study the mechanical and monitoring performances of the hybrid fiber-reinforced polymer–concrete composite structures. The results show that their mechanical and self-monitoring performances are markedly upgraded through prestressing the hybrid fiber-reinforced polymer sheets. The prestress improves both the strengthening and monitoring performances. Compared with the control beams, the cracking, steel yielding, and peak loads are improved by 44%, 26%, and 36%, respectively. Results reveal that the prestress also upgrades the monitoring sensitivity and stability of the hybrid fiber-reinforced polymer sheets. Since the electrical behavior is closely related to the mechanical behavior of the hybrid fiber-reinforced polymer–concrete composite beams, the strain, cracking, steel yielding, and the debonding and rupture of the hybrid fiber-reinforced polymer sheets can be well identified through the resistance measurement. A built-in health monitoring function is, thus, demonstrated for the intelligent hybrid fiber-reinforced polymer–concrete composite structures.
    Keywords: Embedded Intelligence ; Polymers ; Sensor ; Structural Health Monitoring ; Engineering
    ISSN: 1045-389X
    E-ISSN: 1530-8138
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, 15 September 2017, Vol.14(5)
    Description: Hydraulic actuated quadruped robot similar to BigDog has two primary performance requirements, load capacity and walking speed, so that it is necessary to balance joint torque and joint velocity when designing the dimension of single leg and controlling its motion. On the one hand, because there are three joints per leg on sagittal plane, it is necessary to firstly optimize the distribution of torque and angular velocity of every joint on the basis of their different requirements. On the other hand, because the performance of hydraulic actuator is limited, it is significant to keep the joint torque and angular velocity in actuator physical limitations. Therefore, it is essential to balance the joint torque and angular velocity which have negative correlation under the condition of constant power of the hydraulic actuator. The main purpose of this article is to optimize the distribution of joint torques and velocity of a redundant single leg with joint physical limitations. Firstly, a modified optimization criterion combining joint torques with angular velocity that takes both support phase and flight phase into account is proposed, and then the modified optimization criterion is converted into a normal quadratic programming problem. A kind of recurrent neural network is used to solve the quadratic program problem. This method avoids tremendous matrix inversion and fits for time-varying system. The achieved optimized distribution of joint torques and velocity is useful for aiding mechanical design and the following motion control. Simulation results presented in this article confirm the efficiency of this optimization algorithm.
    Keywords: Torques and Angular Velocity Distribution ; Optimization Norm ; Quadratic Programming ; Recurrent Neural Network ; Closed-Loop Feedback ; Engineering
    E-ISSN: 1729-8814
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 16 March 2015, Vol.7(3)
    Description: Learning from the microstructure of the convex (concave) and ridging (triangle and arc-shaped) shapes of fresh lotus leaves and shark skin, bionic ridging shovels was designed with the characteristics of adhesion and resistance reduction. Ten ridging shovel models were established, and the interaction process with the soil by ANSYS is discussed. Stress analysis results showed that the bionic ridging shovel was more obvious in visbreaking and in the resistance reduction effect. An indoor soil bin experiment with the bionic ridging shovel and the prototype ridging shovel was operated as follows: the ridging resistance of the three types of ridging shovel was tested under the condition of two soil moistures (18.61% and 20.9%) and three different ridging speeds (0.68, 0.87, and 1.11 m/s). In this article, the structure, the mechanism, and their relationship to the functions are discussed. The results of this study will be useful in practical application in the field of agricultural machinery toward practical use and industrialization.
    Keywords: Lotus Leaf ; Shark Skin ; Bionic ; Ridging Shovel ; Engineering
    E-ISSN: 1687-8140
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, 22 November 2016, Vol.13(6)
    Description: Differing from the commonly used spring loaded inverted pendulum model, this paper makes use of a two-mass spring model considering impact between the foot and ground which is closer to the real hopping robot. The height of upper mass which includes the upper leg and body is the main control objective. Then we develop a new kind of control algorithm acting on two levels: The upper level aims to achieve the desired velocity of the upper mass based on a stable limit cycle, where three different controllers are used to regulate the limit cycle; the target of the lower level is to drive the system to converge to the desired state and control the contact force between the foot and ground within an appropriate range based on the inner force control at the same time. Simulation results presented in this paper confirm the efficiency of this control algorithm.
    Keywords: Two-Mass Hopping Robot ; Height Control ; Stable Limit Cycle ; Force Control ; Engineering
    E-ISSN: 1729-8814
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Tumori Journal, 2010, Vol.96(5), pp.734-743
    Description: Aims and background Caveolin-1 is a key component of membrane caveolae which plays an important role in cell transformation, cell migration, metastasis and angiogenesis. The mechanism of caveolin-1 and VEGF-C in lymphatic metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still unclear. This study aimed to define the caveolin-1 and VEGF-C expression and lymph vessel density in NSCLC and look for correlations with clinicopathological features in NSCLC. Methods Caveolin-1, VEGF-C, and D2–40 protein expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray constructed from 70 NSCLCs and 12 normal lungs. Results Caveolin-1 expression was detected in 31 of 70 (44.3%) NSCLCs, which was significantly lower than its expression in normal lungs (9 of 12, 75%; P = 0.049). Expression of VEGF-C was detected in 49 of 70 (70%) NSCLCs and 4 of 12 (33.3%) normal lungs (P = 0.022). Both caveolin-1 and VEGF-C expression were correlated with lymph node metastasis of NSCLC (P = 0.001; P = 0.028). Moreover, caveolin-1 expression was correlated with tumor stage, histological type, and differentiation grade (P = 0.012; P = 0.038; P = 0.002). VEGF-C expression was correlated only with histological type (P = 0.020). There was no correlation between intratumoral lymph vessel density and any clinicopathological parameters including lymph node status. Furthermore, there was no correlation between caveolin-1 expression, VEGF-C expression, and lymph vessel density. Conclusions These findings indicated a reduction of caveolin-1 expression in NSCLC and suggested that caveolin-1 as well as VEGF-C might be involved in lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. The role of caveolin-1 in lymphatic metastasis and intratumoral lymphangiogenesis in NSCLC needs further study. Free full text available at www.tumorionline.it
    Keywords: Nsclc ; Caveolin-1 ; Vegf-C ; Lymphatic Metastasis ; Lymphangiogenesis ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0300-8916
    E-ISSN: 2038-2529
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of International Medical Research, October 2013, Vol.41(5), pp.1532-1540
    Description: Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of combined treatment with thrombus aspiration and intracoronary tirofiban in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), with elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: Patients undergoing elective PCI during recovery from acute MI were randomized into two groups; the intervention group received thrombus aspiration and intracoronary tirofiban; the control group received conventional PCI. Baseline clinical characteristics, postoperative coronary blood flow (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction [TIMI] grade), TIMI myocardial perfusion (TMP) grade, no/slow reflow rate and cardiac function (measured by echocardiography 1 month postoperatively) were evaluated. Major adverse cardiac event rate and bleeding complications during surgery (and at 1 month and 1 year postoperatively) were also evaluated. Results: A total of 80 patients were included. Postoperatively, the number of patients with TIMI flow grade 3 and the mean TMP grade were both significantly higher, and the no/slow reflow rate was significantly lower, in the intervention group versus the control group. Echocardiography indicated that cardiac function was significantly improved in the intervention group compared with the control group. There were no major complications in either study group. Conclusion: Thrombus aspiration combined with intracoronary tirofiban during recovery from acute MI was effective and relatively well tolerated.
    Keywords: Acute Myocardial Infarction (Mi) ; Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) ; Thrombus Burden ; Thrombus Aspiration ; Tirofiban ; Cardiac Function ; Myocardial Perfusion ; Complications ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0300-0605
    E-ISSN: 1473-2300
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Multiple Sclerosis Journal, October 2018, Vol.24(12), pp.1585-1593
    Description: Objective: This study aims to investigate whether bidirectional degeneration occurs within the visual pathway and, if so, the extent of such changes in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Methods: In total, 36 NMOSD and 24 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging were used to analyze damage to the posterior visual pathway. Damage to the anterior visual pathway was measured by optical coherence tomography. Results: In total, 24 NMOSD with prior optic neuritis (NMOON) patients showed significant reduction of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, inner and outer retinal thickness, lateral geniculate nucleus volume, primary visual cortex volume, and decreased integrity of optic radiations, compared with 12 NMOSD without prior optic neuritis (NMONON) patients and 24 HCs. In NMONON, only the inner retinal thickness and the integrity of optic radiations were significantly reduced in comparison with HCs. Moreover, patients with optic neuritis showed severe bidirectional degeneration, the loss of the RNFL was greater than the atrophy of V1. Conclusion: Our study indicated the presence of trans-synaptic degeneration in NMOSD. Damage to the inner retina and optic radiations can be observed even in NMONON. After an episode of optic neuritis, the anterior visual pathway damage is greater than the posterior visual pathway damage.
    Keywords: Nmosd ; Trans-Synaptic Degeneration ; Visual Pathway Neurodegeneration ; Optical Coherence Tomography ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1352-4585
    E-ISSN: 1477-0970
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, July 2018, Vol.30(4), pp.619-622
    Description: Hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage is critical for virulence of influenza viruses. The amino acid residue at the P6 position of the HA cleavage site (HACS) has been shown to be most variable and to have a direct correlation with the cleavage efficiency and pathogenicity of H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in mammals. Among these amino acid variants, serine has been associated with the highest virulence in mammals, and its detection may serve as an indicator for H5N1 AIVs with high pathogenicity and potential public risk. We developed a rapid detection method based on reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR and pyrosequencing to detect a mutation at the HACS that is associated with increased pathogenicity of H5N1 AIVs in mammals. Herein, we provide a specific, sensitive, and reliable method for rapid detection of one of the virulence determinants associated with increased pathogenicity of H5N1 AIVs in mammals.
    Keywords: H5n1 ; Hemagglutinin ; Pathogenicity ; Pyrosequencing ; Serine ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 1040-6387
    E-ISSN: 1943-4936
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