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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2009, Vol.198(4), pp.211-219
    Description: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have recently been discovered as a central part of antimicrobial innate immunity. In the meanwhile, evidence accumulated that NETs are also generated upon non-infectious stimuli in various clinical settings. In acute or chronic inflammatory disorders aberrantly enhanced NET formation and/or decreased NET degradation seems to correlate with disease outcome. This review summarizes current knowledge about the relation of NETs in a broad spectrum of clinical settings. Specifically, we focus on the importance of NETs as a predictive marker in severely ill patients and further, we speculate about the potential pathophysiology of NETs.
    Keywords: Neutrophils ; Innate immunity ; Pathophysiology ; Neutrophil extracellular traps
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2004, Vol.193(4), pp.205-208
    Description: The underlying mechanisms leading to persistence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the immune privileged retina are not fully understood. This in vitro study was done to evaluate the influence of HCMV-infected retinal glial cells on epithelial barrier functions. Glial cells derived from human eyes were cultured and infected with the clinical HCMV isolate Hi91. Supernatants of mock (GS mock ) and Hi91 (GS Hi91 ) -infected glial cells were collected at 72 h post inoculation and used for incubation of CaCo-2 cells grown in transwell chambers. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was analyzed as a measure of epithelial integrity. Virus-free GS Hi91 but not GS mock increased TER from 250 Ω/cm 2 to more than 1,000 Ω/cm 2 within 2 h. Increased TER values were measured up to 48 h ( n =3). No changes in TER were observed when conditioned supernatants from HCMV-infected human foreskin fibroblasts were used. No evidence of GS Hi91 -induced modification of β-catenin (zonula adherens) or occludin and ZO-1 (zonula occludens) was found. Our results suggest that HCMV-infected glial cells may support epithelial barrier functions by a yet unknown mechanism. Our findings may help to explain the ocular persistence of HCMV and the maintenance of ocular immune privilege early in infection.
    Keywords: Human cytomegalovirus ; Immune privilege ; Junction molecules ; Retinitis
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2004, Vol.193(4), pp.195-203
    Description: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis causing retinal detachment and destruction of the blood-retina barrier is closely related to retinal hemorrhage/coagulation. However, the effects of procoagulants on HCMV (re)activation in retinal cells have not been investigated yet. Therefore, we studied whether thrombin modulates the expression of HCMV immediate early (IE) and late (L) genes in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE). Thrombin specifically stimulated the protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) on RPE and, surprisingly, inhibited basal and 12,0-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-stimulated HCMV IE gene expression in infected RPE. On the other hand, HCMV strongly induced Sp1 DNA binding activity, which was prevented by thrombin/PAR1-mediated Sp1 hyperphosphorylation. Our data suggest that thrombin/PAR-1 may inhibit Sp1-dependent HCMV replication, which might be an important regulatory mechanism for HCMV persistence and replication in RPE.
    Keywords: Human cytomegalovirus ; Infectious immunity virus ; Retina ; Signal transduction ; Transcription factors
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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